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SafeFS: A Modular Architecture for Secure User-Space File Systems (One FUSE to rule them all)

Revised version of the SafeFS slides, targeting MSc students at the UFSM (Brasil).

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SafeFS:A Modular Architecture
for Secure User-Space File Systems
(One FUSE to rule them all)
Invited Talk - UFSM, Santa Maria, Brasil
02 February 2018
Rogério Pontes1, Dorian Burihabwa2, Francisco Maia1, João Paulo1,
Valerio Schiavoni2, Pascal Felber2, Hugues Mercier2, Rui Oliveira1
1High Assurance Software Lab, INESC TEC and University of Minho, Portugal
2University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
(previously: SYSTOR’17, Haifa, Israel)
Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS
but first…where is Neuchâtel?
2
Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS
• Data is growing at an unprecedented rate
• Cloud storage is the de facto choice for millions of
users and enterprises
• reduced costs
• availability
• ease of use
Cloud Storage
3
Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS
• Heterogeneous interfaces for applications
• Data control belongs to the cloud
• according to a European study conducted in 2015
• 67% of the population is concerned with data privacy
• only 15% of users think to be in control of their data
• Cloud data is vulnerable to
• hackers, storage providers, governmental agencies
• other (possibly unknown) threats
4
not in this talk
Cloud Storage
Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS
• Abstract third-party interfaces
• e.g., multi-cloud file system
• Support data processing at the client premises
before uploading it to cloud services
• data encryption
• replication, deduplication, caching
Current Solutions
5
Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS
• Traditional filesystems follow a monolithic design
• Different applications have specific requirements
• performance
• dependability
• security
• ➡ different storage features
Challenges
6
ext3 ext4 encFS CryFS

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SafeFS: A Modular Architecture for Secure User-Space File Systems (One FUSE to rule them all)

  • 1. SafeFS:A Modular Architecture for Secure User-Space File Systems (One FUSE to rule them all) Invited Talk - UFSM, Santa Maria, Brasil 02 February 2018 Rogério Pontes1, Dorian Burihabwa2, Francisco Maia1, João Paulo1, Valerio Schiavoni2, Pascal Felber2, Hugues Mercier2, Rui Oliveira1 1High Assurance Software Lab, INESC TEC and University of Minho, Portugal 2University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland (previously: SYSTOR’17, Haifa, Israel)
  • 2. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS but first…where is Neuchâtel? 2
  • 3. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS • Data is growing at an unprecedented rate • Cloud storage is the de facto choice for millions of users and enterprises • reduced costs • availability • ease of use Cloud Storage 3
  • 4. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS • Heterogeneous interfaces for applications • Data control belongs to the cloud • according to a European study conducted in 2015 • 67% of the population is concerned with data privacy • only 15% of users think to be in control of their data • Cloud data is vulnerable to • hackers, storage providers, governmental agencies • other (possibly unknown) threats 4 not in this talk Cloud Storage
  • 5. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS • Abstract third-party interfaces • e.g., multi-cloud file system • Support data processing at the client premises before uploading it to cloud services • data encryption • replication, deduplication, caching Current Solutions 5
  • 6. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS • Traditional filesystems follow a monolithic design • Different applications have specific requirements • performance • dependability • security • ➡ different storage features Challenges 6 ext3 ext4 encFS CryFS
  • 7. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS • Stackable file system solutions improve flexibility • Their design is still limited: • focused on the modularity of a specific feature • decisions (kernel vs user-space) 7 source: hypem.com Challenges
  • 8. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS • SafeFS: A modular user-space secure file system • layered design with two-dimensional modularity • self-contained, stackable and reusable layers • easy implementation & reuse of layers • support for single and multiple storage backends • adaptability to different application workloads • transparency for applications Contributions 8
  • 9. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS •Architecture •Life of a SafeFS operation •Some implementation details •Some evaluation results •Conclusion The rest of this talk 9 😈 🏛 📖 🖋 🔬( 🎬
