Understanding Intelligent Military-Grade Optical Ethernet                         Networks: A Versatile Solution for Achie...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™  Understanding Intelligent Military-  Grade Optical Ethernet Networks: A Versatil...
What We Will Discuss in This Tutorial      Elements of DoD’s Net-Centric Data Strategy – key attributes and goals      R...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™    Attributes and Goals of DoD’s      Net-Centric Data Strategy
Core Elements of DoDs Net-Centric   Operations/Data Strategy (NCDS)                                             Proactivel...
Strategic Goals of DoD’s NCDS                                                          Communities of Interest            ...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™        Military-Grade Networks:       Requirements & Attributes
Key Requirements ofMilitary-Grade Networks                                                  Simultaneous Support of Legacy...
Key Requirements ofMilitary-Grade Networks                                                  Simultaneous Support of Legacy...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Implications for Technology, and System & Network Architectures
Implications of NCDS Requirements (1)                                                               Implications for:     ...
Implications of NCDS Requirements (2)                                                              Implications for:      ...
Implications of Military-Grade Network Requirements (1)                                                                   ...
Implications of Military-GradeNetwork Requirements (2)                                                                  Im...
Implications of Military-GradeNetwork Requirements (3)                                                                   I...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™      Why Discuss Ethernet?  It’s Benefits and Applications
Why Ethernet?Some Key Benefits …      Mature technology                                             Native support of IP...
Representative Applications ofEthernet in the Military      Switched Ethernet operates as:             Networking infras...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™   Optical Ethernet Explained:       Three Roles and Its         Characteristics
Versatile Packet Networking with Ethernet     Ethernet technology can play one of three roles in a data network Ethernet ...
A Word onConnection-Oriented Ethernet (COE) Ethernet transport enables the realization of COE COE – set of control-plane...
Optical Ethernet Network Defined      Network spanning a MAN/WAN that offers a carrier-grade Ethernet service,       runn...
OK, So What is Carrier Ethernet?       Carrier Ethernet is therefore the service component of       optical Ethernet netwo...
How Optical Ethernet Relates toCarrier Ethernet       Carrier Ethernet: defined by MEF in 2004-05 as “Ubiquitous carrier- ...
MEF’s Service Definitionsor Building Blocks MEF building blocks defined in terms of Ethernet Virtual       Connections (E...
MEF’s Building Blocks Illustrated                      EVC1                      EVC2     Point-to-Point EVC (E-Line)     ...
Putting it Together: Optical Ethernet  Network Components in Operation      Ethernet Service    (end-to-end; what the     ...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™  Macro-Architectural Options for     Building MAN/WAN Inter-   connects & Design ...
A Word on Network Architecture Ultimate goal of a network: to provide end-to-end       connectivity between two entities ...
Applicability of Ethernet to  Network Segments  Network Segment                                     Access                ...
Flexibility with Ethernet Ethernet has features that make it suitable for the 3 key       segments – depending on the ope...
Network Architecture Options withOptical EthernetIn the following, we Discuss key architectural options using Ethernet & ...
Ethernet in Access: Operation& Protocol Stack                                                                     Core    ...
Ethernet in Access: Evaluation Doable today! and allows gradual “upgrade” to Ethernet in metro       and/or core Cheap, ...
Ethernet in Access & Metro:Operation & Protocol Stack                                         Metro                       ...
Ethernet in Access & Metro: Evaluation Implementable today, with selected hardware/software Allows gradual “upgrade” to ...
Ethernet Everywhere: Protocol Stack           Access                   Metro/Aggregation                            Core  ...
Ethernet Everywhere: Evaluation Uses proven, uniform technology throughout Ability to transport Ethernet & IP services (...
Ethernet in Mobile Backhaul Mobile backhaul architectures derive from the previous basic       types We examine them sep...
Evolution of Cellular Technologyand Backhaul Types         Network             Speed                        Interface     ...
Mobile Backhaul Components Backhaul network – defined as the network that connects          Base Transceiver Station (BT...
Traditional Backhaul Evolution2G BTS                                                                                      ...
Evolved Backhaul Network  2G BTS             TDM             TI/EI      Cellsite        IP/Ethernet                       ...
A Quick Primer on PseudoWires                                                  Label                                    La...
Pseudowires (PW) for Legacy Transport  2G BTS                                                       PW           TDM      ...
MEF Services for Mobile Backhaul          RNC                                                                     RNC     ...
MEF Services for Mobile Backhaul                            RNC                                                 BSC       ...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™  Key Developments Valuable for   Military Adoption of Optical             Ethernet
Optical Ethernet: Recent Developments Ethernet technology evolving rapidly in the last 3-4 years Multiple standards bodi...
Recent Advances in OpticalEthernet Standards: Snapshot          Area                      Standard and/or Activity        ...
Ethernet Security:LinkSec (MACSec, KeySec) Layer 2 link security standard defined by    MACSec (IEEE 802.1ae)    KeySec...
MAC Sec Packet FormatTCI = Tag Control Info.AN=Association No.SL = Short Length (i.e. no SCI inserted)PN = Packet No.SCI= ...
Ethernet OAM Ethernet OAM supports Layer (domain) Monitoring          Up to 8 layer levels (domains) per VLAN Ethernet ...
Ethernet OAM & Maintenance DomainsCustomer               Service Provider                                                 ...
Ethernet OAM: Loopback (LB) Example for Provider & Operator Domains                                                       ...
Synchronization in IEEE 1588      1588: a protocol designed to synchronize real-time clocks in the nodes of a       distr...
IEEE 1588 SynchronizationOperation & Clock Offset Computation                      1588 Operation                         ...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ How Optical Ethernet Meets Key  Technology Requirements of       Military Networks
Role of Ethernet TechnologyEthernet component provides several key capabilities Native mp2mp communication          Easi...
Role of Optical TechnologyOptical component complements Ethernet packet technology, providing  strengths where Ethernet do...
Suitability of Optical Ethernetfor the Military (1)               Military Network                                        ...
Suitability of Optical Ethernetfor the Military (2)                 Military Network                                      ...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™        Summary and Conclusion
Wrapping it Up ... Optical Ethernet is today a well-established & well-known       technology, with many capabilities Ne...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™                      Thank You!                      Questions?
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™                             Glossary
Glossary (1)ACL                   Access Control List                             ELMI                 Ethernet Local Mana...
Glossary (2)MSTP                  Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol                   PON                    Passive Optical...
