THE EMERGENCE OF NATIONALISMA NATION IN THE MAKINGFREEDOM IS OUR BIRTHRIGHTTHE GROWTH OF THE MASS NATIONALISM THE ADVENT MAHATMA GANDHITHE ROWLATT SATYAGRAHA
Indian nationalism refers to the manyunderlying forces that molded the Indianindependence movement, and stronglycontinue to influence the politics of India, aswell as being the heart of many contrastingideologies that have caused ethnic andreligious conflict in Indian society. Indiannationalism often imbibes the consciousnessof Indians that prior to 1947, India embodiedthe broader Indian subcontinent andinfluenced a part of Asia, known as GreaterIndia.
The last decades of the 19th century sawthe emergence of nationalism in India.The Indian National Congress wasestablished in 1885 and it soon becamethe spear-head of the Indian NationalistMovement. These developments did notgo unnoticed in Kerala. A conference washeld at Kozhikode in 1904 under theauspices of the Congress and in 1908, adistrict congress committee was formed inMalabar. Beyond this, there was nopolitical activity worth the name inMalabar.
Rise of organized movementsThe decades following the Rebellion were a period of growingpolitical awareness, manifestation of Indian public opinion, andemergence of Indian leadership at both national and provinciallevels. Dadabhai Naoroji formed the East India Association in 1867,and Surendranath Banerjee founded theIndian National Association in 1876.Inspired by a suggestion made by A. O. Hume, a retired British civilservant, seventy-three Indian delegates met in Bombay in 1885 andfounded the Indian National Congress. They were mostly membersof the upwardly mobile and successful western-educated provincialelites, engaged in professions such as law, teaching, andjournalism.
At its inception, the Congress had no well-definedideology and commanded few of the resources essentialto a political organization. Instead, it functioned more asa debating society that met annually to express its loyaltyto the British Raj, and passed numerous resolutions onless controversial issues such as civil rights oropportunities in government (especially in the civilservice). These resolutions were submitted to theViceroys government and occasionally to the BritishParliament, but the Congresss early gains were meager.Despite its claim to represent all India, the Congressvoiced the interests of urban elites; the number ofparticipants from other social and economic backgroundsremained negligible.
The influence of socio-religious groups such asArya Samaj (started by Swami Dayanand Saraswati) andBrahmo Samaj (founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy andothers) became evident in pioneering reforms of Indiansociety. The work of men like Swami Vivekananda,Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Sri Aurobindo,Subramanya Bharathy, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, SirSyed Ahmed Khan, Rabindranath Tagore, andDadabhai Naoroji, as well as women such as the Scots–Irish Sister Nivedita, spread the passion for rejuvenationand freedom. The rediscovery of Indias indigenoushistory by several European and Indian scholars also fedinto the rise of nationalism among Indians.
image of the delegates to the first meeting of the Indian NationalCongress in Bombay, 1885
Swami Dayanand Saraswati was an important Hindu religious scholar,reformer, and founder of the Arya Samaj, a Hindu reform movement.
Rise of Indian nationalism (1885–1905)By 1900, although the Congress had emerged as an all-India politicalorganization, its achievement was undermined by its singular failure toattract Muslims, who felt that their representation in governmentservice was inadequate. Attacks by Hindu reformers against religiousconversion, cow slaughter, and the preservation of Urdu in Arabicscript deepened their concerns of minority status and denial of rights ifthe Congress alone were to represent the people of India. SirSyed Ahmed Khan launched a movement for Muslim regeneration thatculminated in the founding in 1875 of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh (renamedAligarh Muslim University in 1920). Its objective was to educatewealthy students by emphasizing the compatibility of Islam withmodern western knowledge. The diversity among Indias Muslims,however, made it impossible to bring about uniform cultural andintellectual regeneration.
The nationalistic sentiments among Congress members led to themovement to be represented in the bodies of government, to have asay in the legislation and administration of India. Congressmen sawthemselves as loyalists, but wanted an active role in governing theirown country, albeit as part of the Empire. This trend was personifiedby Dadabhai Naoroji, who went as far as contesting, successfully,an election to the British House of Commons, becoming its firstIndian member.Bal Gangadhar Tilak was the first Indian nationalist to embraceSwaraj as the destiny of the nation. Tilak deeply opposed the thenBritish education system that ignored and defamed Indias culture,history and values. He resented the denial of freedom of expressionfor nationalists, and the lack of any voice or role for ordinary Indiansin the affairs of their nation. For these reasons, he consideredSwaraj as the natural and only solution. His popular sentence"Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it" became the source ofinspiration for Indians.