  • 10. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS • Layers • processing vs storage • stackable • common API (FUSE) • Drivers • extended flexibility • common API Architecture 10 User Application FUSE User-Space Library SafeFS Processing FUSE Virtual Filesystem . . . Processing FUSE Processing FUSE Processing FUSE Processing FUSE Storage FUSE Storage FUSE Privacy-Preserving Layer Drivers AES DET FUSE FUSE Kernel ModuleKernel Space User Space Layer 0 Layer 1 Layer N-2 Layer N-1 Layer N . . . ... request reply
  • 11. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS Storage requests flow 11 User Application Fuse User-Space Library SafeFS Processing FUSE API Virtual Filesystem Fuse Kernel Module Kernel Space User Space Storage FUSE API Storage FUSE API ➑ ➋ ➐ ➏ ➎ ➍ ➌ ➎ request reply ➊ ➍
  • 12. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS SafeFS - Implementation 12 SafeFS Privacy-Preserving Layer Drivers AES DET ... Granularity-Oriented Layer Drivers Block ID Multiple-backend Layer Drivers REP XOR ER NFS Dropbox Other Storage ... FUSE ... • 3 Supported layers • Granularity-Oriented • Privacy-Preserving • Multiple-Backend • Layers and drivers chosen at mount time • Implemented in C
  • 13. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS SafeFS - Configuration 13 • Possible combinations of layers and drivers Granularity-Oriented Privacy-Preserving Multiple-Backend Groups Stack Block Id AES Det Id Simple XOR Erasure Baseline FUSE ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ p ,1 ⇥ ⇥ Identity ⇥ p ⇥ ⇥ p p ,1 ⇥ ⇥ Privacy AES p ⇥ p ⇥ ⇥ p ,1 ⇥ ⇥ Det p ⇥ ⇥ p ⇥ p ,1 ⇥ ⇥ XOR ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ p ,3 ⇥ Redundancy Rep ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ p ,3 ⇥ ⇥ Erasure p ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ ⇥ p ,3 Table 2: The di↵erent SafeFS stacks deployed in the evaluation. Stacks are divided in three distinct groups: Baseline Privacy, Redundancy. The table header holds the three SafeFS layers. Below each layer we show the respective drivers. Fo each stack, we indicate the active drivers (the p symbol). Layers without any active drivers are not used in the stack. Th ndices for Multiple-Backend drivers indicate the number of storage backends used to write data. tively to a standard and a deterministic encryption mecha- nism. The AES stack is expected to be less e cient than Det as it generates a di↵erent IV for each block. However, Det has the weakest security guarantee. The third stack, named XOR, considers a di↵erent trust model where no single stor- age location is trusted with the totality of the ciphered data. Data is stored across distinct storage back-ends in such a way that unless an attacker gains access simultaneously to We ran several workloads for each considered file system (4 third-party file systems and 7 SafeFS stacks). The result have been grouped according to the workloads. First, w present the results of using db_bench, then filebench and finally, we describe the results of running latency analysi for SafeFS layers. Microbenchmark: db bench. We first present the re sults obtained with db_bench. We pick 7 workloads, each • Each offering different guarantees in terms of • security • dependability • performance
  • 14. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS • Multiple benchmarks and workloads • filebench • db_bench • Third-party filesystems and SafeFS configurations • 7 SafeFS setups • 4 filesystems (CryFS, LessFS, MetFs and eCryptFS) • Experimental setup • Virtual Machines with 4 Cores, 4GB RAM and HDD drives Experimental Evaluation 14
  • 15. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS Filebench results 15 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ Ratioagainstnativ 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ Ratioagainstnative(ext4) ➀ File-server ➁ Mail-server ➂ Web-server ➃ filemicro_rread_4K ➄ filemicro_rwrite_4K ➅ filemicro_seqread_4K ➆ filemicro_seqwrite_4K SAFEFS AES SAFEFS Det SAFEFS Erasure SAFEFS FUSE SAFEFS Identity SAFEFS Rep SAFEFS XOR Figure 5: Relative performance of filebench workloads against native. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR fill100K fillrandom fillseq overwrite readrandom readreverse readseq ExecutionTime(%) multi_write sfuse_write align_write multi_read sfuse_read align_read Figure 6: Execution time breakdown for di↵erent SafeFS stacks. As expected, the time spent in each layer varies according to the tasks performed by the layers. The 3 most CPU- facilitate future choices for practitioners and researchers. We envision to extend SafeFS along three main direc • Evaluation of SafeFS setups with 7 filebench workloads • Throughput compared against ext4 • red (below 25%) • orange (up to 75%) • yellow (up to 95%) • green (>= 95%) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ File-server ➁ Mail-server ➂ Web-server ➃ filemicro_rread_4K ➄ filemicro_rwrite_4K ➅ filemicro_seqread_4K ➆ filemicro_seqwrite_4K SAFEFS AES SAFEFS Det SAFEFS Erasure SAFEFS FUSE SAFEFS Identity SAFEFS Rep SAFEFS XOR Figure 5: Relative performance of filebench workloads against native. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR fill100K fillrandom fillseq overwrite readrandom readreverse readseq multi_write sfuse_write align_write multi_read sfuse_read align_read Figure 6: Execution time breakdown for di↵erent SafeFS stacks. As expected, the time spent in each layer varies according o the tasks performed by the layers. The 3 most CPU- tensive stacks (AES, Det and Erasure) concentrate their facilitate future choices for practitioners and researchers. We envision to extend SafeFS along three main direc- tions. First, we plan to smooth the e↵orts to integrate any
