Waves in energy <ul><li>Ocean Wave Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Waves are caused by the wind blowing over the surface of the ocean. In many areas of the world, the wind blows with enough consistency and force to provide continuous waves. There is tremendous energy in the ocean waves. Wave power devices extract energy directly from the surface motion of ocean waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. </li></ul>
Wave power varies considerably in different parts of the world, and wave energy can't be harnessed effectively everywhere. Wave-power rich areas of the world include the western coasts of Scotland, northern Canada, southern Africa, Australia, and the northwestern coasts of the United States .
<ul><li>Ocean Wave Energy Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>A variety of technologies have been proposed to capture the energy from waves. Some of the more promising designs are undergoing demonstration testing at commercial scales. </li></ul><ul><li>Wave technologies have been designed to be installed in nearshore , offshore , and far offshore locations. The OCS Alternative Energy Programmatic EIS is concerned primarily with offshore and far offshore wave technologies. Offshore systems are situated in deep water, typically of more than 40 meters (131 feet). </li></ul><ul><li>While all wave energy technologies are intended to be installed at or near the water's surface , they differ in their orientation to the waves with which they are interacting and in the manner in which they convert the energy of the waves into other energy forms, usually electricity. The following wave technologies have been the target of recent development. </li></ul>
Terminator devices extend perpendicular to the direction of wave travel and capture or reflect the power of the wave. These devices are typically onshore or nearshore; however, floating versions have been designed for offshore applications. The oscillating water column is a form of terminator in which water enters through a subsurface opening into a chamber with air trapped above it. The wave action causes the captured water column to move up and down like a piston to force the air though an opening connected to a turbine. A point absorber is a floating structure with components that move relative to each other due to wave action (e.g., a floating buoy inside a fixed cylinder). The relative motion is used to drive electromechanical or hydraulic energy converters.
Attenuators are long multisegment floating structures oriented parallel to the direction of the waves. The differing heights of waves along the length of the device causes flexing where the segments connect, and this flexing is connected to hydraulic pumps or other converters.
<ul><li>Overtopping devices have reservoirs that are filled by incoming waves to levels above the average surrounding ocean. The water is then released, and gravity causes it to fall back toward the ocean surface. The energy of the falling water is used to turn hydro turbines. Specially built seagoing vessels can also capture the energy of offshore waves. These floating platforms create electricity by funneling waves through internal turbines and then back into the sea. </li></ul>
Environmental Considerations <ul><li>Potential environmental considerations for the development of wave energy include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive or negative impacts on marine habitat (depending on the nature of additional submerged surfaces, above-water platforms, and changes in the seafloor); </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic releases from leaks or accidental spills of liquids used in those systems with working hydraulic fluids; </li></ul><ul><li>Visual and noise impacts (device-specific, with considerable variability in visible freeboard height and noise generation above and below the water surface); </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict with other sea space users, such as commercial shipping and recreational boating; </li></ul>
Tsunamo <ul><li>A tsunami (Japanese: 津波 , lit. "harbor wave"; Japanese pronunciation: [tsɯnami] English pronunciation: /tsuːˈnɑːmi/ tsoo-NAH-mee or /suːˈnɑːm i / soo-NAH-mee ) is a series of water waves (also called a tsunami wave train) caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually an ocean, though it can occur in large lakes. Tsunamis are a frequent occurrence in Japan; approximately 195 events have been recorded. Owing to the immense volumes of water and the high energy involved, tsunamis can devastate coastal regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides and other mass movements, mteorite ocean impacts or similar impact events, and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greek historian Thucydides was the first to relate tsunami to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of a tsunami's nature remained slim until the 20th century and is the subject of ongoing research. Many early geological, geographical, and oceanographic texts refer to tsunamis as "seismic sea waves.“ </li></ul>
Some meteorologic a l conditions, such as deep depressions that cause tropical cyclones, can generate a storm surge, called a meteotsunami, which can raise tides several metres above normal levels. The displacement comes from low atmospheric pressure within the centre of the depression. As these storm surges reach shore, they may resemble (though are not) tsunamis, inundating vast areas of land