In 1907, the Congress was split into two factions. The radicals led by Tilakadvocated civil agitation and direct revolution to overthrow the British Empireand the abandonment of all things British. The moderates led by leaders likeDadabhai Naoroji and Gopal Krishna Gokhale on the other hand wanted reformwithin the framework of British rule. Tilak was backed by rising public leaderslike Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai, who held the same point of view.Under them, Indias three great states - Maharashtra, Bengal and Punjabshaped the demand of the people and Indias nationalism. Gokhale criticizedTilak for encouraging acts of violence and disorder. But the Congress of 1906did not have public membership, and thus Tilak and his supporters were forcedto leave the party.But with Tilaks arrest, all hopes for an Indian offensive were stalled. TheCongress lost credit with the people. A Muslim deputation met with the Viceroy,Minto (1905–10), seeking concessions from the impending constitutionalreforms, including special considerations in government service and electorates.The British recognized some of the Muslim Leagues petitions by increasing thenumber of elective offices reserved for Muslims in the Indian Councils Act 1909.The Muslim League insisted on its separateness from the Hindu-dominatedCongress, as the voice of a "nation within a nation."
Partition of Bengal, 1905In July 1905, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy and Governor-General (1899–1905), ordered the partition of the province of Bengal supposedly forimprovements in administrative efficiency in the huge and populous region.It also had justifications due to increasing conflicts between Muslims anddominant Hindu regimes in Bengal. However the Indians viewed thepartition as an attempt by the British to disrupt the growing nationalmovement in Bengal and divide the Hindus and Muslims of the region. TheBengali Hindu intelligentsia exerted considerable influence on local andnational politics. The partition outraged Bengalis. Not only had thegovernment failed to consult Indian public opinion, but the action appearedto reflect the British resolve to divide and rule. Widespread agitationensued in the streets and in the press, and the Congress advocatedboycotting British products under the banner of swadeshi. Hindus showedunity by tying Rakhi on each others wrists and observing Arandhan (notcooking any food). During this time Bengali Hindu nationalists begin writingvirulent newspaper articles and were charged with sedition.Brahmabhandav Upadhyay, a Hindu newspaper editor who helped Tagoreestablish his school at Shantiniketan, was imprisoned and the first martyr todie in British custody in the 20th century struggle for independence.
George Curzon, the Viceroy andGovernor-General of India
All India Muslim LeagueThe All India Muslim League was founded by theAll India Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka (now Bangladesh), in 1906, inthe context of the circumstances that were generated over the partition of Bengal in1905. Being a political party to secure the interests of the Muslim diaspora in British India, the Muslim League played a decisive role during the 1940s in the Indian independencemovement and developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan in theIndian subcontinent.In 1906, Muhammad Ali Jinnah joined the Indian National Congress, which was thelargest Indian political organization. Like most of the Congress at the time, Jinnah did notfavour outright independence, considering British influences on education, law, cultureand industry as beneficial to India. Jinnah became a member on the sixty-memberImperial Legislative Council. The council had no real power or authority, and included alarge number of un-elected pro-Raj loyalists and Europeans. Nevertheless, Jinnah wasinstrumental in the passing of the Child Marriages Restraint Act, the legitimization of theMuslim waqf (religious endowments) and was appointed to the Sandhurst committee,which helped establish the Indian Military Academy at Dehra Dun. During World War I,Jinnah joined other Indian moderates in supporting the British war effort, hoping thatIndians would be rewarded with political freedoms.