Glossary (3)UNI                   User Network InterfaceU-PE                  User-facing-Provider Edge deviceVLAN        ...
Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™     Appendix: Word on Provider     Bridging (PB) and Provider      Backbone Bridg...
Native Ethernet in Metro Access How does one create the notion of a virtual circuit?          VLAN tagging with point-to...
Provider Bridge (IEEE 802.1ad)Architecture                                                                                ...
Provider Backbone Bridging (802.1ah) Encapsulate customer MAC with provider MAC at edge          Edge switch adds 24-bit...
Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB) Architecture                         CPE B                                               ...
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Understanding Intelligent Military-Grade Optical Ethernet Networks: A Versatile Solution for Achieving DoD's Net-Centric Operations Strategy

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Ethernet technology has emerged as a cost-effective, mature, robust, high-speed, & versatile choice for MAN/WAN networking of critical defense establishments and military installations – for e.g., army, navy, & air force bases, mission commands, remote war centers, the Pentagon, and other security agencies. Intelligent Ethernet helps to achieve IP-centric service requirements, while...

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  • We now look at the requirements of military-grade networks to understand what additional features are needed in networks that are designed for military/defense use.
  • Having outlined the goals of the DoD ’s net-centric strategy, as well as the key attributes of military-grade networks, we now map these attributes to the features/requirements imposed on the underlying technology, the system and network architecture. We look at this in two parts – focusing first on the implications of the net-centric strategy, and then on the implications of military-grade requirements.
  • Standardized services refers to having a uniformly accepted definition of core services that serve as the building block for applications running atop them (more on these below). Scalability refers to a service that scales to millions of UNIs (end-points) and MAC addresses, spanning access, local, national, and global networks, with the ability to support a wide bandwidth granularity and versatile QoS options. Reliability refers to the ability to detect and recover from errors/faults without impacting customers, typically with rapid recovery times, as low as 50ms. Hard QoS implies providing end-to-end performance based on rates, frame loss, delay, and delay variation, and the ability to deliver SLAs that guarantee performance that matches the requirements of voice, video, and data traffic over heterogeneous converged networks. Service management implies having carrier-class OAM, and standards-based, vendor-independent implementations to monitor, diagnose, and manage networks offering Carrier Ethernet service.
  • The services defined by the MEF are in terms of an Ethernet Virtual Connection (EVC), which is defined as an association of two or more User Network Interfaces (UNIs) at the edge of a metro Ethernet network (MEN [1] ) cloud (i.e. subscriber sites), where the exchange of Ethernet service frames is limited to the UNI ’s in the EVC. The MEF defines 3 standardized services: E-Line (a point-to-point EVC), E-LAN (a multipoint-to-multipoint EVC), and E-Tree (a point-to-multipoint “rooted” EVC, where the root(s) can communicate with any of the leaves, but the leaves must communicate with each other only via the root). Thus, an Ethernet Private Line service is built using a point-to-point EVCs, while an Ethernet Private LAN service is built using mp2mp EVCs. [1] Even though the MEF specifications refer to MENs (metro Ethernet networks) this is now a generic term that refers to the Carrier-Ethernet service enabled network, which can span a variety of access, metro, and long-haul networks.
  • Here we illustrate the 3 services defined by the MEF, explained earlier.
  • We just described the characteristics of optical Ethernet, which can be used in different parts to provide e2e connectivity. Now these optical Ethernet technology can be used in different parts of the network, access, aggregation and core to provide e2e connectivity.
  • We also discuss Ethernet use in mobile technology.
  • Understanding Intelligent Military-Grade Optical Ethernet Networks: A Versatile Solution for Achieving DoD's Net-Centric Operations Strategy

    1. 1. Understanding Intelligent Military-Grade Optical Ethernet Networks: A Versatile Solution for Achieving DoD’s Net-Centric Operations Strategy Vishal Sharma, Ph.D. Shahram Davari, MASc. Principal Technologist & Associate Technical Director, Consultant Network Switching Metanoia, Inc. Broadcom, Inc. vsharma@metanoia-inc.com davari@broadcom.com650-641-0082 (p)/650-641-0086 (f) 408-972-7436 (p) 1
    2. 2. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Understanding Intelligent Military- Grade Optical Ethernet Networks: A Versatile Solution for Achieving DoD’s Net- Centric Operations Strategy Vishal Sharma, Ph.D. Shahram Davari, MASc. Principal Technologist & Consultant Associate Technical Director, Metanoia, Inc. Network Switching vsharma@metanoia-inc.com Broadcom, Inc. davari@broadcom.com 650-641-0082 (p)/650-641-0086 (f) 408-972-7436 (p) © Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved
    3. 3. What We Will Discuss in This Tutorial Elements of DoD’s Net-Centric Data Strategy – key attributes and goals Requirements and Attributes of Military-Grade Networks Implications of the Above for  Underlying Technology  System Architecture and Features  Network Architecture and Design Why Discuss Ethernet? Its Benefits and Applications Optical Ethernet  3 Roles of Ethernet – Service, Transport, and PHY  Carrier Ethernet and Optical Ethernet Macro-Architectural Options for Building MAN/WAN Interconnects & Key Operational Principles Key Developments Valuable for Military Adoption of Optical Ethernet How Optical Ethernet Technology meets the Initial Requirements ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 3
    4. 4. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Attributes and Goals of DoD’s Net-Centric Data Strategy
    5. 5. Core Elements of DoDs Net-Centric Operations/Data Strategy (NCDS) Proactively Collect User- Feedback for Improvements Handle Info. only Once for Efficiency Visibility to a Wide Audience Key AttributesFacilitate Repurposing – Separate of DoDs Net- Rapid & Precise DiscoveryData from Applications Centric Data of Data Strategy Rich, Descriptive Meta- Post-and-Process in Parallel data for Understandability Shared-spaces for Posting and Efficient Access ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 5
    6. 6. Strategic Goals of DoD’s NCDS Communities of Interest - De-centralize data management to dynamically formed user groups - Allow prioritization /collaboration on data , based on immediate operational needs - Furnish infrastructure for self -synchronization Institutionalized Visible - Establish procedures & policies for effective data sharing - Discoverable - Embed data-sharing precepts in the - Facilitate interaction with data for organization analysis and decision -making insight Responsive Accessible Strategic Goals - Ease of reaching data location - React to fulfill user needs of the Net- Centric Data - # of users who can consume data - Satisfy needs relative to performance , content coverage & quality Strategy Interoperable Understandable - Shareability of data , while preserving - Make meaning & purpose of data clear accuracy , integrity, usability via use of meta -data - Understandability via semantic and Trusted structural meta -data - Data is trustworthy - Data integrity & quality is assured by backing of a reliable organization /authority ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 6
    7. 7. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Military-Grade Networks: Requirements & Attributes
    8. 8. Key Requirements ofMilitary-Grade Networks Simultaneous Support of Legacy & Advanced Services - Support legacy voice , POTS, low-speed satellite backhaul links - In parallel , allow for rich , multi-media traffic , Diverse Last-Mile Access video commn, sensor data - Accommodate multiple access Rugged technologies /media – copper , fiber, coax, TDM, satellite , wireless - Hardened for harsh environments – extreme weather , demanding conditions - Uniformly aggregate traffic onto the metro/core network - Need to operate in constrained spaces Highly Available Military-Grade Secure - Uptime: 99.9999% or more Networks: - Reliable , uncorrupted data - Fast error detection and recovery Requirements - Tamper-resistant , high-integrity data Manageable - OAM capability Reliable - Resilient to failures - Ability to control network elements & resources - Ability to recover automatically in min. time Fast Connection Setup Hard QoS & Determinism - For dynamic and quick call setup - Controllable delay , jitter, and loss - Setting up commun . over - Flexible bandwidth distribution across diverse underlying infrastructure users/applications ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 8
    9. 9. Key Requirements ofMilitary-Grade Networks Simultaneous Support of Legacy & Advanced Services - Support legacy voice , POTS, low-speed satellite backhaul links - In parallel , allow for rich , multi-media traffic , Diverse Last-Mile Access video commn, sensor data - Accommodate multiple access Rugged technologies /media – copper , fiber, coax, TDM, satellite , wireless - Hardened for harsh environments – extreme weather , demanding conditions - Uniformly aggregate traffic onto the metro/core network - Need to operate in constrained spaces Highly Available Military-Grade Secure - Uptime: 99.9999% or more Networks: - Reliable , uncorrupted data - Fast error detection and recovery Requirements - Tamper-resistant , high-integrity data Manageable - OAM capability Reliable - Resilient to failures - Ability to control network elements & resources - Ability to recover automatically in min. time Fast Connection Setup Hard QoS & Determinism - For dynamic and quick call setup - Controllable delay , jitter, and loss - Setting up commun . over - Flexible bandwidth distribution across diverse underlying infrastructure users/applications ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 9
    10. 10. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Implications for Technology, and System & Network Architectures
    11. 11. Implications of NCDS Requirements (1) Implications for: Technology System Design Network Architecture Property - Large address space to - Accommodate many end-nodes support many end-nodes - Hierarchical design & traffic Scalability - Large memory/processing for - Capability to create engineering1 (# locations, # address & routing tables hierarchy - Support wide geographic reach, users) - Capacity for large # of tunnels - Control Plane for discovery seamless across access, metro, & topology learning core - Support encryption, - E2e, segment, and/or Link authentication, ACLs layer (local) security - DPI on line cards - Admission control Security - Isolate different users or - User data isolation - Authentication2 (data integrity, user classes - Intelligent memory partitioning - Architecture that integrates trust) - Enable detection of across users/functions firewalls, appliances with DPI breaches - Provision against DoS/security attacks - Allow for Out-of-band (OOB) Manageability - Provide robust OAM tools - Support OAM control3 (of network and - Management interface & tools/mechanisms - Support a data communication data) protocols (e.g. ELMI) - Permit remote access & mgt. network (DCN) ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 11
    12. 12. Implications of NCDS Requirements (2) Implications for: Technology System Design Network Architecture Property Dynamic setup and - Discovery control of - Signaling - Signaling, CP features - OOB network for signaling (if4 communications - Dynamic/static tunnel setup - Dynamic joining of mcast needed) (within & across - NMS configuration features groups (e.g. IGMP) COIs) Native mp2mp, - Strategic placement of servers p2mp - System-level brdcast, mcast - Native broadcast, multicast (close to consumers) communication with intelligent replication5 capability - Redundancy of data (servers) (for many-to-many - Multicast signaling support - - Mcast signaling & QoS - Support redundant & disjoint xchanges, mcast group creation/deletion network paths multicast) - Support multiple i/f speeds - Allow link bundling to High-Speed at low - Large fabrics enable higher speeds - High-speed links -- fiber cost - Versatile, dense line cards6 - Have standards for evolving - Support WDM (rapid - High-rate processing speeds - Enable link aggregation communication) - Low power consumption - Backward compatibility with earlier i/fs ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 12
    13. 13. Implications of Military-Grade Network Requirements (1) Implications for: Technology System Design Network Architecture Property - Robust conduction cooling - Ubiquitous, with wide reach and - Intelligent use of CPUs - Built with robust media minimal constraints1 Rugged - Off-load complex processing -- E.g. fiber -- inert, free from - Delivarable over robust media, security, protocols -- to central EMI/EFI e.g. fiber entity or add-on - Standards for encryption, security - Data plane and control plane that are widely accepted/realizable, robust to DDoS - Network and overlay mgt. available - Apply hardware-based encryption architecture must resist2 Secure - Tunnel user data in real/virtual - Isolate users via memory hacking/tampering tunnels to effect isolation partitioning, queue mgt., tunnels to - Have rapid alarm propagation - Raise alarm/signal when data is minimize data impact tampered with - Stds for signaling -- for restoration - Support topologies supporting - Setup & control multiple paths via - Hardware/software redundancy - redundancy in data routing signaling/NMS e.g. LCs, fabrics, power supplies - Dual-homing, link aggregation - Detect/react to faults, mis-routed3 Reliable - Software redundancy - NSF, (e.g. LAG), multipath (e.g. data NSR, hitless upgrades ECMP) support - OAM capabilities such as: - Ability to detect/react to failures - 1+1, 1:1, 1:N, ring, mesh connectivity check, loopback, link protection trace ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 13
