PLC based Multichannel Automatic Liquid Level Controller

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PLC based Multichannel Automatic Liquid Level Controller aims to control the level of liquid automatically so that water going waste due to overflow of tanks can be saved easily.
In this project , Two liquid level sensors are provided for overhead tanks and source tanks. Those liquid level sensors are low level sensors and high sensors. These sensors sense the level of liquid and operate relays and serves inputs to Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is programmed to control liquid level and maintain it at specific level in overhead tanks automatically.

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PLC based Multichannel Automatic Liquid Level Controller

  1. 1. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 PROJECT REPORT ON PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL LIQUID LEVEL CONTROL DESIGN AND FABRICATED BY NAME ENROLLMENT NO. BADGUJAR VIJAY S. 0900003 WAGHULE SAGAR N. 0900062 SURVASE SACHIN S. 0900056 PATIL MOHIT N. 0900045 NARWADE PRAVIN V. 0910005 OF THIRD YEAR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AT GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC MUMBAI BANDRA (E) MUMBAI-400051 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF PROF. C.Y.TOTEWAR. PROF. M.P.DESHPANDE. PROF. BHANU BANDI.
  2. 2. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC MUMBAI (Maharashtra Government Autonomous Institute) 49, Kherwadi, A. Y. Jung Marg, Bandra (East) Mumbai-400051. . . CERTIFICATE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING This is to certify that the project entitled “ PLC based Multichannel Automatic Liquid Level Controller ” is a bonafide work carried out by the students mentioned below, under my supervision and guidance. It is approved for the fulfillment of requirement for Diploma in ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. Submitted By Name of the Students Enrollment No . 1. Badgujar Vijay S. 0900003 2. Waghule Sagar N. 0900062 3. Survase Sachin S. 0900056 4. Patil Mohit N. 0900045 5. Narwade Pravin V. 0910005 (Project Guide) (Principal) (Head of the Department) (External Examiner)
  3. 3. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3
  4. 4. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 INDEX
  5. 5. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 INDEX Sr No. Description Page No. 1 Abstract 6 2 Introduction 8 3 Literature Survey 10 4 Block Diagram 13 5 Block Diagram Explanation 15 6 Liquid Level Sensor 21 7 Motor Control Circuit 24 7 PLC Introduction 26 8 PLC Advantages 40 9 PLC Disadvantages 46 10 Solenoid Valve 48 11 PCB Design 54 12 PCB Layout of Project 58 13 PCB Layout of Motor Control Circuit 60 14 PLC Programming 62 11 Advantages 65 12 Disadvantages 67 13 Application 69 14 Future Scope 71 15 Cost of Project 73 16 Specifications 77 17 Result and Conclusion 89 17 Bibliography 91 18 Datasheets 93 19 Acknowledgement 130
  6. 6. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 ABSTRACT
  7. 7. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 ABSTRACT On our planet earth, 71% of part is occupied by water. Only 2% of water source is usable and rest of 98% of water is salty water which has no use for human and all living beings except in sea. Water, the main source of life. It is the most required, important and individual part of all living beings. We can not imagine life without water. Our country India such a populated one is facing such a big problem of water minimization. If proper precautions are not taken for preserving the most valuable natural resource then it may lead to an disastrous situation. This project is based on the theme that water should be controlled to such a level that it can be utilized with proper use. Due to implementation of this project, water level can be controlled automatically and hence large amount of water is saved. In future, India will have not face such problems and there will be a vast progress in the development of country. SAVE WATER, SAVE LIFE …..!!!!!!
  8. 8. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 INTRODUCTION
  9. 9. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page9 INTRODUCTION PLC based Multichannel Automatic Liquid Level Controller aims to control the level of liquid automatically so that water going waste due to overflow of tanks can be saved easily. In this project , Two liquid level sensors are provided for overhead tanks and source tanks. Those liquid level sensors are low level sensors and high sensors. These sensors sense the level of liquid and operate relays and serves inputs to Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is programmed to control liquid level and maintain it at specific level in overhead tanks automatically.
  10. 10. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 0 LITERATURE SURVEY
  11. 11. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 1 LITERATURE SURVEY  BRIEF HISTORY  DIFFERENT METHODS OF LEVEL MEASUREMENT The various methods employed for liquid measurement are broadly classified as shown below. 1)Mechanical Methods. 2) Pneumatic Method. 3) Electrical Method. 4) Ultrasonic Method.  Mechanical System :-  Float Gauge :- This device consist of a float, a counter weight and linkage between them. The counter weight keeps the linkage i.e. the chain in tension. Depending on the liquid level, the float rises or falls and this movement of float is displayed on a dial by means of a pointer and scale.  Electrical Methods for Level Measurement :-  Capacitance Level Indicator :- The capacitance of parallel plate capacitor is proportional to the dielectric strength of the insulting medium between the plates. If the area of plates and the distance between them is kept constant.
  12. 12. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 2 When the liquid level rises and covers more area between the two fixed plates, the capacitance between the plates increases. When the liquid level falls, the capacitance decreases. The measurement of the capacitance is the measure or liquid level in the tank. These types of level indicators are useful for small systems and it is very sensitive. It is suitable for continuous control or indication of level. The disadvantages of this type of level indicators are :- 1) The reading is affected by dirt or other contaminants. 2) The sensitivity gets affected by temperature variations. 3) Calibration is often required if the liquid composition or moisture content varies.  Ultrasonic Level Indicator :- This device consists of an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver. The ultrasonic wave is transmitted towards the liquid surface, from where it is reflected back. The receiver detects the signal. The time duration between the transmissions of the signal up to its reception is a measure of the liquid level in the tank.
  13. 13. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 3 BLOCK DIAGRAM
  14. 14. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 4 BLOCK DIAGRAM RELAYUNIT AC SUPPLY 230VAC, 50HZ TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER FILTER 12VDC PROGRAMMABLELOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) LIQUID LEVEL SENSORS SMPS 24VDC 750mA OUTPUT DEVICES
  15. 15. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 5 BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION
  16. 16. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 6 BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLAINATION  RECTIFIER AND FILTER :- A full wave rectifier circuit produces an output voltage or current which is purely DC or has some specified DC component. Full wave rectifiers have some fundamental advantages over their half wave rectifier counterparts. The average (DC) output voltage is higher than for half wave, the output of the full wave rectifier has much less ripple than that of the half wave rectifier producing a smoother output waveform. In a Full Wave Rectifier circuit two diodes are now used, one for each half of the cycle. A transformer is used whose secondary winding is split equally into two halves with a common centre tapped connection, (C). This configuration results in each diode conducting in turn when its anode terminal is positive with respect to the transformer centre point C producing an output during both half-cycles, twice that for the half wave rectifier so it is 100% efficient as shown below RECTIFIER FILTER
  17. 17. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 7  SMPS ( Switch Mode Power Supply ) :- Electronic Power Supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a source like the electrical power grid to a load (such as a Personal Computer) while
  18. 18. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 8 converting voltage and current characteristics. An SMPS is usually employed to efficiently provide a regulated output voltage, typically at a level different from the input voltage. Unlike a linear power supply, the past transistor of a switching mode supply continuously switches between low dissipation, full on and full off states, and spends early little time in the high dissipation transitions (which minimize wasted energy). Ideally, a switched mode power supply dissipated no power, voltage regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of to on to off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continuously dissipating power in the pass transistor. This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched mode power supply. Switched mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear power supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight.  LIQUID LEVEL SENSOR :- The Liquid Level Sensors are the probe type sensors which senses the level of liquid in tanks. Whenever the liquid level touches the probes, relay coil is energized. As working voltage of Liquid level Sensor is 12VDC. 12VDC supply is provided through step down transformer, full-wave rectifier and filter circuit. This serves as input to PLC. +24 VDC terminal is connected to the common terminal of relay hence, it gives +24VDC at output which is further connected to the input ports of PLC.
  19. 19. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page1 9  PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER :- Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a controller for this project. It has input as well as output ports. All the Liquid Level Sensors serves as input to PLC. As liquid level sensors senses the liquid level, relay coil is energized and +24VDC reaches to PLC through input module. As we have already loaded program in PLC, it gives output according to user program and hence output devices like indicators, solenoid valves, pump are controlled through output ports. We are using PC (Personal Computer ) as a programming device for PLC.  RELAY UNIT :- Due to high prices of PLC, it is very important to protect PLC from various abnormal conditions. Relay Unit is mainly used for over-current, over-heating and short-circuit protection so that no damage will occur to PLC. We are using five 24VDC general purpose relay in this relay unit. Four of them are use for operating solenoid valves and rest of one is used for operating pump.
  20. 20. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 0 The +24VDC supply from output terminals of PLC is connected to relay coils. Whenever PLC will give signal to output device, relay coil will be energized and hence load will be operated.  OUTPUT DEVICES :- The output devices consists of solenoid valves and pump. The connections for the output devices are taken from relay unit. All the solenoid valves has operating voltage of 24VDC and pump is operated by 230VAC, 50Hz supply.
  21. 21. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 1 LIQUID LEVEL SENSOR
  22. 22. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM  Liquid Level Sensor :  Components of Liquid Level Sensor :- R1 - 470K Ohm R2 - 10M Ohm R3 - 1K Ohm C1, 2, 3, 4 - 2.2 nF 2.2 kpf/ 222 T1 - BC557 PNP Transistor D1, 2, 3 - IN4148 LED - 3mm Red. IC 1 - 4093 Cmos IC 14 Pin IC Socket for IC1 Rly 1 - 12V /1 CO Relay
  23. 23. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 3  Working of Liquid Level Sensor : The actual circuit of the level sensor is extremely simple. The circuit around N1 forms an oscillator. If the two sensors are immersed in a conducting solution, C4 will be charged up via the AC coupling capacitors (C2 and C3) and the diodes so that after a short time the output of N2 is taken low and the relay is pulled in. The relay can be used to start a pump for example, which in turn controls the level of the liquid. When a conductive path between the two sensors no longer exists. C4 discharges via R2 with the result that the output of N2 goes high and the relay drops out. The Relay turns ON or OFF only when a contact between the two electrodes due to presence of water.
  24. 24. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 4 MOTOR CONTROL CIRCUIT
  25. 25. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 5  Circuit Diagram of Motor Control Circuit :- FROM PLC AC SUPPLY TO PUMP P N N P  COMPONENT LIST :- 1. General Purpose Relay : 24VDC coil 2. LED 5mm : Red. 3. LED 5mm : Green. 4. Resistors : 2.2 K ohm  WORKING OF MOTOR CONTROL CIRCUIT :- The working voltage of relay coil is 24VDC. PLC gives 24VDC at it’s output port. The output port of PLC are further connected to relay coil terminals. 230 VAC supply is required to run 230 VAC operated pump. The common terminal is provided with phase wire. When supply is given to relay coil terminals, relay is operated and hence NO terminal of relay turns into NC. These terminal is further provided to pump and hence pump is operated LEDs work as indicators for pump on and pump off condition. Resistors of 2.2 k ohm are provided to drop voltages from 24VDC to 3VDC, because working voltage of LED is 3VDC. Red LED indicates that motor is OFF and Green LED indicates that motor is ON.
  26. 26. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 6 INTRODUCTION TO PLC
  27. 27. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 7  Programmable Logic Controller :-
  28. 28. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 8 A programmable logic controller, which is usually called PLC. More commonly it is known as programmable controller (PC). It is a electronic device operates on digital signal. It is designed and developed for industrial applications, hence known as “Industrial Computer”. PLC was originally designed to replace relay based logic systems and solid-state hard-wired control panels. PLC has advantages over relay based system, that they are easily programmed, more reliable, flexible, relatively inexpensive, and capability to communicate with field computers. Modern PLC’s are powerful and more complex. Programmable logic controllers are used for controlling sequences of events. Hence they are also known as sequential controllers. For example, in the bottle filling system it senses the empty bottles, place the bottles at proper position for filling, fill the bottles at desired locations.
  29. 29. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page2 9 A PLC is defined by National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA, USA): “A programmable logic controller is digitally operated electronics system, designed for use in an industrial environment , which used a programmable memory for the internal storage of user oriented instructions for implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic to control, through digital or analog inputs and outputs, various types of machines or processes”.  ELEMENTS OF PLC :- o The PLC consists of following elements:  Processor (CPU)  Memory  Programming Device  Input Module  Output Module  Power Supply
  30. 30. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3 0  Processor ( CPU ) :- All Programmable Logic Controller contains a Central Processing Unit (CPU). This is the microprocessor that controls and supervises the entire process. The CPU solves the users program and updates the status of the outputs. It executes the various logic and sequencing functions. It is controller of a PLC. During the program executing the processor reads the inputs, takes these values and according to control application program, energizes or de-energizes the outputs, thus solving the ladder network. Once the logic has been solved, the processor will update the outputs. The process of reading the inputs, executing the control application program, and updating the output is known as SCAN. PLC’s are categorized by scan time. Typical scan timer ranges between 1 to 100 milliseconds. e.g. Z80, 8086, 9900, 286, 386, 486 family are some of the CPUs.
  31. 31. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3 1  Memory :- Which contains the program of logic, sequencing, and other input/output operations. The memory of PLC may range from 1KB to 64Kb of storage capacity. PLC memory is divided in two categories: System memory (operating system) and application memory. System program is stored in ROM. Application program is stored in RAM.  Programming Device :- The PLC is programmed by means of a programming device. Through programming device the programmer or operator can enter or edit program instructions or data. The basic elements of a programming device are keyboard, visual display, microprocessor and communication cable. It is detachable from PLC cabinet so that it can be shared between controllers. Different PLC manufacturers provide different devices. It can be handheld programming unit or a personal computer or industrial programming terminal. The programming device (terminal) is normally connected only to the programmable controller system during programming or during troubleshooting of the control systems. Otherwise the programming device is disconnected from the system. Functions of programming terminal are :-  Create and transfer the user program to PLCs memory.  Debug the user program and control systems start up  Perform installation diagnostics  The most common programming device are as follows:  Hand held programming unit  Industrial programming terminal  Personal computer
  32. 32. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3 2  Hand held programming unit :- The hand held programmers are inexpensive and portable units, normally used to program small PLC’s. Most of these units resemble portable calculators, bit with larger displays and a somewhat different keyword. The displays are generally LED or matrix LCD and the keyboard consist of alphanumeric keys, Programming instruction keys, and special function keys. Even through they are mainly used for inputting and editing the control program, the programmable devices are also used for testing, changing and monitoring the program. Hand-Held Programming unit is a ideal service tool and programmer for PLC that easily and conveniently travels to the controller’s location. With this device user can :  Monitor and troubleshoot controller operation  Create, enter, and modify application programs  Transfer programs between controllers
  33. 33. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3 3  Typical Specifications of hand-held programming unit :- Operator Power 85 mA @ 24 Vdc Operating Temperature 0 to 60`C Operating Humidity 6 to 95% Display Type 2*16 LCD Keypad 25 ribbon/carbon based keys Dimensions in mm Width-96, Height-180, Depth-36  Industrial Programming Terminal :- 
  34. 34. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3 4 The industrial programming terminal is an intelligent device that not only displays the control program but also provides program editing functions independent of the programmable controllers. The industrial programmer normally has cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, programs, and its own internal memory to create, alter and monitor programs. The CRT is powerful tool for programming, since the control program can be edited and viewed being connected to a programmable controller.
  35. 35. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3 5  Personal Computer :- The latest innovations in programming terminals is the personal computer type. This unit has all features of industrial terminals such as program editing and storage. But, they also have added features such as automatic, program printouts and connection to Local Area Networks (LAN’s). LAN gives the programmer or engineer access to any programmable controllers in the network, so that any device in the network can be monitored and controlled. Small portable computer, Laptop is also being used for programming PLC.  Input Module :- Input modules serve as the link between field input devices and the PLC’s CPU. Each modules has terminal block for attaching input wiring from each individual field input device. The main function of an input module is to take the field device input signal, convert it to a signal level that the CPU can work with, electrically isolate it, and send the signal by the way of the backplane board, to the Input module is a electronic circuit, which interface the field input devices to PLC’s CPU.
  36. 36. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3 6  Output Module :- Output module serves the link between the PLC’s CPU and field output devices. Each module has a terminal block for attaching output wiring to go to each individual field output device. The main function of an output module is to take the CPU’s control signal (sent by way of the backplane), electrically isolate it, and energize or de-energize the modules switching device to turn on or turn off the output field device. Typical output modules have either 8, 16 or 32 output terminals. Output module is electronic circuit, which interface field output devices to PLC’s CPU.  Power Supply :- The power supply converts AC line voltages, to power the electronic circuit in a programmable controller systems. These power supplies consists of rectifier, filter and regulated voltages and currents, to supply the correct amount of voltages and current to the system. The power supply converts 230VAC line voltage into direct current voltages such as +5 or +-15 or +24V.
  37. 37. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3 7 The power supply for PLC may be integrated with the processor, memory, and I/O modules into a single housing, or it might be a separate unit connected to the system through a cable. The power supply is designed for the higher temperature and humidity as PLC is used in industrial environment. It is designed to eliminate the electrical noise present on AC power or signal lines of industrial plants, so that the noise does not introduce errors in the control system.  PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES FOR PLC :- The programming languages allows the users to communicate with PLC via programming device  Ladder Diagram Language :- The Ladder diagram (LAD) is the most common programmable controller language. It consists of instructions that will perform the most basic type of control functions :  Relay-type logic  Timing and counting  Basic math operations. However, depending on the programmable controller model, the instruction set may be extended or enhanced to perform other operations. These additional functions are used analog control, data manipulation, reporting, complex, control logic, and other functions. LAD is a symbolic instruction set that is used to create a programmable controller program. It is composed of six categories of instructions: relay type, timer/counter, data manipulation arithmetic, data transfer, and program control.
  38. 38. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3 8 The main function of the LAD program is to control outputs based on input conditions. This control is accomplished through the use of what is referred to as ladder rung. A ladder logic rung consists of a set of inputs conditions that are represented by relay contact type instructions and, at the end of the rung, an output instructions, which is represented by the relay coil symbols. Coil and contacts are the basic symbols of the ladder diagram instruction set. The contact symbols programmed in a given rung represent conditions that need to be evaluated to determine how the output should be controlled. All discrete outputs are represented by coil symbols.  Instruction List Language :- It is the assembly level language of any microprocessor/computer where operations mnemonics are used to describe the various operations performed. The assembly language is used to express the logic of PLC.
  39. 39. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page3 9 Instruction Mnemonic Input / Output LD/OUT or OUT NOT/STO Arithmetic ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV Timer TIM Counter CTU, CTD Compare CMP LD A AD B OUT D Accept the input from input device A, and perform logical AND operations with status of input device B and send this output to output device D.  Higher Level Language :- Computer Type Languages (CTL) are languages are languages that employ English statements and instructions. They are usually similar to BASIC. Several manufacturers use BASIC as their programming language for PLCs. Most CTLs are easier than BASIC. They are user friendly and operator-oriented. They are easier for operator to understand. The LET, INPUT, READ, DATA instructions are similar to the ladder contact symbols. The LET instruction is used to assign a number value to a variable.
  40. 40. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 0 ADVANTAGES OF PLC
  41. 41. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 1  ADVANTAGES OF PLC :- Industries that exist right now, the presence of PLC is necessary especially to replace the wiring or cabling systems that previously were used in controlling a system. By using the PLC will get many benefits which are as follows:- Industries that exist right now, the presence of PLC is necessary especially to replace the wiring or cabling systems that previously were used in controlling a system. By using the PLC will get many benefits which are as follows:-  Small size :- They are usually very compact and do not have large space requirement.  Suitable modular design : Elements of PLC are in modular form. PLC is designed easily using these modules.  Rugged construction : It is rugged enough to operate in an industrial environment.  Greater reliability : According to logic in a program, the operations are performed bu it.  Interfacing easy : The input and output modules are provided for interfacing the input and output field devices to it.  Ease of programming : The powerful instructions are provided for programming the PLC. It is programmed with a minimum time by using these instructions.
  42. 42. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 2  Reprogrammed easily :- It is programmed with a minimum time downtime.  Ability to communication with plant computers, another PLC :- It communicate with data collection system (plant computer) placed in control room or field. One PLC can communicate to other.  Relatively inexpensive :- Relatively inexpensive than hardwired relay control.  Maintenance easier :- It is modular systems, hence maintained easily and it has self diagnostic facility.  Correcting Errors:- In old days, with wired relay-type panels, any program alterations required time for rewiring of panels and devices. With PLC control any change in circuit design or sequence is as simple as retyping the logic. Correcting errors in PLC is extremely short and cost effective.  Space Efficient:- Today's Programmable Logic Control memory is getting bigger and bigger this means that we can generate more and more contacts, coils, timers, sequencers, counters and so on. We can have thousands of contact timers and counters in a single PLC. Imagine what it would be like to have so many things in one panel.  Testing :- A Programmable Logic Control program can be tested and evaluated in a lab. The program can be tested, validated and corrected saving very valuable time.
  43. 43. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 3  Visual Observation :- When running a PLC program a visual operation can be seen on the screen. Hence troubleshooting a circuit is really quick, easy and simple.  Flexible :- In the past, each different electronic device controlled by each controller. Suppose ten machines require ten controllers, but now with only one tenth PLC machine can be run with each program.  Changes and error correction system easier :- If one system will be modified or corrected, the change is only done on the programs contained in computers, in a relatively short time, after that it downloaded to the PLC. If not using a PLC, for example relays the amendments made by altering the wiring cables. This course takes a long time.  Number of contacts many :- Number of contacts held by the PLC on each coil is more than the contacts held by a relay.  Low cost :- PLC is capable of simplifying a lot of cabling compared to a relay. So the price of a PLC at a price cheaper than some fruit relay capable of doing the wiring for the same amount with a PLC. PLC includes relays, timers, counters, sequencers, and other functions.
  44. 44. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 4  Operating speed :- PLC operation speed is faster than the relay. Speed PLC scan time is determined by its in units of milliseconds.  Resistant character test :- Solid state devices are more resistant than the relay and test mechanical or electrical timers. PLC is a solid state device that is more resistant test.  Simplifies the control system components :- The PLC also have counters, relays and other components, so it does not require components such as additional. Use of relays requires counters, timers or other components as additional equipment.  Documentation :- Printout of the PLC can be directly obtained and do not need to see the blueprint of his circuit. Unlike the printout relay circuit cannot be obtained.  Security Changing the PLC cannot be done unless the PLC is not locked and programmed. So there is no unauthorized person can change the PLC program for a PLC is locked.
  45. 45. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 5  Can make changes by reprogramming :- Since the PLC can be programmed quickly reset the production process that mixes can be completed. For example part B will be executed but sections of A is still in the process, the process in section B can be re-programmed in seconds.  Addition of faster circuits :- Users can add a circuit controller at any time quickly, without requiring great effort and cost as in conventional controllers.
  46. 46. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 6 DISADVANTAGES OF PLC
  47. 47. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 7  DISADVANTAGES :-  PLC require modules for interfacing of various input and output device.  PLC is designed for relay logic ladder and have difficulty with some smart devices.  Programming, operation, troubleshooting of PLC, training is required.  The technology is still new :- Changing the old control system using relay ladder or to a PLC computer concept is difficult for some people  Bad for the application programs that remain :- Some applications are applications with a single function. On application by one function rarely done did not even change at all, so the use of PLC in applications with a single function will be a waste (cost).  Environmental considerations :- In a process, the environment may experience a high heat, vibration direct contact with electrical appliances within the PLC and this event continuously, thus disrupting the performance of the PLC is not functioning optimally.  Operating with a fixed circuit :- If the circuit in an operation are not changed then the use of more expensive PLC compared with other control equipment. PLC will be more effective if the program on the process to be upgraded periodically.
  48. 48. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 8 SOLENOID VALVE
  49. 49. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page4 9  SOLENOID VALVE A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a two- port valve the flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow
  50. 50. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 0 is switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold. Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas. Solenoids offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long service life, good medium compatibility of the materials used, low control power and compact design. Besides the plunger-type actuator which is used most frequently, pivoted- armature actuators and rocker actuators are also used. A solenoid valve has two main parts: the solenoid and the valve. The solenoid converts electrical energy into mechanical energy which, in turn, opens or closes the valve mechanically. A direct acting valve has only a small flow circuit, shown within section E of this diagram (this section is mentioned below as a pilot valve). This diaphragm piloted valve multiplies this small flow by using it to control the flow through a much larger orifice. Solenoid valves may use metal seals or rubber seals, and may also have electrical interfaces to allow for easy control. A spring may be used to hold the valve opened or closed while the valve is not activated.
  51. 51. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 1 A- Input side B- Diaphragm C- Pressure chamber D- Pressure relief conduit E- Solenoid F- Output side The diagram to the right shows the design of a basic valve. At the top figure is the valve in its closed state. The water under pressure enters at A. B is an elastic diaphragm and above it is a weak spring pushing it down. The function of this spring is irrelevant for now as the valve would stay closed even without it. The diaphragm has a pinhole through its center which allows a very small amount of water to flow through it. This water fills the cavity C on the other side of the diaphragm so that pressure is equal on both sides of the diaphragm, however the compressed spring supplies a net downward force. The spring is weak and is only able to close the inlet because water pressure is equalised on both sides of the diaphram.
  52. 52. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 2 In the previous configuration the small conduit D was blocked by a pin which is the armature of the solenoid E and which is pushed down by a spring. If the solenoid is activated by drawing the pin upwards via magnetic force from the solenoid current, the water in chamber C will flow through this conduit D to the output side of the valve. The pressure in chamber C will drop and the incoming pressure will lift the diaphragm thus opening the main valve. Water now flows directly from A to F. When the solenoid is again deactivated and the conduit D is closed again, the spring needs very little force to push the diaphragm down again and the main valve closes. In practice there is often no separate spring, the elastomer diaphragm is moulded so that it functions as its own spring, preferring to be in the closed shape. From this explanation it can be seen that this type of valve relies on a differential of pressure between input and output as the pressure at the input must always be greater than the pressure at the output for it to work. Should the pressure at the output, for any reason, rise above that of the input then the valve would open regardless of the state of the solenoid and pilot valve. In some solenoid valves the solenoid acts directly on the main valve. Others use a small, complete solenoid valve, known as a pilot, to actuate a larger valve. While the second type is actually a solenoid valve combined with a pneumatically actuated valve, they are sold and packaged as a single unit referred to as a solenoid valve. Piloted valves require much less power to control, but they are noticeably slower. Piloted solenoids usually need full power at all times to open and stay open, where a direct acting solenoid may only need full power for a short period of time to open it, and only low power to hold it.
  53. 53. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 3  Types Many variations are possible on the basic, one way, one solenoid valve described above :  One or Two Solenoid Valves;  Direct Current or Alternating Current powered;  Different number of ways and positions;  Common uses Solenoid valves are used in fluid power pneumatic and hydraulic systems, to control cylinders, fluid power motors or larger industrial valves. Automatic irrigation sprinkler systems also use solenoid valves with an automatic controller. Domestic washing machines and dishwashers use solenoid valves to control water entry to the machine. In the paintball industry, solenoid valves are usually referred to simply as "solenoids." They are commonly used to control a larger valve used to control the propellant (usually compressed air or CO2).Solenoid valves are used in dental chairs to control air flow. In the industry solenoid" may also refer to an electromechanical solenoid commonly used to actuate a sear. Besides controlling the flow of air and fluids solenoids are used in pharmacology experiments, especially for patch-clamp, which can control the application of agonist or antagonist.
  54. 54. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 4 PCB DESIGNING
  55. 55. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 5  PCB DESIGNING PCB for any given type of equipment’s is very important and so to prepare the PCB is much more important. To make PCB, the systematic procedure is given below :-  To design the circuit.  To trace the circuit design on copper board.  To print the tracks.  To give bath of FeCL3 ( Ferric Chloride ) to copper board.  To remove the paint of copper board.  To drill holes for different components.  To mount the components. The same procedure has been followed by us and PCB dubbing mixture was prepared.
  56. 56. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 6  Design the circuit :- For this purpose we have used smart work PCB designing package. This package is used for designing the whole PCB. It can make, as much pads as per we want for several component placement. And even this package has facility of joining any pads to any connection. So using this package the PCB is designed for the audio dubbing mixture.  Trace this circuit on copper board :- This procedure can be done using a carbon paper. A carbon paper is placed between the circuit, design paper and the copper side of PCB. So, any design we make on the design paper is going to the traced on the copper board. By this we should trace full circuit on the copper board.  Paint the pads and tracks of the circuit :- Now, the trace circuit on the copper board should be painted by enamel paint. So that we can give ferric chloride. So, we have painted all the tracks and pads of components. Note :- These three procedures are known as ARTWORK of the PCB. And below three procedures is known as ETCHING WORK.  Give a bath of ferric chloride to the copper board :- This procedure is to be done or not get only the track and pads of the components of the whole circuit and to dissolve all excess copper from the board. So, we are giving a both of ferric chloride to the printed board. So that all excess copper should be dissolved. And after giving bath we should dry the board which contains tracks and pads.
  57. 57. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 7  Remove paint from the copper board :- After the board is dried and the excess copper is fully dissolved. Paint on the tracks and pads should be taken off and the tracks and pads should be visible.  Drill holes on pads :- The pads for different component should be drilled to place the components through the holes so the hole is being drilled pads from the copper side.  Mounting of components on PCB :- This procedure is called as assembling the PCB and this is the last procedure after preparing the PCB. The component is being fitted to their respective places and it is soldered properly. So at the end of this procedure we will get the proper manufactured printed circuit board.  Soldering Techniques :- To achieve a solder joint, the solder and the base metal must be heated above the melting point of the solid used. The method, by which the necessary heat is applied, depends among other things on  Nature and type of the point  Melting temperature of the solder.  Flux
  58. 58. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 8 PCB LAYOUT OF PROJECT
  59. 59. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page5 9
  60. 60. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 0 PCB LAYOUT FOR RELAY UNIT
  61. 61. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 1
  62. 62. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 2 PLC PROGRAMMING
  63. 63. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 3 LADDER PROGRAMMING  Logic :- 1. When the NO push button is pushed , the process starts. 2. When high level of Tank one is sensed, Solenoid 1 gets OFF. 3. When low level of Tank 2 is sensed, Solenoid 2 is ON and whenever high level is reached, Solenoid 2 gets OFF. 4. When low level of Tank 3 is sensed, Solenoid 3 gets ON and whenever high level is reached , Solenoid 3 gets OFF. 5. If any solenoid is operated, Pump should be operated. 6. As soon as low level of Source Tank is reached, Pump should get automatically OFF. 7. If already high level of Source Tank is reached, Solenoid 4 (BMC Water Supply) should get automatically OFF. 8. When NC push button is pushed, the process should stop working.  Input / Output List :-  Input List:- Input Address Description I:0/0 START push button- NO Contact I:0/1 STOP push button- NC Contact. I:0/2 High Level of Tank 1 I:0/3 Low Level of Tank 2 I:0/4 High Level of Tank 2 I:0/5 Low Level of Tank 3 I:0/6 High Level of Tank 3 I:0/7 Low Level of Source Tank I:0/8 High Level of Source Tank
  64. 64. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 4  Output List :- Output Address Description O:0/0 Solenoid 1 for Tank 1 O:0/1 Solenoid 2 for Tank 2 O:0/2 Solenoid 2 for Tank 3 O:0/3 Pump Operating Relay O:0/4 Solenoid 4 for Source Tank  Ladder Diagram :- 
  65. 65. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 5 ADVANTAGES
  66. 66. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 6 ADVANTAGES :-  Low power consumption  Simple construction i.e. compact and elegant design.  High efficiency.  Save Water  Save motor from dry running and increase its life.  System is accurate.  Less Maintenance.  Easily installed.  No man power  It gives fast response.
  67. 67. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 7 DISADVANTAGES
  68. 68. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 8 DISADVANTAGES  Moisture can affect the sensitivity  Cleaning of probes is required due to oxidation problems.  It can not be used for uncovered tanks during rainy season.
  69. 69. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page6 9 APPLICATIONS
  70. 70. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 0 APPLICATIONS  In house-hold tanks.  In difficult to access over head tanks.  In industries for liquid level sensing and controlling.  In hotels, apartments. hospitals, offices, hotels and all commercial sectors.  In many plants to ensure continuous water supply.  In industries for automation purpose.  In difficult to access over-head tanks.
  71. 71. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 1 FUTURE SCOPE
  72. 72. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 2  FUTURE SCOPE PLC Based Automatic Liquid level Controller is a very popular project. If it is used for commercial purpose in various industries so many modifications are possible in this circuit.  Wireless operation can be provided.  GSM control can also be provided.  For industrial purpose all advanced version of the circuit is required. For this  SCADA based liquid level controller can also be used.  Timing operation can also be provided by using timer circuits.  We can connect alarm and thus we can get audio indication also, which is more easier.  We can go by simple hardware circuit also by introducing stainless steel sensors.  This project can be implemented by using PID Controller.
  73. 73. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 3 COST OF PROJECT
  74. 74. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 4 COST OF PROJECT COST OF PROJECT WITH COMPONENT LIST SR NO. COMPONENT QUANTITY PRICE TOTAL 1 Resistors 24 0.50 12 2 Capacitors 2.2kpf 32 3 96 3 Capacitor 25v/1000uf 1 4 4 4 Transistor BC557 8 2 16 5 Diode IN4007 2 0.50 1 6 Diode IN4148 32 0.50 16 7 IC 4093 8 6.50 52 8 IC Base 8 1.40 11.20 9 Transformer 12-0-12 1A 1 65 65 10 Relay 12vdc 8 9.50 76 11 Relay 24vdc 5 16 80
  75. 75. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 5 12 LED 5mm 8 1 8 13 Solenoid Valve 24vdc 4 465 1860 14 Pump 230VAC 18W 1 250 250 15 PCB 1 65 65 16 Connecting Wires 5m 18 90 17 Connectors PBT 2 50 3 150 18 Connectors PBT 3 10 5 50 19 PCB Etching Ferrous Chloride 1 20 20 20 Connecting Wire Single Strand 4 35 140 21 Mini Ball Valve 3 75 225 22 T joint 10mm 4 32 128 23 L-joint 2 28 56 24 Teplon Tape 1 10 10 25 Pipe Connectors 12 22 264 26 M-seal 4 5 20
  76. 76. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 6 27 Bucket 1 90 90 28 Tanks 3 80 240 29 Nuts 8 3 24 TOTAL Rs. 4103.2 In above estimation and costing PLC cost and SMPS costs are not included.
  77. 77. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 7 SPECIFICATIONS
  78. 78. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 8 SPECIFICATIONS OF COMPONENTS Pump :- Specifications of pump Working Voltage 230 VAC Working Frequency 50 Hz / 60 Hz Current Rating up to 80 mA Wattage 18 W Transformer :-
  79. 79. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page7 9 Specifications of transformer Type Centre-tapped step down transformer Primary Voltage 230 VAC Secondary Voltage 12 VAC Current Rating 1 A Relays :-
  80. 80. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 0 Specifications of 12VDC operated relay Coil Voltage 12 VDC Current Rating 60 mA Power Consumption 0.72 W Controlling Voltage and Current Rating A.C. Voltage and Current 250 VAC, 7A A.C. Voltage and Current 120 VAC, 12A D.C. Voltage and Current 24VDC, 10A Specifications of 24VDC operated relay Coil Voltage 24VDC Current Rating 30 mA Power Consumption 0.72 W
  81. 81. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 1 Controlling Voltage and Current A.C. Voltage and Current 300 VAC, 7A A.C. Voltage and Current 125 VAC, 1OA D.C. Voltage and Current 28VDC, 10A Solenoid Valve :- Specifications of Solenoid Valves Working Voltage 24VDC Current Consumption 60 mA Power Consumption 0.72 W
  82. 82. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 2 Diode:- IN4007 Specifications as per datasheets. IN4148
  83. 83. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 3 Capacitors :-
  84. 84. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 4 IC 4093 :-
  85. 85. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 5 Transistor :-
  86. 86. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 6 LED :-
  87. 87. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 7 PCB Connectors :- Resistors :-
  88. 88. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 8
  89. 89. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page8 9 RESULT AND CONCLUSION
  90. 90. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page9 0 RESULT :-  When water level of Tank 1 is below high level , Solenoid Valve 1 and pump is operated.  When water level of Tank 2 is below low level, Solenoid Valve 2 and pump is operated and when it is reached at high level Solenoid 2 gets OFF.  When water level of Tank 3 is below low level, Solenoid Valve 3 and pump is operated and when it is reached at high level Solenoid 3 gets OFF.  Whenever any solenoid valve is operated, Pump starts .  When all the solenoids are OFF, Pump gets automatically OFF.  Whenever water level of Source Tank goes below it’s high level Solenoid Valve 4 (BMC Valve ) is operated.  Whenever water of source tank is reached below low level, process goes automatically OFF. CONCLUSION :-  Water level is controlled automatically without any manual operations.  Operations are controlled by changing program according to our need and requirements.
  91. 91. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page9 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  92. 92. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page9 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books:- 1. Electrical Design by K.B.Raina and Bhattacharya. 2. Electrical Machines by B.L.Theraja. 3. Control of Machines by Bhattacharya. 4. Programmable Logic Controller by V.R.Jadhav. Websites:- 1. www.wikipedia.com 2. www.circuitstoday.com 3. www.seminarprojects.com 4. www.alibaba.com 5. www.nxp.com 6. www.datasheetarchive.com 7. www.vishay.com
  93. 93. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page9 3 DATASHEETS
  94. 94. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page9 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  95. 95. PLC BASED MULTICHANNEL AUTOMATIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Page9 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We take this opportunity to express our deep gratitude to the respected principal Prof. D. P. Nathe and head of department (Electrical Engineering) Prof. C.Y. Totewar for permitting and encouraging us to take up this project work and complete it successfully. We also thank to our project guide Prof. C.Y. Totewar, Prof. M.P. Deshpande, Prof.Shinde, Prof. Bhanu Bandi and Avinash Dabhade who initialized and set the movement for our project. We also thank to all our faculty members teaching and non-teaching staff of Electrical Department as well as Instrumentation Department who offered their valuable time, guidance, assistance directly or indirectly to carry out the project successfully. We also thank our college library for the valuable books issued by them while preparing this report. BY NAME ENROLLMENT NO. 1) Badgujar Vijay S. 0900003 2) Waghule Sagar N. 0900062 3) Survase Sachin S. 0900056 4) Patil Mohit N. 0900045 5) Narwade Pravin 0910005

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