First World War 1914 – 1918World War I began with an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards theUnited Kingdom from within the mainstream political leadership, contrary to initial Britishfears of an Indian revolt. India contributed massively to the British war effort by providingmen and resources. About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe,Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian government and the princes sent largesupplies of food, money, and ammunition. However, Bengal and Punjab remainedhotbeds of anti colonial activities. Nationalism in Bengal, increasingly closely linked withthe unrests in Punjab, was significant enough to nearly paralyse the regionaladministration. Also from the beginning of the war, expatriate Indian population, notablyfrom United States, Canada, and Germany, headed by the Berlin Committee and theGhadar Party, attempted to trigger insurrections in India on the lines of the 1857 uprisingwith Irish Republican, German and Turkish help in a massive conspiracy that has sincecome to be called the Hindu–German Conspiracy.
This conspiracy also attempted to rally Afghanistan against BritishIndia. A number of failed attempts were made at mutiny, of which theFebruary mutiny plan and the Singapore mutiny remains mostnotable. This movement was suppressed by means of a massiveinternational counter-intelligence operation and draconian politicalacts (including the Defence of India act 1915) that lasted nearly tenyears.In the aftermath of the World War I, high casualty rates, soaringinflation compounded by heavy taxation, a widespread influenzaepidemic, and the disruption of trade during the war escalated humansuffering in India. The Indian soldiers smuggled arms into India tooverthrow the British rule. The pre-war nationalist movement revivedas moderate and extremist groups within the Congress submergedtheir differences in order to stand as a unified front. In 1916, theCongress succeeded in forging the Lucknow Pact, a temporaryalliance with the Muslim League over the issues of devolution ofpolitical power and the future of Islam in the region.
The British themselves adopted a "carrot and stick" approach in recognition ofIndias support during the war and in response to renewed nationalist demands.In August 1917, Edwin Montagu, the secretary of state for India, made thehistoric announcement in Parliament that the British policy for India was"increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration and thegradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to theprogressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part ofthe British Empire." The means of achieving the proposed measure were laterenshrined in the Government of India Act 1919, which introduced the principleof a dual mode of administration, or diarchy, in which both elected Indianlegislators and appointed British officials shared power. The act also expandedthe central and provincial legislatures and widened the franchise considerably.Diarchy set in motion certain real changes at the provincial level: a number ofnon-controversial or "transferred" portfolios, such as agriculture, localgovernment, health, education, and public works, were handed over to Indians,while more sensitive matters such as finance, taxation, and maintaining la w andorder were retained by the provincial British administrators.
Gandhi arrives in IndiaMohandas Karamchand Gandhi (also known as Mahatma Gandhi), hadbeen a prominent leader of the anti-Apartheid movement in South Africa,and had been a vocal opponent of basic discrimination and abusive labourtreatment as well as suppressive police controlsuch as the Rowlatt Acts. During these protests, Gandhi had perfected the concept of satyagraha, which had been inspired by the philosophy of Baba Ram Singh (famous forleading the Kuka Movement in the Punjab in 1872). The end of the protests in South Africa saw oppressive legislation repealed and therelease of political prisoners by General JanSmuts, head of the South African Governmentof the time.
Gandhi returned to India, on 6 January 1915 and initially entered the politicalfray not with calls for a nation-state, but in support of the unified commerce-oriented territory that the Congress Party had been asking for. Gandhi believedthat the industrial development and educational development that theEuropeans had brought with them were required to alleviate many of Indiasproblems. Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a veteran Congressman and Indian leader,became Gandhis mentor. Gandhis ideas and strategies of non-violent civildisobedience initially appeared impractical to someIndians and Congressmen. In Gandhis own words,"civil disobedience is civil breach of unmoralstatutory enactments." It had to be carried outnon-violently by withdrawing cooperation withthe corrupt state. Gandhis ability to inspire millions of common people became clearwhen he used satyagraha during the anti-Rowlatt Act protests in Punjab. Gandhi hadgreat respect to Lokmanya Tilak. His programmeswere all Inspired by Tilaks "Chatusutri" programme.
Gandhi’s vision would soon bring millions of regular Indians into themovement, transforming it from an elitist struggle to a national one. Thenationalist cause was expanded to include the interests and industriesthat formed the economy of common Indians. For example, inChamparan, Bihar, Gandhi championed the plight of desperately poorsharecroppers and landless farmers who were being forced to pay oppressive taxes andgrow cash crops at the expense of the subsistence crops which formed their food supply. The profits from the crops theygrew were insufficient to provide for theirsustenance.
Gandhi in 1918, at the time of the Khedaand Champaran satyagrahas
Rowlatt ActThe positive impact of reform was seriously undermined in 1919 by the RowlattAct, named after the recommendations made the previous year to the ImperialLegislative Council by the Rowlatt Commission, which had been appointed toinvestigate what was termed the "seditious conspiracy" and the German andBolshevik involvement in the militant movements in India. The Rowlatt Act, alsoknown as the Black Act, vested the Viceroys government with extraordinarypowers to quell sedition by silencing the press, detaining the political activistswithout trial, and arresting any individuals suspected of sedition or treasonwithout a warrant. In protest, a nationwide cessation of work (hartal) was called,marking the beginning of widespread, although not nationwide, populardiscontent. The agitation unleashed by the acts culminated on 13 April 1919, inthe Jallianwala Bagh massacre (also known as the Amritsar Massacre) inAmritsar, Punjab. The British military commander, Brigadier-General ReginaldDyer, blocked the main entrance-cum-exit, and ordered his soldiers to fire intoan unarmed and unsuspecting crowd of some 5,000 men, women and children.They had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh, a walled courtyard in defiance of theban. A total of 1,651 rounds were fired, killing 379 people (as according to anofficial British commission; Indian estimates ranged as high as 1,499) andwounding 1,137 in the episode, which dispelled wartime hopes of home ruleand goodwill in a frenzy of post-war reaction.
To curb dissent, in 1919 the British passed the Rowlatt acts.
Khilafat MovementThe Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic, politicalcampaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the Britishgovernment and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath ofWorld War I. The position of Caliph after the Armistice of Mudros ofOctober 1918 with the military occupation of Istanbul and Treaty ofVersailles (1919) fell into a disambiguation along with the OttomanEmpires existence. The movement gained force after the Treaty ofSèvres (August 1920) which solidified the partitioning of the OttomanEmpire.In India, although mainly a Muslim religious movement, the movementbecame a part of the wider Indian independence movement. Themovement was a topic in Conference of London (February 1920).
The non-cooperation movementsIt can be argued that the independencemovement, even towards the end ofFirst World War, was far removed fromthe masses of India, focusingessentially on a unified commerce-oriented territory and hardly a call for aunited nation. That came in the 1930swith the entry of MohandasKaramchand Gandhi into Indian Politicsin 1915.
The first non-cooperation movementAt the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, Gandhiconvinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperationmovement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj (self rule). Thefirst satyagraha movement urged the use of khadi and Indian materialas alternatives to those shipped from Britain. It also urged people toboycott British educational institutions and law courts; resign fromgovernment employment; refuse to pay taxes; and forsake British titlesand honours. Although this came too late to influence the framing ofthe new Government of India Act 1919, the movement enjoyedwidespread popular support, and the resulting unparalleled magnitudeof disorder presented a serious challenge to foreign rule. However,Gandhi called off the movement following the Chauri Chaura incident,which saw the death of twenty-two policemen at the hands of an angrymob.
Membership in the party was opened to anyoneprepared to pay a token fee, and a hierarchy ofcommittees was established and made responsible fordiscipline and control over a hitherto amorphous anddiffuse movement. The party was transformed from anelite organization to one of mass national appeal andparticipation.Gandhi was sentenced in 1922 to six years of prison, butwas released after serving two. On his release fromprison, he set up the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad,on the banks of river Sabarmati, established thenewspaper Young India, and inaugurated a series ofreforms aimed at the socially disadvantaged withinHindu society — the rural poor, and the untouchables.
This era saw the emergence of new generation of Indians from withinthe Congress Party, including C. Rajagopalachari, Jawaharlal Nehru,Vallabhbhai Patel, Subhash Chandra Bose and others- who wouldlater on come to form the prominent voices of the Indianindependence movement, whether keeping with Gandhian Values, ordiverging from it.The Indian political spectrum was further broadened in the mid-1920sby the emergence of both moderate and militant parties, such as theSwaraj Party, Hindu Mahasabha, Communist Party of India and theRashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Regional political organizations alsocontinued to represent the interests of non-Brahmins in Madras,Mahars in Maharashtra, and Sikhs in Punjab. However, people likeMahakavi Subramanya Bharathi, Vanchinathan and NeelakandaBrahmachari played a major role from Tamil Nadu in both freedomstruggle and fighting for equality for all castes and communities.
Sabarmati Ashram today, this ashram is now a national monument establishedby the Government of India
March to DandiOn March 12, 1930, Gandhi and 78 satyagrahis set out onfoot for the coastal village of Dandi, Gujarat, over 390kilometers (240 mi) from their starting point at SabarmatiAshram. According to The Statesman, the officialgovernment newspaper which usually played down thesize of crowds at Gandhis functions, 100,000 peoplecrowded the road that separated Sabarmati fromAhmedabad. The first days march of 21 kilometers(13 mi) ended in the village of Aslali, where Gandhi spoketo a crowd of about 4,000. At Aslali, and the other villagesthat the march passed through, volunteers collecteddonations, registered new satyagrahis, and receivedresignations from village officials who chose to endcooperation with British rule.
As they entered each village, crowds greeted the marchers, beatingdrums and cymbals. Gandhi gave speeches attacking the salt tax asinhuman, and the salt satyagraha as a "poor mans battle." Each nightthey slept in the open. The only thing that was asked of the villagerswas food and and water to wash with. Gandhi felt that this would bringthe poor into the battle for independence, necessary for eventualvictory.Thousands of satyagrahis and leaders like Sarojini Naidu joined him.Every day, more and more people joined the march, till the processionof marchers became at least two miles long. To keep up their spirits, themarchers used to sing the Hindu bhajan Raghupati Raghava Raja Ramwhile walking. At Surat, they were greeted by 30,000 people. When theyreached the railhead at Dandi, more than 50,000 were gathered.Gandhi gave interviews and wrote articles along the way. Foreignjournalists made him a household name in Europe and America. TheNew York Times wrote almost daily about the Salt March, including twofront page articles on April 6 and April 7. Near the end of the march,Gandhi declared, "I want world sympathy in this battle of Right against
The following morning, after a prayer,Gandhi raised a lump of salty mud anddeclared, "With this, I am shaking thefoundations of the British Empire." Hethen boiled it in seawater, producingillegal salt. He implored his thousandsof followers to likewise begin makingsalt along the seashore, "wherever it isconvenient" and to instruct villagers inmaking illegal, but necessary, salt.
MAHATMA GANDHI BREAKING THE SALT LAW BY PICKINGUP A LUMP OF NATURAL SALT
Purna SwarajFollowing the rejection of the recommendations of the Simon Commission byIndians, an all-party conference was held at Bombay in May 1928. This wasmeant to instill a sense of resistance among people. The conference appointeda drafting committee under Motilal Nehru to draw up a constitution for India.The Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress asked the Britishgovernment to accord dominion status to India by December 1929, or acountrywide civil disobedience movement would be launched. By 1929,however, in the midst of rising political discontent and increasingly violentregional movements, the call for complete independence from Britain began tofind increasing grounds within the Congress leadership. Under the presidencyof Jawaharlal Nehru at its historic Lahore session in December 1929, the IndianNational Congress adopted a resolution calling for complete independencefrom the British. It authorised the Working Committee to launch a civildisobedience movement throughout the country. It was decided that 26January 1930 should be observed all over India as the Purna Swaraj (totalindependence) Day. Many Indian political parties and Indian revolutionaries ofa wide spectrum united to observe the day with honour and pride.
Karachi congress session-1931 A specialsession was held to endorse the Gandhi-Irwin or Delhi Pact. The goal of Purnaswaraj was reiterated. Two resolutionswere adopted-one on Fundamental rightsand other on National Economicprogramme. which made the sessionperticularly memmorable.This was the first time the congress speltout what swaraj would mean for themasses.
Elections and the Lahore resolutionThe Government of India Act 1935, the voluminous andfinal constitutional effort at governing British India,articulated three major goals: establishing a loose federalstructure, achieving provincial autonomy, andsafeguarding minority interests through separateelectorates. The federal provisions, intended to uniteprincely states and British India at the centre, were notimplemented because of ambiguities in safeguarding theexisting privileges of princes. In February 1937, however,provincial autonomy became a reality when electionswere held; the Congress emerged as the dominant partywith a clear majority in five provinces and held an upperhand in two, while the Muslim League performed poorly.
In 1939, the Viceroy Linlithgow declared Indiasentrance into World War II without consulting provincialgovernments. In protest, the Congress asked all of itselected representatives to resign from the government.Jinnah, the president of the Muslim League, persuadedparticipants at the annual Muslim League session atLahore in 1940 to adopt what later came to be knownas the Lahore Resolution, demanding the division ofIndia into two separate sovereign states, one Muslim,the other Hindu; sometimes referred to as Two NationTheory. Although the idea of Pakistan had beenintroduced as early as 1930, very few had responded toit. However, the volatile political climate and hostilitiesbetween the Hindus and Muslims transformed the ideaof Pakistan into a stronger demand.
Quit India (9 Aug 1942)The Quit India Movement (Bharat ChhodoAndolan) or the August Movement was a civildisobedience movement in India launched on 9August 1942 in response to Gandhis call forimmediate independence of India and againstsending Indians to World War II. He asked all theteachers to leave their school, and other Indians toleave away their respective jobs and take part inthis movement. Due to Gandhis political influence,request was followed on a massive proportion ofthe population.
At the outbreak of war, the Congress Party had during the Wardha meeting ofthe working-committee in September 1939, passed a resolution conditionallysupporting the fight against fascism, but were rebuffed when they asked forindependence in return. In March 1942, faced with an increasingly dissatisfiedsub-continent only reluctantly participating in the war, and deteriorations in thewar situation in Europe and South East Asia, and with growing dissatisfactionsamong Indian troops- especially in Europe- and among the civilian population inthe sub-continent, the British government sent a delegation to India underStafford Cripps, in what came to be known as the Cripps Mission. The purposeof the mission was to negotiate with the Indian National Congress a deal toobtain total co-operation during the war, in return of progressive devolution anddistribution of power from the crown and the Viceroy to elected Indianlegislature. However, the talks failed, having failed to address the key demandof a timeframe towards self-government, and of definition of the powers to berelinquished, essentially portraying an offer of limited dominion-status that waswholly unacceptable to the Indian movement.To force the Raj to meet itsdemands and to obtain definitive word on total independence, the Congresstook the decision to launch the Quit India Movement.
The aim of the movement was to bring the BritishGovernment to the negotiating table by holding theAllied War Effort hostage. The call for determined butpassive resistance that signified the certitude thatGandhi foresaw for the movement is best described byhis call to Do or Die, issued on 8 August at the GowaliaTank Maidan in Bombay, since re-named August KrantiMaidan (August Revolution Ground). However, almostthe entire Congress leadership, and not merely at thenational level, was put into confinement less thantwenty-four hours after Gandhis speech, and thegreater number of the Congress khiland were to spendthe rest of the war in jail.
On 8 August 1942, the Quit India resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the AllIndia Congress Committee (AICC). The draft proposed that if the British did not accedeto the demands, a massive Civil Disobedience would be launched. However, it was anextremely controversial decision. At Gowalia Tank, Mumbai, Gandhi urged Indians tofollow a non-violent civil disobedience. Gandhi told the masses to act as an independentnation and not to follow the orders of the British. The British, already alarmed by theadvance of the Japanese army to the India–Burma border, responded the next day byimprisoning Gandhi at the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. The Congress Partys WorkingCommittee, or national leadership was arrested all together and imprisoned at theAhmednagar Fort. They also banned the party altogether. Large-scale protests anddemonstrations were held all over the country. Workers remained absent en masse andstrikes were called. The movement also saw widespread acts of sabotage, Indian under-ground organization carried out bomb attacks on allied supply convoys, governmentbuildings were set on fire, electricity lines were disconnected and transport andcommunication lines were severed. The Congress had lesser success in rallying otherpolitical forces, including the Muslim League under a single mast and movement. It didhowever, obtain passive support from a substantial Muslim population at the peak of themovement. The movement soon became a leaderless act of defiance, with a number ofacts that deviated from Gandhis principle of non-violence. In large parts of the country,the local underground organisations took over the movement. However, by 1943, QuitIndia had petered out.