    14. 14. Implications of Military-GradeNetwork Requirements (2) Implications for: Technology System Design Network Architecture Property - Support virtualization of - Traffic isolation via queues, network b/w (e.g. via tunnels, scheduling - Support provisioning and VLANs) - Separate tables/memories to dimensioning Hard QoS + - Ability (in technology, e.g. pkt4 segregate traffic of different - CAC to regulate traffic vols. Determinism hdrs) to mark, seggregate, priorities, classes, apps. - Traffic engineering to support prioritize, aggregate traffic - Signal tunnels, and control/ traffic placement - Support perf. measurement manage tunnels OAM - Management constructs for - Control access to/sharing of - Support remote config. & config, monitoring system resources between monitoring5 Manageable - Measure loss, delay different user types - OOB or in-band DCN - Have loopback, link trace, - Create/config policy - Hierarchical design continuity check (e.g. Y1731) - Gather stats, diagnose problems - Fast error detection at L1/L2/L3 - Support alternate routes/paths - Error detection & config of - Detect h/w, s/w errors - Architecture to enable rapid multiple alarms - L1/L2/L3 integration for fault recovery from failures (meshy-6 Available - Multipath routing/switching alarming architecture) - Rapid switchover on failure - Hardware/software features to - Support intelligent/flexible multi- aid redundancy layer protection ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 14
    15. 15. Implications of Military-GradeNetwork Requirements (3) Implications for: Technology System Design Network Architecture Property - Multi-service capable to support variety of interfaces - High-speed, cheap, easily - Intelligent interworking (type, -- TDM, ATM, FR, IP, EPON/GPON upgradable #, placement of devices) -- and protocols - Simple management or - Provide for aggregation Diverse Last-Mile - Support vast range of data rates7 unmanaged points/on-ramps for termination Access - Ability to aggregate traffic - Support aggregation of traffic, of diverse traffic and transfer to (Appropriate processing in h/w and while keeping different traffic a common (Ethernet, IP/MPLS) s/w types/classes seggregated core Ability to queue & route data - Enable clock distribution appropriately) - Support VPNs to facilitate COIs - Advanced security mechanisms - Support ckt emulation, clock - Smart OAM distribution - Architect for incremental Support Legacy & - Virtual partitioning of network8 - Advanced protection/restoration introduction of advanced Advanced Services resources (for communities) - Ablility to introduce new services services - Scalable multicasting by minimal system upgrades (e.g. - Sophisticated security mechs. just add/modify one LC) - Versatile arch. -- uses - Uses technologies with mass technologies optimized per adoption in non-military setting - Leverage COTS segment (e.g. Ethernet, IP, MPLS) - Use std. building blocks/sub- - Intelligent policy - Benefit from operational9 Low Cost systems, components to benefit enforcement (via policy experience, cost reductions from adoption of vol. components servers) - Use technologies with (or hardened variants) - Plug and play operation accumulated deployment - Powerful signaling and experience control ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 15
    16. 16. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Why Discuss Ethernet? It’s Benefits and Applications
    17. 17. Why Ethernet?Some Key Benefits … Mature technology  Native support of IP  3 decades of operational experience,  Imp. for GIG and net-centric warfare ~300M+ ports sold in 2008 alone!  Simple IP address management Low-cost  Self-replacement capability  Mass usage lowers cost, so  Largely backward compatible compelling to use wherever possible  Easy upgrades, integration of legacy High-bit rates & Range of speeds systems  10 Mbps to 10 Gbps! (40-100 Gbps  Widely available COTS ecosystem underway) – 3 orders of magnitude  Easy to adapt commercial h/w & s/w Versatile for military use  Usable as service, transport, PHY  Ethernet expertise widely available  More discussion of this ahead ...  Network design, planning, architecture Provides consistent technology from  Network engineering, troubleshooting edge-to-core  Practically unlimited interoperability  Extends reach from LAN→MAN→ WAN Solves both networking & real-time interconnect needs in military environ. ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 17
    18. 18. Representative Applications ofEthernet in the Military Switched Ethernet operates as:  Networking infrastructure for MAN/WAN  Real-time fabric interconnect in military systems, warfare systems, & military installments  Critical building block for military devices 1-10 Gb/s Ethernet used as “fat-pipe” between sub-systems Intelligent Ethernet transport adopted for:  Support of IP-centric service requirements  Evolution of wireless & fixed-line infrastructures USS Ronald Reagan  Explicitly defined native Ethernet connections w/ reserved resources, dedicated protection Multi-layer Ethernet switches employed in support of DoD plans to leverage IPv6 Ethernet technology facilitates delivery of:  Real-time imaging, sensor data, video  Secure mission-critical defense communication AH-64 Apache Utilized for furnishing precision timing & sub-microsecond synchronization ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 18
    19. 19. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Optical Ethernet Explained: Three Roles and Its Characteristics
    20. 20. Versatile Packet Networking with Ethernet  Ethernet technology can play one of three roles in a data network Ethernet Service – offered to end-customer, runs e2e, where traffic flow into/out of customer systems Network Standards comprises Ethernet frames Organization Technology/ Component Involved Standard Service MEF Carrier EthernetEthernet Transport - Ability to switch/route IETF MPLS-TPEthernet frames of an Ethernet service, b/weennetwork nodes by setting up connection- Transport IEEE PBB, PBB-TEoriented, traffic engineered paths in the network ITU-T OTN-transport partwith deterministic perf. IEEE 1GE/10GE/100GE PHY ITU-T OTN-PHY partEthernet PHY – framing and timing of actual bits of theEthernet frame, and their TX over the physical mediumto connect switches at the physical layer ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 20
    21. 21. A Word onConnection-Oriented Ethernet (COE) Ethernet transport enables the realization of COE COE – set of control-plane protocols & data-plane settings that create a connection-oriented capability to transfer Eth frames Ethernet transport could involve:  L2 transport -- Switching/routing traffic (data frames) by  Enhancing Ethernet technology – e.g. PBB-TE (802.1aq)  Using a different technology – e.g. MPLS, MPLS-TP  L1 transport – switching/routing traffic at the physical layer (e.g. optical channel data unit (ODU) level) by  Embedding in a transport networking layer, such as ITU-T’s G.709 OTN ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 21
    22. 22. Optical Ethernet Network Defined Network spanning a MAN/WAN that offers a carrier-grade Ethernet service, running on a COE transport infrastructure over an optical PHY Optical PHY: OTN’s optical channel or an Ethernet PHY over optics Can be muxed onto fiber using CWDM/DWDM “Optical Ethernet” Technology Layers Examples For p2p services Carrier Ethernet Service (E-line, E-LAN, E-Tree) For p2p or mp2mp services Packet Transport L2 Transport (PBB-TE, MPLS-TP) Relationship of the Layers and their corresponding entities SONET/SDH, OTN L1 Transport transport OTN-PHY part L0 PHY IEEE-Ethernet PHY) ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 22
    23. 23. OK, So What is Carrier Ethernet? Carrier Ethernet is therefore the service component of optical Ethernet networks Courtesy: Metro Ethernet Forum ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 23
    24. 24. How Optical Ethernet Relates toCarrier Ethernet Carrier Ethernet: defined by MEF in 2004-05 as “Ubiquitous carrier- grade Ethernet service with 5 attributes”:  Standardized Services (better thought of as building blocks)  Uniformly defined core services, building blocks for applications  E-line, E-LAN, E-Tree (illustrated ahead)  Scalability  Span local, access, national, global range, with millions of MACs & UNIs  Reliability  Detect & recover from errors/faults, without impacting customers  Hard QoS  E2e performance for loss, delay, jitter, and b/w matching requirements of voice, video, data traffic over heterogeneous networks  Service Management  Robust, standards-based, vendor-independent OAM to monitor, diagnose, manage networks offering Carrier Ethernet service ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 24
    25. 25. MEF’s Service Definitionsor Building Blocks MEF building blocks defined in terms of Ethernet Virtual Connections (EVCs) EVC  Association of two or more User Network Interfaces (UNIs) at the edge of metro Ethernet network (MEN) cloud  Exchange of Ethernet frames limited to the UNI’s in the EVC Three building blocks specified  E-Line – p2p EVC  E-LAN – mp2mp EVC  E-Tree – p2mp EVC ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 25
    26. 26. MEF’s Building Blocks Illustrated EVC1 EVC2 Point-to-Point EVC (E-Line) Multipoint-to-Multipoint EVC (E-LAN) Leaf Root Leaf Rooted-Multipoint EVC (E-Tree) ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 26
    27. 27. Putting it Together: Optical Ethernet Network Components in Operation Ethernet Service (end-to-end; what the user perceives) Service E-LAN Service Ethernet Transport Ethernet (what the cloud delivers; the Service “pipe” and its routing) Transport Switching/Routing Optical (WDM) transport PHY PHY Layer(how the bits are transported (physical link, fiber) between systems) PHY Framing, timing, and optical muxing ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 27
    28. 28. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Macro-Architectural Options for Building MAN/WAN Inter- connects & Design Principles Involved
    29. 29. A Word on Network Architecture Ultimate goal of a network: to provide end-to-end connectivity between two entities  E.g. client-server, user-to-user, … Path between entities has many segments, comprising  Access, aggregation, metro/edge, core Different technologies can be used in each segment, depending on that segment’s requirements ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 29
    30. 30. Applicability of Ethernet to Network Segments Network Segment Access Aggregation CoreParameters Sophisticated systems Cost Very cheap Relatively cheap increase cost High-speed, vast range High speeds/feeds, 1 Gb/ High speeds, 1 Gb/s – 100 Speed (10 Mbps – 1 Gbps) s – 10 Gb/s, link agg. Gb/s, LAG Little or no mgt. needed Comprehensive OAM Fault & Performance Mgt. Manageability (plug-and-play) portfolio OAM Supports ELMI Linear protection LAG and Dual Homing Via RSTP, MSTP, ring Redundancy (IEEE Work-in-Progress) protection (G.8032) (G.8031), Traffic engineering Allows hierarchy (MAC- Via hierarchy, with inter- Supports 4K services/ Scalability access link in-MAC), Upto 16M operability with IP/MPLS services (PBB-VPLS interworking) Works over diverse Multiple logical rings, Supports TE, routing Notable Features access media (E.g. fiber, mesh natively supported, extensions (e.g. PLSB) Cu, wireless, coax, ...) native multicast ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 30
    31. 31. Flexibility with Ethernet Ethernet has features that make it suitable for the 3 key segments – depending on the operator’s need Adaptability of Ethernet implies  Ethernet is not always needed end-to-end  Usable in segments where it makes sense  Incrementally extendable to other segments Interoperability of Ethernet  can inter-work with other technologies for optimum realization of services ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 31
    32. 32. Network Architecture Options withOptical EthernetIn the following, we Discuss key architectural options using Ethernet & optical Ethernet Show how Ethernet migrates from the access (it’s forte) to the metro and core Present the merits & assessment of each architecture ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 32
    33. 33. Ethernet in Access: Operation& Protocol Stack Core Metro Metro Q-in-Q Access MPLS/PW MPLS/PW MPLS/PW Access CE U-PE LSR N-PE N-PE LSR U-PE CE MPLS X IP/MPLS X MPLS IB-BEB Spoke PWs per VPLS instance LSP-Label LSP-Label LSP-Label LSP-Label LSP-Label VC-Label VC-Label VC-Label VC-Label VC-Label C-DA C-DA C-DA C-DA C-DA C-DA C-DA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-SA S/C-Tag S/C-Tag S/C-Tag S/C-Tag S/C-Tag S/C-Tag S/C-Tag Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 33
    34. 34. Ethernet in Access: Evaluation Doable today! and allows gradual “upgrade” to Ethernet in metro and/or core Cheap, flexible, convenient – uses familiar Ethernet tech. in access Supports up to 2M services (due to 20b MPLS label) – not scalable Needs PWs/tunnels e2e, u-PE to u-PE – potentially millions – which could become unmanageable Metro & core networks can be anything, but are typically IP/MPLS ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 34
    35. 35. Ethernet in Access & Metro:Operation & Protocol Stack Metro Core Metro PBB Access Ethernet MPLS/PW Ethernet Access CE U-PE B-BEB N-PE N-PE B-BEB U-PE CE PBB X IP/MPLS X PBB B-BEB B-BEB PBB B-VID locally significant in PBB, not sent over core Must support B-BEB and VPLS capability Internal B-VID, B-BEB removes enables I-SID LSP-Label PBB-specific bundling B-Tag VD-Label B-DA B-DA B-DA B-SA B-DA B-SA B-DA B-SA B-Tag B-SA B-Tag B-SA B-Tag I-Tag I-Tag I-Tag I-Tag I-Tag C-DA C-DA C-DA C-DA C-DA C-DA C-DA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-SA S/C-Tag S/C-Tag S/C-Tag S/C-Tag S/C-Tag S/C-Tag S/C-Tag Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 35
    36. 36. Ethernet in Access & Metro: Evaluation Implementable today, with selected hardware/software Allows gradual “upgrade” to Ethernet in core, if needed Cheaper, easier, lower cost & maintenance than previous option (Ethernet in access only) Metro PBB network enables scaling of services, while reducing processing/memory burden on metro/core devices Core network can be anything, but is typically IP/MPLS ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 36
    37. 37. Ethernet Everywhere: Protocol Stack Access Metro/Aggregation Core Metro/Aggregation Access (802.1ad) (802.1ah) (802.1Qay) (802.1ah) (802.1ad) Provider Backbone Provider Backbone Provider Bridging (PBB) Provider Bridging (PBB) BCB Bridging (PBB) Bridging (PBB) Last Mile Last Mile IB-BEB BCB B-BEB B-BEB B-BEB IB-BEB PE CECE PE PB B-BEB BCB PBB – Traffic Engineered (PBB-TE) PBCE PE PE CE IB-BEB IB-BEB BCB B-BEB B-BEB B-BEB 802.1ad/Q-in-Q 802.1ah 802.1ah 802.1ad/Q-in-Q encapsulation BCB encapsulation decapsulation decapsulation B-DA B-DA - Pinned paths B-DA - Based only on B-SA B-SA B-DA, B-SA, B-Tag B-SA - No STP B-Tag B-Tag B-Tag - No MAC learning I-Tag I-Tag I-Tag Switching based on pre - C-DA C-DA C-DA C-DA C-DA configured fwding tables C-DA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-SA C-DA C-SA S-Tag S-Tag S-Tag S-Tag S-Tag C-SA C-Tag C-Tag C-Tag C-Tag C-Tag C-Tag C-Tag Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 37
    38. 38. Ethernet Everywhere: Evaluation Uses proven, uniform technology throughout Ability to transport Ethernet & IP services (since Ethernet supports IP) Benefits  Easy procurement, management, troubleshooting  Cost efficiencies (opex) from understanding, managing a single technology in the network  No technology interworking required!  Supports link, segment, and e2e (service) OAM with one OAM technology ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 38
    39. 39. Ethernet in Mobile Backhaul Mobile backhaul architectures derive from the previous basic types We examine them separately due to their unique needs:  Interface with the core network  Timing and synchronization requirements  Evolution requirements – from TDM or ATM to IP/MPLS and/or Ethernet ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 39
    40. 40. Evolution of Cellular Technologyand Backhaul Types Network Speed Interface GSM/GPRS 56-114 Kbps TDM EDGE 236 – 473 Kbps TDM 3G (UMTS/ 384 Kbps Uplink ATM WCDMA) R3, R4 384 Kbps Downlink 3G, R5 (HSDPA), 384 Kbps Uplink IP/Ethernet R6 (HSUPA) 14.4 Kbps Downlink 500 Mbps Uplink LTE R8 (20 Mhz) IP/Ethernet >100 Mbps Downlink CDMA1X-RTT 100 Kbps TDM Legend CDMA EV-DO 1.8 Mbps Uplink 2G IP/Ethernet Rev A/B 1.8 to 5 Mbps Downlink 2.5G WiMAX (10 Mhz) 50 Mbps IP/Ethernet 3G 4G Backhaul Types ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 40
    41. 41. Mobile Backhaul Components Backhaul network – defined as the network that connects  Base Transceiver Station (BTS, or Base Station) to Base Station Controller (BSC) in 3GPP2 – GSM-based cellular networks  Node-B to Radio Network Controller (RNC) in 3GPP – CDMA-based cellular networks Traditional backhaul networks have used ...  E1/T1 leased lines  SONET/SDH TDM channels (for higher rate aggregation) Mobile transport infrastructure has hitherto been ...  Microwave links  Optical fiber with SDH/SONET Evolution to packet-based wireless services creates a push for the transport itself to be packet-based: Ethernet or IP/MPLS or a combination ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 41
    42. 42. Traditional Backhaul Evolution2G BTS BSC TDM TI/EI Cellsite SONET/SDH SONET/SDH Gateway XConnect XConnect E1 T1/E1/STM SDH/SONET Network ATM RNC ATM nxE1 ATM3G BTS Switch Separate transmission facilities for different technologies (TDM and packets) ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 42
    43. 43. Evolved Backhaul Network 2G BTS TDM TI/EI Cellsite IP/Ethernet IP/Ethernet To Wireless Gateway Switch/Router Switch/Router Core BSC ATM Carrier Ethernet Network 1/10GE CE 10/100/1GE PE PE Ethernet nxE1 Ethernet 3G BTS Ethernet Common transmission infrastructure for different technologies (TDM and packets)3G/4G BTS ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 43
    44. 44. A Quick Primer on PseudoWires Label Label 5 VPN_ID = A Mapping Mapping VPN_ID = A 5 Label = 1004 Label = 2004 4 Targeted LDP 3 Discovery PE1 PE2 1 6 ACs AC1 VC_LSP (2004) ACn VC_LSP (1004) 2 VSI PW established VSI VPN_ID = A VPN_ID = A Tunnel LSP 1. Bind attachment circuit to Virtual 4. Targeted LDP session established Switching Interface inside PE router 5. Mapping of label for the VC LSP 2. Assign each PE node a VPN id. (unidirectional virtual circuit (VC)) exchanged between end nodes 3. Nodes discover each other 6. PW established, data transfer enabled ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 44
    45. 45. Pseudowires (PW) for Legacy Transport 2G BTS PW TDM PSN Tunnel TI/EI To Wireless AC Core AC BSC ATM Carrier Ethernet Network 10/100/1GE 1/10GE CE PE PE Ethernet Ethernet nxE1 Cellsite Gateway 3G BTS AC: Attachment Ckt CE : Customer Edge (BTS) PE: Provider Edge BSC: Base Station Controller Ethernet  PSN Tunnels Encapsulation  May be IP/MPLS, T-MPLS/MPLS-TP, or PB/PBB/PBB-TE based3G/4G BTS  Structure-Agnostic TDM-over-IP (SAToIP) (RFC 4553)  PW Signaling  Structure-Aware TDM Circuit Emulation (CESoPSN) (RFC 5086)  IEEE 1588-based timing distribution supported  ATMoPSN (RFC 4717)  SyncE (Synchronous Ethernet) ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 45
    46. 46. MEF Services for Mobile Backhaul RNC RNC BSC BSC Service Multiplexing mp2mp EVC Metro Ethernet EVC EVC Metro Ethernet BTS BTS BTS BTS BTSEVPL Service for Backhaul using EVP-LAN Service for Backhaul using Metro Ethernet Networks Metro Ethernet Networks Services muxed at RNC UNI Needed when inter-BS communication is permitted like in LTE/802.16m (WiMAX) ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 46
    47. 47. MEF Services for Mobile Backhaul RNC BSC Service Multiplexing Metro Ethernet EVC EVC BS/ BS/ BS/ BTS BTS BTS EVP-Tree Service for Backhaul using Metro Ethernet Networks ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 47
    48. 48. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Key Developments Valuable for Military Adoption of Optical Ethernet
    49. 49. Optical Ethernet: Recent Developments Ethernet technology evolving rapidly in the last 3-4 years Multiple standards bodies have created valuable stds in:  OAM  Interoperability  Scalability  Reliability  Security  New Services  Last-mile high speed access  Interworking  New capabilities in Ethernet – synchronization/timing, automatic SLA negotiation, Ethernet demarcation devices, Ethernet as xport We summarize these next, and focus on key ones valuable for the military ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 49
    50. 50. Recent Advances in OpticalEthernet Standards: Snapshot Area Standard and/or Activity Stds. Organization(s)Reliability/ Linear (G.8031) & ring (G.8032) protection ITU-T SG15Protection Connectivity Fault Mgt. (802.1ag), Perf. Mgt.OAM IEEE, ITU-T SG 15 (Y. 1731)Security LinkSec, MACSec, Authentication IEEE Hierarchy via Shortest Path Bridging (PLSB)Scalability IEEE Provider Back-bone Bridging (802.1ah) FCoE, Ethernet PWs, Circuit Emulation over EthernetInterworking IETF, MEF (MEF 8)New Services E-Tree (p2mp communication for multicast) MEF Fast last mile access (EPON, 802.11n), HS i/fsHigher-Speeds IEEE (40G,100G) SyncE (link-layer clock distribution) 1588v3 (network level time & clock distribution) Demarcation devices (MEF NID)New Capabilities IEEE, MEF, IETF Automatic SLA negotiation (MEF E-LMI) Ethernet as transport (PBB-TE) MPLS-TP (Transport Profile): applicable for COE ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 50
    51. 51. Ethernet Security:LinkSec (MACSec, KeySec) Layer 2 link security standard defined by  MACSec (IEEE 802.1ae)  KeySec (IEEE 802.1af) MACSec provides:  Origin authentication  Data integrity checking  Data confidentiality between two e2e Ethernet switches MACSec defines a frame format that includes data encapsulation, encryption, authentication KeySec defines key mgt. protocol for MACSec ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 51
    52. 52. MAC Sec Packet FormatTCI = Tag Control Info.AN=Association No.SL = Short Length (i.e. no SCI inserted)PN = Packet No.SCI= Secure Channel ID (optional) ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 52
    53. 53. Ethernet OAM Ethernet OAM supports Layer (domain) Monitoring  Up to 8 layer levels (domains) per VLAN Ethernet OAM has tools for:  Fault Management (802.1ag): CCM, LB, LT, AIS, RDI  CCM: Continuity Check Message – verifies one-way connectivity  LB: Loop Back – checks 2-way (round trip) connectivity  LT: Link Trace – provides path (nodes) between nodes A & B  AIS: Alarm Indication Signal – provides fwd alarm propagation  RDI: Reverse Defect Indication – provides rev alarm propagation  Performance Measurement (Y.1731): LM, DM  LM: Loss Measurement – measures loss on an EVC  DM: Delay Measurement – measures latency on an EV ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 53
    54. 54. Ethernet OAM & Maintenance DomainsCustomer Service Provider Customer Access Core Access Customer OAM Domain Provider OAM Domain Operator Operator OAM Domain Operator OAM OAM Domain Domain Independent OAM can be run in each OAM domain for the same VLAN IEEE provides for 8 levels of Maintenance Domains – allows a level to be assigned to each entity – customer, provider, operator ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 54
    55. 55. Ethernet OAM: Loopback (LB) Example for Provider & Operator Domains E2e Ethernet pathCustomer Service Provider Customer Access Core Access Customer OAM Domain Provider LB Provider OAM Domain Operator LBs Customer LB Operator Operator OAM Domain Operator OAM OAM Domain Domain Independent OAM can be run in each OAM domain for the same VLAN We show operator, provider, and customer loopback examples above ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 55
    56. 56. Synchronization in IEEE 1588 1588: a protocol designed to synchronize real-time clocks in the nodes of a distributed system that communicate using a network Synchronizes both – clock & Time-of-Day (SyncE only synchronizes clock) Network Master Slave/Boundary Slave/Boundary ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 56
    57. 57. IEEE 1588 SynchronizationOperation & Clock Offset Computation 1588 Operation Clock Offset Computation MS delay = t2 – t1 SM delay = t4 – t3 offset = {MS_delay –SM_delay}/2 ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 57
    58. 58. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ How Optical Ethernet Meets Key Technology Requirements of Military Networks
    59. 59. Role of Ethernet TechnologyEthernet component provides several key capabilities Native mp2mp communication  Easily creates communities of interest (COIs) Segregation of traffic and users  Via VLANs (802.1ad) or B-VID/B-VLAN tags (802.1aq) Enables use a common infrastructure for multiple virtual networks ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 59
    60. 60. Role of Optical TechnologyOptical component complements Ethernet packet technology, providing strengths where Ethernet does not suffice Robustness against interference/EMI Tremendous bandwidth scalability  Using an optical fiber transmission medium  Via WDM technology, without needed additional fiber Connection-oriented nature  Allows for traffic engineering  Sophisticated, ultra-fast protection/restoration Long reach/range  Reliable communication over long distances Facilitates deterministic timing/performance ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 60
    61. 61. Suitability of Optical Ethernetfor the Military (1) Military Network How Today’s Optical Ethernet Technology Meets It Requirement - Hierarchy – via MAC-in-MAC encapsulation Scalability 1 - Routing & Topology capability – PLSB, TRILL (MAC learning in CP) - MACSec – providing e2e security between nodes Security 2 - ACLs – based on address, VLAN, port, … - Queueing per VLAN, class, app., in systems - Extensive OAM for fault & perf. management Manageability - Service-level and link-level OAM, with hierarchy 3 - OOB management capability - ELMI negotiation at UNI - RSTP variants - MSTP 4 Dynamic Setup & Control - ELMI for negotiation at UNI - LACP helps setup link aggregation groups - IS-IS in control plane for network topology control Mp2mp and p2mp - Inherently mp2mp technology 5 communication - E-Tree service from MEF - Economical deployment 6 Low-Cost - Capex $1/ 1 Mb/s, which is ~1/4th of TDM circuit cost ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 61
    62. 62. Suitability of Optical Ethernetfor the Military (2) Military Network How Today’s Optical Ethernet Technology Meets It Requirement - ITU-T link and ring protection 7 Reliability - EAPS (Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching), RFC 3619 - Link Aggregation (LAG) - VLANs for virtualization - Use of “p” bits for prioritization - Bandwidth profiles (MEF) for queueing 8 QoS - Per VLAN, per class traffic management - Policing, shaping, dropping, metering, marking within systems for differentiation between traffic - Linear + Ring protection 9 Availability - EoWDM to increase reach, while decreasing BER - Dual homing in access & E-NNI (network interfaces) - P2p Ethernet - Wi-Fi access 10 Diverse Last-Mile Access - WiMAX access - EPON - Circuit Emulation over Ethernet (MEF8, SATOP, Support of Legacy CESoPSN) 11 Services - Use of EtherType allows native encapsulation (of different traffic types) within Ethernet. E.g. FCoE, PPPoE - SyncE 12 Clock Distribution - IEEE 1588v2 ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 62
    63. 63. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Summary and Conclusion
    64. 64. Wrapping it Up ... Optical Ethernet is today a well-established & well-known technology, with many capabilities New capabilities being rapidly added, due to its versatility and popularity Usable in access, metro, core, in mobile backhaul, data centers, ... Interoperable – so can be mixed-and-matched with other technologies Suitable for net-centric, military applications Adds value in many applications, and a strong candidate to be used where its characteristics fit the application or network segment under consideration ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 64
    65. 65. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Thank You! Questions?
    66. 66. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Glossary
    67. 67. Glossary (1)ACL Access Control List ELMI Ethernet Local Management InterfaceBCB Backbone Core Bridge EPON Ethernet Passive Optical NetworkBEB Backbone Edge Bridge EVC Ethernet Virtual CircuitB-MAC Backbone MAC GPON Gigabit-capable PONBSC Base Station Controller H-QoS Hierarchical QoSBTS Base Transceiver Station Institution of Electrical and Electronic IEEE EngineersB-VID Backbone Virtual ID IETF Internet Engineering Task ForceCAC Connection Admission Control IGMP Internet Group Management ProtocolCE Customer Edge I-SID Individual Service IDCOI Communities of Interest LAG Link Aggregation GroupCOTS Common Off-The-Shelf LC Line CardDA Destination Address LDP Label Distribution ProtocolDCN Data Communication Network MEF Metro Etherent ForumDoD Department of Defence MEN Metro Ethernet NetworkDPI Deep Packet Inspection mp2mp Multi-point to Multi-pointDWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switchinge2e End to End Multi-Protocol Label Switching -ECMP Equal Cost Multi-Path MPLS-TP Transport Profile ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 67
    68. 68. Glossary (2)MSTP Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol PON Passive Optical NetworkNGN Next-Generation Network POTs Plain Old Telephone ServiceNMS Network Management System PSN Packet Switched NetworkN-PE Network-facing-Provider Edge device PW PseudowireNSF Non-Stop Forwarding QoS Quality of ServiceNSR Non-Stop Routing RNC Radio Network Controller Operations, Administration, and RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree ProtocolOAM Maintenance Resource Reservation Protocol - TrafficODU Optical Data Unit RSVP-TE Engineering (RSVP protocol with MPLSOOB Out of Band traffic engineering extensions)OTN Optical Transport Network SA Source Addressp2mp Point to Multi-point SDH Synchronous Digital HierarchyPB Provider Bridging SONET Synchronous Optical NetworkPBB Provider Backbone Bridging SPT Shortest Path Tree Provider Backbone Bridging - TrafficPBB-TE STP Spanning Tree Protocol EngineeringPE Provider Edge TDM Time Division MultiplexingPHY Physical Layer Transparent Interconnection of Lots of TRILL LinksPLSB Provide Link State Bridging https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/trill/charter/ ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 68
    69. 69. Glossary (3)UNI User Network InterfaceU-PE User-facing-Provider Edge deviceVLAN Virtual LANVPN Virtual Private Network ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 69
    70. 70. Metanoia, Inc.Critical Systems Thinking™ Appendix: Word on Provider Bridging (PB) and Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB)
    71. 71. Native Ethernet in Metro Access How does one create the notion of a virtual circuit?  VLAN tagging with point-to-point VLAN VLAN stacking  Outer tag ↔ service instance; Inner tag ↔ individual customer  802.1Q in 802.1Q (Q-in-Q) - IEEE 802.1ad 6bytes 6bytes 4bytes 4bytes 4bytes C-DA C-SA S-TAG C-TAG Client data FCS C-DA: Customer Destination MAC C-SA: Customer Source MAC C-TAG: IEEE 802.1q VLAN Tag C-FCS: Customer FCS S-TAG: IEEE 802.1ad S-VLAN Tag ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 71
    72. 72. Provider Bridge (IEEE 802.1ad)Architecture CE-B CES Customer CE-A UNI-B Network Customer Network CES UNI-A CES Spanning tree UNI-C CE-CCE: Customer EquipmentUNI: User-to-Network Interface CustomerCES: Core Ethernet Switch/Bridge NetworkP-VLAN: Provider VLAN ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 72
    73. 73. Provider Backbone Bridging (802.1ah) Encapsulate customer MAC with provider MAC at edge  Edge switch adds 24-bit service tag (I-SID), not VLAN tag Core switches need only learn edge switch MAC adds. 6bytes 6bytes 4bytes 5bytes 6bytes 6bytes 4bytes 4bytes B-DA B-SA B-TAG I-TAG C-DA C-SA C-TAG Client data B-FCS S-TAG: IEEE 802.1ad S-VLAN Tag B-DA: IEEE 802.1ah Backbone Destination B-SA: IEEE 802.1ah Backbone Source MAC I-TAG: IEEE 802.1ah Service Tag ©Copyright 2010All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 73
    74. 74. Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB) Architecture CPE B CPE A CPE B CPE A CPE C CPE D Provider backbone Provider backbone network (802.1ad) 802.1ad network (802.1ad) Provider backbone network (802.1ah) Provider backbone network (802.1ad) Provider backbone network (802.1ad) 802.1qCPE C CPE B CPE B CPE A CPE D CPE C ©Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved Milcom’10, October 31-Nov 3, 2010, San Jose, CA 74

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