  • 16. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS Filebench results 16 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ Ratioagainstnativ 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ Ratioagainstnative(ext4) ➀ File-server ➁ Mail-server ➂ Web-server ➃ filemicro_rread_4K ➄ filemicro_rwrite_4K ➅ filemicro_seqread_4K ➆ filemicro_seqwrite_4K SAFEFS AES SAFEFS Det SAFEFS Erasure SAFEFS FUSE SAFEFS Identity SAFEFS Rep SAFEFS XOR Figure 5: Relative performance of filebench workloads against native. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR fill100K fillrandom fillseq overwrite readrandom readreverse readseq ExecutionTime(%) multi_write sfuse_write align_write multi_read sfuse_read align_read Figure 6: Execution time breakdown for di↵erent SafeFS stacks. As expected, the time spent in each layer varies according to the tasks performed by the layers. The 3 most CPU- facilitate future choices for practitioners and researchers. We envision to extend SafeFS along three main direc • Evaluation of SafeFS setups with 7 filebench workloads • Throughput compared with ext4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ File-server ➁ Mail-server ➂ Web-server ➃ filemicro_rread_4K ➄ filemicro_rwrite_4K ➅ filemicro_seqread_4K ➆ filemicro_seqwrite_4K SAFEFS AES SAFEFS Det SAFEFS Erasure SAFEFS FUSE SAFEFS Identity SAFEFS Rep SAFEFS XOR Figure 5: Relative performance of filebench workloads against native. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR AES Det Erasure FUSE Identity Rep XOR fill100K fillrandom fillseq overwrite readrandom readreverse readseq multi_write sfuse_write align_write multi_read sfuse_read align_read Figure 6: Execution time breakdown for di↵erent SafeFS stacks. As expected, the time spent in each layer varies according o the tasks performed by the layers. The 3 most CPU- tensive stacks (AES, Det and Erasure) concentrate their facilitate future choices for practitioners and researchers. We envision to extend SafeFS along three main direc- tions. First, we plan to smooth the e↵orts to integrate any ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ eCryptFS EncFS MetFS SAFEFS AES SAFEFS Det ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➂ Web-server ➃ filemicro_rread_4K ➄ filemicro_rwrite_4K ➅ filemicro_seqread_4K ➆ filemicro_seqwri FS Det SAFEFS Erasure SAFEFS FUSE SAFEFS Identity SAFEFS Rep SAFEFS XO
  • 17. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS Other results 17 • DB_bench experiments • significant overhead in write requests • read requests performance close to ext4 • uniform results across SafeFS and other filesystems • Time spent in each SafeFS layer • Setups using encryption or erasure coding require significant processing time and CPU in the respective layers • The Granularity-Oriented layer is time- demanding specially for write requests
  • 18. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS • Strict combinations of storage features cannot fulfil the requirements of distinct applications • SafeFS addresses this challenge with • a modular layer and driver design • a common API for easily stacking layers • Allows to create • combinations of storage features based on applications requirements • to reduce the cost and complexity of reusing or implementing new layers Conclusion /1 18
  • 19. Valerio Schiavoni - University of Neuchatel! UFSM - 02/02/2018SafeFS • Our experiments show that • different SafeFS setups are easily deployable • a layered approach has similar performance to other monolithic privacy-preserving filesystems • Future Work • Workload-aware and automatic configuration of layers • Run-time configuration of layers and drivers • Encryption keys management and access control Conclusion /2 19 Open source, Available at https://github.com/safecloud-project/SafeFS
  • 20. SafeFS:A Modular Architecture for Secure User-Space File Systems (One FUSE to rule them all) Invited Talk - UFSM, Santa Maria, Brasil 02 February 2018 Rogério Pontes1, Dorian Burihabwa2, Francisco Maia1, João Paulo1, Valerio Schiavoni2, Pascal Felber2, Hugues Mercier2, Rui Oliveira1 1High Assurance Software Lab, INESC TEC and University of Minho, Portugal 2University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland