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Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

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Development is index of our pursuit for comfort and for practical implications it has become index of sellable comfort in modern times and thus challenging sustainability. 'Evolution of Planning Perspectives' is a listing of important historical Planning Concepts, Theories and Models to current need of Sustainable Development.

Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

  1. 1. Vinay Prakash Shrivastava 1 Evolution of Planning Perspectives presentation structured on notes of Dr. Alka Bharat
  2. 2. 1. Evolution of Planning Perspectives 2. Layout Drawings & Concepts 3. Planning as Coordination of Present & Future
  3. 3. 3 17TH CENTURY Mercantilism was the economic philosophy adopted by merchants and statesmen during the 16th and 17th centuries. Mercantilists believed that a nation's wealth came primarily from the accumulation of gold and silver. Nations without mines could obtain gold and silver only by selling more goods than they bought from abroad. Accordingly, the leaders of those nations intervened extensively in the market, imposing tariffs on foreign goods to restrict import trade, and granting subsidies to improve export prospects for domestic goods. Mercantilism represented the elevation of commercial interests to the level of national policy. System Improving Mercantilism ECONOMICS Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  4. 4. 4 1682 Grid system & neighborhood parks Pre-Modern Planning: Focus on Urban Design and Street System System Improving Philadelphia plan William Penn Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  5. 5. 5 1695 Radiocentric Pre-Modern Planning: Focus on Urban Design and Street System System Improving Annapolis plan Francis Nicholson Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  6. 6. 6 EARLY 18TH CENTURY A group of 18th century French philosophers, developed the idea of the economy as a circular flow of income and output. They opposed the Mercantilist policy of promoting trade at the expense of agriculture because they believed that agriculture was the sole source of wealth in an economy. As a reaction against the Mercantilists' copious trade regulations, the Physiocrats advocated a policy of laissez- faire, which called for minimal government interference in the economy. System Improving Physiocrats ECONOMICS Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  7. 7. 7 LATE 18TH CENTURY Began with the publication in 1776 of Adam Smith's monumental work, The Wealth of Nations. The book identified land, labor, and capital as the three factors of production and the major contributors to a nation's wealth. In Smith's view, the ideal economy is a self-regulating market system that automatically satisfies the economic needs of the populace. He described the market mechanism as an "invisible hand" that leads all individuals, in pursuit of their own self-interests, to produce the greatest benefit for society as a whole. Smith incorporated some of the Physiocrats' ideas, including laissez- faire, into his own economic theories, but rejected the idea that only agriculture was productive. System Improving The Classical School ECONOMICS Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  8. 8. 8 LATE 18TH CENTURY Marginalist economists emphasized that prices also depend upon the level of demand, which in turn depends upon the amount of consumer satisfaction provided by individual goods and services. AS AGAINST Classical economists theorized that prices are determined by the costs of production. System Improving Marginalist ECONOMICS Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  9. 9. 9 1733 Ward park system System Improving Savannah Oglethorpe Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  10. 10. 10 1790 Grand, whole city plan System Improving Washington Pierre L’Enfant Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  11. 11. 11 1798 The link between population growth and resources. Exponantial growth model. WEIRD IN CONTEXT TO MODERN WORLD BUT DESIGN BASIS FOR STATISTICAL DOCUMENTATION AND REINFORCEMENT OF OBSERVATIONS FOR ANALYSIS IN SOCIOLOGY based on the demographical structure,Thomas Robert Malthus used the idea of diminishing returns to explain low living standards. Population, he argued, tended to increase geometrically, outstripping the production of food, which increased arithmetically Critical theory DEMOGRAPHY Malthus, T. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  12. 12. 12 1826 AGRICULTURE PRODUCE German landowner in 1800s All that matters is transport costs~ stress the distance from the market & the transport cost Near to the market (transport costÔ) Far away from the market (transport costÓ) Near to the market (the intensityÓ) ~ There is a negative relationship between the distance from the market & the intensity SPECIFIC TO AGRI BUT WEIRD IN MODERN DAY IN LIGHT OF TRANSPORTATION. VALUABLE FOR REALISATION OF COST OF LAND WRT DIST FROM CENTER Critical theory Model of rural land use. von Thünen, H. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  13. 13. 13 1852-1870 Model for “City Beautiful” Critical theory Paris Napoleon III; Haussmann Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  14. 14. 14 mid-19th century The Marxist School challenged the foundations of Classical theory. Writing during the mid- 19th century, Karl Marx saw capitalism as an evolutionary phase in economic development. He believed that capitalism would ultimately destroy itself and be succeeded by a world without private property. Social theory The Marxist School Marx Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  15. 15. 15 1856 First major parkland System Improving Central Park F L Olmsted Sr Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  16. 16. 16 1867 First modern land-use zoning in US (forbad slaughterhouses in geographic districts) New Urban Forms Social mobilization San Francisco Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  17. 17. 17 1869 Model curved street “suburb” New Urban Forms Critical theory Riverside, IL F L Olmsted Sr Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  18. 18. 18 1876 US Supreme Court upholds regulation of private enterprise New Urban Forms Critical System Improving “Munn v Illinois” F L Olmsted Sr Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  19. 19. 19 1880 Model industrial town George Pullman Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  20. 20. 20 1885 Laws of migration. Ravenstein, E. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  21. 21. 21 1892 First federal action on city problems New Urban Norms Response to the Emerging Industrial City: The Public Health Movement System Improving US federal study of slums Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  22. 22. 22 1867/1879 First major tenement house controls New Urban Forms System Improving New York City Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  23. 23. 23 1870 -Need for more systematic and forward-thinking action New Urban Forms System Improving Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  24. 24. 24 1888 Promotes city and national planning The Rise of a Social Conscience System Improving “Looking Backwards” Edward Bellamy Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  25. 25. 25 1890 Focuses on slums and poverty The Rise of a Social Conscience System Improving “How the Other Half Lives” and “Children of the Poor” Jacob Riis Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  26. 26. 26 Burnham, Olmsted Sr, Columbian Exposition City Beautiful Movement Social mobilization The “White City” 1893 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  27. 27. 27 Ebenezar Howard anti-urban, agrarian Garden City Movement Critical theory “Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform” 1898 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  28. 28. 28 Institutionalist economists Institutionalist economists regard individual economic behavior as part of a larger social pattern influenced by current ways of living and modes of thought. They rejected the narrow Classical view that people are primarily motivated by economic self-interest. Opposing the laissez-faire attitude towards government's role in the economy, the Institutionalists called for government controls and social reform to bring about a more equal distribution of income. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  29. 29. 29 Letchworth Welwyn introduces superblock Garden City Movement Social mobilization Two garden city projects 1903-1920 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  30. 30. 30 Burnhan & Olmsted Jr Columbian Exposition Update of L’Enfant’s Plan System Improving McMillan Plan for Washington DC 1902 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  31. 31. 31 Daniel Burnham First major application of City Beautiful in US Social mobilization San Francisco Plan 1906 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  32. 32. 32 Edward Bennett & Daniel Burnham First metro regional plan “Make no little plans; they have no magic…” Social mobilization 1909 Chicago Plan 1909 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  33. 33. 33 Stein and Wright a neighborhood of the New York City borough of Queens. The 77-acre (310,000 m2) low- rise pedestrian-oriented development was constructed between 1924 to 1929. Social mobilization plan for Sunnyside Gardens, 1923 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  34. 34. 34 Burgess, E. LANDUSE WITH CBD CBD, then “zone of transition” Working-class homes Middle-class homes Commuter suburbs Urban ecology: invasion and succession specific to settlement location which depend on the CBD (SARROUNDING THE CENTRAL BUSSINES DISTRICT) Social mobilization Concentric circle model of urban land use. 1924 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  35. 35. 35 Robert E. Park, Ernest W. Burgess, and Roderick D. McKenzie in The City a city begins with a business district surrounded by a transition zone filled with low-income, high- crime area. Outside of that is a working-class residential zone, then a middle-class residential zone, and finally an upper-class residential zone. Homer Hoyt modified it in the sector model Social mobilization concentric zone model , bull's eye model 1925 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  36. 36. 36 Robert Moses : “If the ends don’t justify the means, then what does?” •1920s Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  37. 37. 37 Standard City Planning Enabling Act issued by US Dept of Commerce •1928 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  38. 38. 38 –Completion of Radburn NJ, innovative neighborhood design based on Howard’s theory ••1929 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  39. 39. 39 - Regionalizing/nationalizing of planning - Focus on econ development & social policy Social mobilization System Improving - Social science as a tool of planning 1928 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  40. 40. 40 Miller, A. System of classifying climate/vegetation regions. 1930 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  41. 41. 41 Reilly, W. Law of retail gravitation. 1931 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  42. 42. 42 German GEOGRAPHER Christaller, W. To focus on the economic aspects of his theory, Christaller had to create a set of assumptions. He decided for example that the countryside in the areas he was studying would be flat, so no barriers would exist to impede people's movement across it. In addition, two assumptions were made about human behavior: 1) Christaller stated that humans will always purchase goods from the closest place that offers the good, and 2) whenever demand for a certain good is high, it will be offered in close proximity to the population. When demand drops, so too does the availability of the good. SPECIFIC TO SERVICE PROVIDE OF THE NEAREST SUBSERVICE CENTER, WHICH DEPEND ON THE SIZE OF SERVICE CENTER. spatial theory in urban geography that attempts to explain the reasons behind the distribution patterns, size, and number of cities and towns around the world. It also attempts to provide a framework by which those areas can be studied both for historic reasons and for the locational patterns of areas today. Social mobilization Central place theory. 1933 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  43. 43. 43 John Maynard Keynes in 1936 Reacting to the severity of the worldwide depression, John Maynard Keynes in 1936 broke from the Classical tradition with the publication of the General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. The Classical view assumed that in a recession, wages and prices would decline to restore full employment. Keynes held that the opposite was true. Falling prices and wages, by depressing people's incomes, would prevent a revival of spending. He insisted that direct government intervention was necessary to increase total spending. The Classical view assumed that in a recession, wages and prices would decline to restore full employment. Keynes held that the opposite was true. Falling prices and wages, by depressing people's incomes, would prevent a revival of spending. He insisted that direct government intervention was necessary to increase total spending. General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money 1936 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  44. 44. 44 Cities as engines of growth Increasing Importance of Cities Social mobilization Our Cities: Their Role in the National Economy. •1937 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  45. 45. 45 Jefferson, M. MAIN CITY & DEPENDANTS the primate city is commonly at least twice as large as the next largest city and more than twice as significant. “The second and subsequently smaller cities represent a proportion of the largest city”. Concept of the primate city. 1939 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  46. 46. 46 Hoyt, H. Middle class always moves outward Vacancy chains start Fastest growing suburbs = poorest inner city Central activities expand out by sector High-end housing in attractive sector Industrial near transportation Middle-class housing next to high-end Lower-class housing gets the rest LANDUSE WITH SECTORS Economic Status displayed via housing within the urban area Sector model of urban land use. 1939 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  47. 47. 47 Local Planning Administration, by Ladislas Segoe, first of "Green Book" series 1939 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  48. 48. 48 Harris, Chauncy and Ullman, E. Multiple nuclei land use. Geographers in 1945s CBD isn’t the only center Commercial, industrial, port, etc. “nodes” Expanding nodes intersect based on the activities of land use Classification of settlement functions. 1945 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  49. 49. 49 Post-WWII Modernism Suburbanization & Central City Decline 1945 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  50. 50. 50 WALTER FIERY This theory says that the pre-requisites like the services, houses etc. may and may not meet the demand of the human factors. When the systems are running in a perfect manner, then there is hardly any room for personalized services; that there is state of “anonymity”. But everybody wants a little more of his share – which is the basic human nature. Geographers in 1945s CBD isn’t the only center Commercial, industrial, port, etc. “nodes” Expanding nodes intersect EXPLORATORY SOCIAL VALUES IN PLANNING THEORY 1947 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  51. 51. 51 Zipf, G. 1949 Rank size rule. Explains the size cities in a country Critical theory Second largest town or city is half the size of the size, the third would be a third the size etc…. an empirical law formulated using mathematical statistics, refers to the fact that many types of data studied in the physical and social sciences can be approximated with a Zipfian distribution, one of a family of related discrete power law probability distributions. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  52. 52. 52 1950 Social Activism Federal Policy Regional Cities Collaborative planning Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  53. 53. 53 Urban Renewal and General Planning - Social science strengthened & challenged Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  54. 54. 54 •1949 Housing Act (Wagner-Ellender- Taft Bill) - Planning optimism - Rise of community voice & social protest - Political action for reform and transformation Critical theory –First comprehensive housing legislation –Aimed to construct 800,000 housing units –Inaugurated urban renewal Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  55. 55. 55 Murphy, R. and Vance, J. 1950's Advocacy planning Delimiting the boundary of the CBD. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  56. 56. 56 Auguste Comte 1950's Descriptive science becomes a tool of normative planning in striving for a better society. This approach is evident in the notion of ‘public interest’, formulated as the goal of rational- comprehensive planning. Public interest meant planning solutions that were of common benefit. By means of scientific analysis the parameters of such solutions were to be defined: wide roads without traffic jams “father of sociology”, Auguste Comte sought to apply the methods of observation and experimentation. He believed that persistent social problems might be solved by the application of certain hierarchical rules. Comte was maintained in the rational comprehensive planning theory that gained ground in the 1950s and 1960s – the ideas which, to a considerable degree, are still at the core of urban planning thought. First and foremost, Comte’s association of the methods of classical science with the study of societies and social phenomena is central to the theory of rational-comprehensive planning. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  57. 57. 57 August Losch 1954 German economist modified Christaller's central place theory Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  58. 58. 58 Housing Act of 1954. –Stressed slum prevention and urban renewal rather than slum clearance and urban redevelopment as in the 1949 act. –stimulated general planning for cities under 25,000 (Section 701) –"701 funding" later extended to foster statewide, interstate, and substate regional planning. System Improving Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  59. 59. 59 Perroux Growth pole theory (Perroux) A dynamic and highly integrated set of industries organized around a propulsive leading sector or industry ('industrie motrice'). A growth pole is capable of rapid growth and of generating growth through spillover and multiplier effects in the rest of the economy .The apparent simplicity of the notion, its suggestion of dynamism and its ability to wed problems Advocacy planning Growth pole theory 1955 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  60. 60. 60 Rostow, W. Growth pole theory (Perroux) A dynamic and highly integrated set of industries organized around a propulsive leading sector or industry ('industrie motrice'). 1960 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  61. 61. 61 Kevin Lynch Image of the City – Urban Design Theorists 1960 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  62. 62. 62 LONDON WINGO JR. The complexity of urban dynamics is complicated by different temporal rates of change among its main components. While land use and transportation networks are very slow to change, their associated movements can change and adapt very quickly. As a result, changes in an urban area will range accordingly. Wingo said that a city is an accumulated demand for transportation. The trips made from a residential area for different purposes, are in a limited number compared to the trips made in a commercial center. Industrial areas and recreational areas have more trips but there is an inflated demand for these trips at a particular period of time. If we can assign certain values of these demands created by a specific land use and systematically analyze them, then we can put them together and form a systematic transportation in the city. EXPLORATORY TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED THEORY 1961 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  63. 63. 63 Modeling The urban growth simulation model emerges in the Penn- Jersey Transportation Study. 1962 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  64. 64. 64 Paul Davidoff, T A Reiner “determinations of what serves the public interest, in a society containing many diverse interest groups, are almost always of a highly contentious nature”. Davidoff claimed that the planner should make clear what are the values underlying his choices, and indeed he should do more: “he should affirm them; he should be an advocate of what he deems proper”. Davidoff argued that public sector planning needed genuine alternatives based on different value .Davidoff’s model of advocacy planning was perhaps better suited to the context of the USA, where local governments have less autonomy and authority in the face of private sector interests (especially business) than in most European countries. EXPLORATORY Choice Theory Of Planning 1962 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  65. 65. 65 Kansky, K. Factors influencing the development of transport networks. 1963 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  66. 66. 66 Taaffe, E., Morrill, R. and Gould, P. Model of transport network evolution in developing countries. 1963 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  67. 67. 67 Alonso 1964 Each household represents a balance between land, goods, and accessibility to the workplace. The assumptions on which this theory rests range from all land being of equal quality to lack of planning constraints. This means that the theory is a long way from reality, although it does reflect some aspects of urban morphology. Urban land use is based on the work of Alonso (1964) and Muth (1969): Bid Rent and Location Gradients: patterns of land use are determined by land values that are, in turn, related to transportation costs. We will find that each type of urban activity will have its own bid rent function and the combination of several bid rent functions will define the rent gradient. W. Alonso's (1964) explanation of urban land use and land values. It is grounded on the concept of bid rents whereby the urban land user seeks central locations, but is willing to accept a location further from the city centre if rents are lower in compensation. The use that can extract the greatest return from a site will be the successful bidder. To this basis, Alonso, in a study of housing, added the quantity of land required, and variations in the amount of disposable income used on land and transport costs on one hand, and on all goods and services on the other. If the amount of goods and services is held constant, the price of land should decrease with increasing distance from the centre. The well-off will choose to live at lower densities at the edge of the city; the poor remain in high density occupancy near the city centre. The quantity of land that may be bought should increase with distance from the centre, but commuting costs will rise with distance from the centre so that the quantity of wealth available for land will decrease. Each household represents a balance between land, goods, and accessibility to the workplace. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  68. 68. 68 •1964 T.J. Kent publishes The Urban General Plan. aesthetics and form •aesthetics and form –rejected historic precedent as a source of architectural inspiration –considered function as the prime generator of form –employed materials and technology in an honest way. Modernism –style-free plan –universal space –walls freed from the function of load bearing –cantilevers –glass at corners of buildings use of concrete Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  69. 69. 69 Charles E. Lindblom 1965 a method of bargaining and compromise-seeking between the interest groups concerned with a planning issue. Charles E. Lindblom, in his book “The Intelligence of Democracy” presented theory of “partisan mutual adjustment” as a model of decision- making in public planning. Similarly to Davidoff, Lindblom sought to bring pluralism to the realm of public planning. But Lindblom’s theory can be seen as more advanced in the sense that he was not only concerned with how to bring the interests of different groups into the agenda of public planning, but, furthermore, how agreement could be reached between these diverse and conflicting adjustment” 1963 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  70. 70. 70 Boserup, E. Theory about the link between population growth and resources. 1965 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  71. 71. 71 J.R. Boudeville 1966 He also pointed to the regionally differentiated growth that such a spatial strategy might generate. The precise meaning of the term 'growth pole' is difficult to pin down, however, because it is frequently used in a far looser fashion to denote any (planned) spatial clustering of economic activity. Theory was translated into spatial terms by J.R. Boudeville (1966). On the bases of external economies and economies of agglomeration, Boudeville argued that the set of industries forming the growth pole (or 'pole de croissance') might be clustered spatially and linked to an existing urban area. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  72. 72. 72 •1968 Pittsburg Community Redevelopment Model Social mobilization Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  73. 73. 73 McCarty, H. and Lindberg, L. The optima and limits model of agricultural production. 1966 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  74. 74. 74 Guttenberg Accessibility Emphasis Theory 1968 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  75. 75. 75 Smith, D. Maximum profit model of industrial location. 1971 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  76. 76. 76 Haggett, P. Deviations from a straight course by transport routes. 1969 & 1977 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  77. 77. 77 Carson, M. and Kirkby, M. Classification of mass movements. 1972 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  78. 78. 78 Privatisation 1980 - Post-modern critique of rationality - Segmentation of voices of communities into communities with voice Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  79. 79. 79 Brandt, W. 1980 & 1983 Findings and suggestions of the 'Brandt Commission'. Kearsley 1983 Model of urban structure. Barke, M. and O'Hare, G. 1984 Model of economic development in developing countries. - Focus on interaction, communication, process Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  80. 80. 1. Evolution of Planning Perspectives 2. Layout Drawings & Concepts 3. Planning as Coordination of Present & Future
  81. 81. How a common man looks at Urban Planning ? – Common Man looks at it in a much simple, point to point, rather than issues as a matrix of the system. As it was in much early days of Urban Planning. The review of those concepts as ‘Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning.’
  82. 82. Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning PHYSICAL PLEASANCE & COMFORT
  83. 83. Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning FORMULATION OF LAYOUT
  84. 84. The Linear City Movement The linear city was an urban plan for an elongated urban formation. The city would consist of a series of functionally specialized parallel sectors. Generally, the city would run parallel to a river and be built so that the dominant wind would blow from the residential areas to the industrial strip. The sectors of a linear city would be: 1. a purely segregated zone for railway lines, 2. a zone of production and communal enterprises, with related scientific, technical and educational institutions, 3. a green belt or buffer zone with major highway, 4. a residential zone, including a band of social institutions, a band of residential buildings and a "children's band", 5. a park zone, and 6. An agricultural zone with gardens and state-run farms As the city expanded, additional sectors would be added to the end of each band, so that the city would become ever longer, without growing wider. Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning
  85. 85. Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning CITY COORDINATIONS
  86. 86. Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning FORMULATION OF FUNCTIONAL LAYOUT
  87. 87. Daniel Burnham The City Beautiful Movement Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City Movement
  88. 88. Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning FORMULATION OF LAYOUT WITH ZONES
  89. 89. Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning
  90. 90. Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning
  91. 91. The Garden City Physical Form Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning FORMULATION IN GRADES
  92. 92. Raymond Unwin Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning Garden Cities in Europe & America
  93. 93. • The Impact of WW I on British Housing & Housing Policy • A.D. Sanderson Furniss and Marion Phillips Housing Program for Working Women • “Modern Housing” in Europe • Catherine Bauer visits Europe... Women and Housing In Europe Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning
  94. 94. • Modern Housing • Origins of American Housing Policy Catherine Bauer Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning
  95. 95. • The Origins of Sustainable Urban Development • Louis Mumford and Geddes Patrick Geddes Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning
  96. 96. • The Barlow Commission and WW II • The Plan for Greater London and Britain’s New Towns Program Wartime and Post-War British Planning: Patrick Abercrombie Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning
  97. 97. 97 VanThunen (1783 – 1850) Theory Based on the data of his experience of farming and classical economic theory It’s a partial equilibrium approach for a deterministic and normative agricultural production How & why agricultural landuse varies with distance from the market Model I – INTENSITY OF PRODUCTION DECREASES WITH DISTANCE FROM MARKET. INTENSITY OF PRODUCTION – AMOUNT OF THE INPUTS (MONEY LABOUR WATER ETC.) PER UNIT LAND. Model II – THE TYPE OF LANDUSE VARIES WITH THE DISTANCE FROM THE MARKET. ASSUMPTIONS TO SIMPLIFY THE REAL WORLD SITUATION. Few important concepts of Urban Planning
  98. 98. 98 The basic principle is economic rent (locational rent = LR) . LR = Y (m-c) –Y td Y = yield per unit land m = market price per unit of product c = production cost per unit of product d = distance from per unit of land Few important concepts of Urban Planning VanThunen
  99. 99. 99 Van Thunen (1783 – 1850) Theory Model I – INTENSITY THEORY INTENSITY OF PRODUCTION DECREASES WITH DISTANCE FROM MARKET. INTENSITY OF PRODUCTION – AMOUNT OF THE INPUTS (MONEY LABOUR WATER ETC.) PER UNIT LAND. Few important concepts of Urban Planning VanThunen
  100. 100. 100 Van Thunen (1783 – 1850) Theory Model II – THE TYPE OF LANDUSE VARIES WITH THE DISTANCE FROM THE MARKET. Few important concepts of Urban Planning VanThunen
  101. 101. 101 Alfred Weber formulated a least cost theory of industrial location which tries to explain and predict the location pattern of the industry at a macro-scale. It emphasizes that firms seek a site of minimum transport and labour cost. The point for locating an industry that minimizes costs of transportation and labor requires analysis of three factors: Material Index, Labor & Agglomeration and de agglomeration Few important concepts of Urban Planning AlfredWeber
  102. 102. Park and Burgess (1925) developed a theory of urban ecology which proposed that cities are environments like those found in nature, governed by many of the same forces of Darwinian evolution, i.e. competition, that affects natural ecosystems. When a city is formed and grows, people and their activities cluster in a particular area, i.e. the process of "concentration". Gradually, this central area becomes highly populated, so there is a scattering of people and their activities away from the central city to establish the suburbs, i.e. "dispersion". They suggested that, over time, the competition for land and other scarce urban resources leads to the division of the urban space into distinctive ecological niches, "natural areas" or zones in which people share similar social characteristics because they are subject to the same ecological pressures. As a zone becomes more prosperous and "desirable", property values and rents rise, and people and businesses migrate into that zone, usually moving outward from the city centre in a process Park and Burgess called "succession" (a term borrowed from plant ecology) and new residents take their place. At both a micro and macro level, society was thought to operate as a superorganism, where change is a natural aspect of the process of growth and neither chaotic nor disorderly. Thus, an organised area is invaded by new elements. This gives rise to local competition and there will either be succession or an accommodation which results in a reorganisation. But, during the early stages of competition, there will always be some level of disorganisation because there will be disruption to, or a breakdown in, the normative structure of the community which may or may not lead to deviant behaviour. Thus, although a city was a physical organisation, it also had also social and moral structures that could be disorganised. 102 Few important concepts of Urban Planning Burgess
  103. 103. Their model, known as Concentric Zone Theory and first published in The City (1925) predicted that, once fully grown, cities would take the form of five concentric rings with areas of social and physical deterioration concentrated near the city centre and more prosperous areas located near the city's edge. This theory seeks to explain the existence of social problems such as unemployment and crime in specific Chicago districts, making extensive use of synchronic mapping to reveal the spatial distribution of social problems and to permit comparison between areas. In the post-war period, the cartographic approach was criticised as simplistic in that it neglected the social and cultural dimensions of urban life, the political and economic impact of industrialisation on urban geography, and the issues of class, race, gender, and ethnicity. 103 Few important concepts of Urban Planning Burgess
  104. 104. Geddes shared the belief with Alejandro Reinosa that social processes and spatial form are related. Therefore, by changing the spatial form it was possible to change the social structure as well. This was particularly important in the late 19th and early 20th century when industrialization was dramatically altering the conditions of life. Geddes demonstrated this theory through his work in Edinburgh's Old Town. Here, in this most dilapidated area, he used associations with prominent thinkers who lived there in the 18th and 19th century (like Adam Smith), to establish residential halls. The building in question is still part of the University of Edinburgh complex. Here he situated his famous Outlook Tower, a museum of local, regional, Scottish, and world history. 104 Few important concepts of Urban Planning Geddes
  105. 105. Geddes ideas on Regional Planning - Regional Planning and Design with Nature The Origins of Sustainable Urban Development 105 Few important concepts of Urban Planning Geddes
  106. 106. In his influential book The City in History, which won the National Book Award, Mumford explores the development of urban civilizations. Harshly critical of urban sprawl, Mumford argues that the structure of modern cities is partially responsible for many social problems seen in western society. While pessimistic in tone, Mumford argues that urban planning should emphasize an organic relationship between people and their living spaces. Mumford uses the example of the medieval city as the basis for the "ideal city," and claims that the modern city is too close to the Roman city (the sprawling megalopolis) which ended in collapse; if the modern city carries on in the same vein, Mumford argues, then it will meet the same fate as the Roman city. "The physical design of cities and their economic functions are secondary to their relationship to the national environment and to the spiritual values of human community." 106 Few important concepts of Urban Planning Mumford
  107. 107. Gravity Model The relative strength of a bond between two places is determined by multiplying the population of city A by the population of city B and then dividing the product by the distance between the two cities squared. The gravity model, as social scientists refer to the modified law of gravitation, takes into account the population size of two places and their distance. Since larger places attract people, ideas, and commodities more than smaller places and places closer together have a greater attraction, the gravity model incorporates these two features. 107 GravityModel
  108. 108. Stakeholder in 20th Century UrbanPlanning
  109. 109. 109 POPULATION
  110. 110. Planning has an integrated social backdrop 110 UrbanPlanning
  111. 111. 111 • PARENTS BROTHERS SISTERS • RELATIVES • FAMILY • ENVIRONMENT • NEEDS CLOSE RELATIONS • FRIENDS • DAILY INTERACTIONS • ENVIRONMENT • ATTRACTIONS INSTITUTE AND CLUBS • SCHOOL • SOCIAL ACTIVITIES • MEDIA CINEMA MUSIC • INTERNET • ENVIRONMENT • AMBITION Social Structure of Settlements Self- actualization Physiological needs Safety needs Love and belonging Esteem FIVE BASIC NEEDS OF A MAN – MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS FOOD SHELTER BELONGING RESPECT INFLUENCE ENVIRONMENT OF DEEDS
  112. 112. Sociology 112 Sociology is the study of human societies. It is a social science (with which it is informally synonymous) that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop and refine a body of knowledge and theory about human social activity, often with the goal of applying such knowledge to the pursuit of social welfare. Subject matter ranges from the micro level of agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and social structures. FAMILY •PARENTS BROTHERS SISTERS •RELATIVES CLOSE RELATIONS •FRIENDS •DAILY INTERACTIONS INSTITUTE AND CLUBS •SCHOOL •SOCIAL ACTIVITIES SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR Social Structure of Settlements
  113. 113. SOCIAL STRUCTURE 113 ORIENTATIONS NATION & REGION COMMUNITY, ASSOCIATIONS, GROUPS (WORKPLACE & RESIDENCE & IDEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIONS) FUTURE PERSPECTIVE (CAREER, DEPENDANCY & ORIENTATIONS OF PLACEMENTS) Social Structure of Settlements
  114. 114. Sociology is both topically and methodologically a very broad discipline. Its traditional focuses have included social stratification (i.e., class relations), religion, secularization, modernity, culture and deviance 114 Social Structure of Settlements
  115. 115. 115 (1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively. Cities have historically been the driver of culture. Most cultural institutions throughout the world are located in central cities. Culture Social Structure of Settlements
  116. 116. Social classes are the hierarchical arrangements of people in society as economic or cultural groups. Class is an essential object of analysis for sociologists, anthropologists, political economists and social historians. In the social sciences, social class is often discussed in terms of 'social stratification'. In sociology and political philosophy, the most basic class distinction is between the powerful and the powerless. In Marxist theory and historical materialism, social class is caused by the fundamental economic structure of work and property. 116 Social Structure of Settlements
  117. 117. In sociology and other social sciences, social stratification refers to the hierarchical arrangement of individuals into divisions of power and wealth within a society. The term most commonly relates to the socio-economic concept of class, involving the "classification of persons into groups based on shared socio-economic conditions ... a relational set of inequalities with economic, social, political and ideological dimensions.“ The term stratification derives from the geological concept of strata - rock layers created by natural processes. In modern Western societies, stratification is typically described as a composition of three main layers: upper class, middle class, and lower class. Each class may be further subdivided into smaller classes (eg. occupational).[2] These categories are particular to state-level societies as distinguished from, for instance, feudal societies composed of nobility-to-peasant relations. It is debatable whether the earliest hunter-gatherer groups may be defined as 'stratified', or if such differentials began with agriculture and broad acts of exchange between groups. To this extent social stratification may start with society itself, and vice versa. 117 Social Structure of Settlements
  118. 118. ISSUES POVERTY POPULATION EXPLOSION URBANIZATION UNEMPLOYMENT & YOUTH UNREST ILLITERACY COMMUNALISM & REGIONALISATION BACKWARD CLASSES CHILD ABUSE & CHILD LABOUR DOWNTRODDEN WOMEN CORRUPTION TERRORISM … SO ON 118 Social Structure of Settlements
  119. 119. 119 The easiest route to understand stakeholder is to start with Marxist philosophy
  120. 120. Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms that cover work in philosophy that is strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory or that is written by Marxists. It may be broadly divided into Western Marxism, which drew out of various sources, and the official philosophy in the Soviet Union, which enforced a rigid reading of Marx called "diamat" (for "dialectical materialism"), in particular during the 1930s. The phrase "Marxist philosophy" itself does not indicate a strictly defined sub-field of philosophy, because the diverse influence of Marxist theory has extended into fields as diverse as aesthetics, ethics, ontology, epistemology, and philosophy of science, as well as its obvious influence on political philosophy and the philosophy of history. The key characteristics of Marxism in philosophy are its materialism and its commitment to political practice as the end goal of all thought. Louis Althusser, for example, defined philosophy as "class struggle in theory", thus radically disjoining himself from those who claimed philosophers could adopt a "God's eye view" as a purely neutral judge. Just as the young Marx had left university and German Idealism to encounter the proletariat, which permitted him to modify his perspective on practice and theory, "intellectuals" couldn't content themselves with instructing from their chairs the masses (as the "organic intellectual" conception denounced by Antonio Gramsci) but had themselves to take part in the social struggles of their times. 120 Marx Social Structure of Settlements
  121. 121. Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history, first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883). Marx himself never used the term but referred to his approach as "the materialist conception of history." Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. The non-economic features of a society (e.g. social classes, political structures, ideologies) are seen as being an outgrowth of its economic activity. The classic brief statement of the theory was made by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859): 121 Marx Social Structure of Settlements
  122. 122. “ My inquiry led me to the conclusion that neither legal relations nor political forms could be comprehended whether by themselves or on the basis of a so-called general development of the human mind, but that on the contrary they originate in the material conditions of life, the totality of which Hegel, following the example of English and French thinkers of the eighteenth century, embraces within the term "civil society"; that the autonomy of this civil society, however, has to be sought in political economy. The study of this, which I began in Paris, I continued in Brussels, where I moved owing to an expulsion order issued by M. Guizot. The general conclusion at which I arrived and which, once reached, became the guiding principle of my studies can be summarised as follows: next slide please 122 Marx Social Structure of Settlements
  123. 123. In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure, and to which correspond definite forms of consciousness. The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political, and intellectual life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness. At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or — this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms — with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. From forms of development, of the productive forces, these relations turn into their fetters. 123 Marx Social Structure of Settlements
  124. 124. 124 Marx Then begins an era of social revolution. The changes in the economic foundation lead, sooner or later, to the transformation of the whole, immense, superstructure. In studying such transformations, it is always necessary to distinguish between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, artistic, or philosophic — in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out. Just as one does not judge an individual by what he thinks about himself, so one cannot judge such a period of transformation by its consciousness, but, on the contrary, this consciousness must be explained from the contradictions of material life, from the conflict existing between the social forces of production and the relations Social Structure of Settlements
  125. 125. RURAL URBAN EQUATIONS 125 person person Growth of Urban Centers. system system RURAL EQUATION URBAN EQUATION Infrastr ucture pressures DENSITY REGION Social Structure of Settlements
  126. 126. Cities generally have advanced systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. The concentration of development greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process. A big city, or metropolis, usually has associated suburbs. Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas and urban sprawl, creating numerous business commuters traveling to urban centers of employment. Once a city sprawls far enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. 126 cities
  127. 127. 127 It wasn't until the 1920s that modernism began to surface. Based on the ideas of Le Corbusier and utilising new skyscraper building techniques, the modernist city stood for the elimination of disorder, congestion and the small scale, replacing them instead with preplanned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens. There were plans for large scale rebuilding of cities, such as the Plan Voisin (based on Le Corbusier's Ville Contemporaine), which proposed clearing and rebuilding most of central Paris. No large-scale plans were implemented until after World War II however. Throughout the late 1940s and 1950s, housing shortages caused by wartime destruction led many cities to subsidize housing blocks. Planners used the opportunity to implement the modernist ideal of towers surrounded by gardens. The most prominent example of an entire modernist city is Brasilia, constructed between 1956 and 1960 in Brazil. modernism
  128. 128. 128 ADVOCATING GOOD AS NEW ; By the late 1960s and early 1970s, many planners realized that modernism's clean lines and lack of human scale also sapped vitality from the community. The symptoms were high crime rates and social problems modernism
  129. 129. 129 fabric The composite demographics of an area, its ethnic composition, wealth, education, employment rate and regional values.
  130. 130. • From Municipal Health to Environmental Justice • From the Linear City Transit Oriented Development • The Enduring City Beautiful • Garden Cities for Today • Geddes & Mumford: Design with Nature and the New Regionalism • Post-Modern Housing and the New Urbanism Rise of Urban Centres. Growth of Urban Centres.
  131. 131. 131 Planning as Consensus Seeking John Forester makes a crucial distinction between two dimensions of planning problems. The first dimension, with which Lindblom was concerned, is uncertainty: the lack of information of the planned object in its present and some future state, and the lack of time and resources for the rational programming of planning work. This is the technical dimension of planning. But there is also the political dimension that concerns the legitimacy of the ends and means of planning. Few important concepts of Urban Planning Growth of Urban Centres.
  132. 132. 132 Planning as Consensus Seeking There is also the political dimension that concerns the legitimacy of the ends and means of planning. Problems of legitimacy in planning have to do with ambiguity, according to Forester. Facing uncertainty, the planner is in need for more information; facing ambiguity, he is in need of practical judgment. Few important concepts of Urban Planning Growth of Urban Centres.
  133. 133. 133 Planning as Management Of Conflicts The possibility of communicative rationality is based on the assertion that a shared context of life worldly values and understandings is achievable as soon as each participant withdraws from the use of power. There is a good case for a counterargument that in the present world we lead our lives in a society too differentiated into subcultures that a shared life world is no longer readily Few important concepts of Urban Planning Growth of Urban Centres.
  134. 134. 1. Evolution of Planning Perspectives 2. Layout Drawings & Concepts 3. Planning as Coordination of Present & Future
  135. 135. Stakeholder in 21st Century UrbanPlanning
  136. 136. 136 Growth of Urban Centers. Natural growth results from an excess of births over deaths within a city; this is growth caused by the natural reproduction of the city's residents. Net migration produces urban growth when migration into the city exceeds migration out of the city. Migrants into a city usually share the same nationality as their urban-born counterparts and originate from the country's rural areas. Many things attract these people to the city: most importantly, they may need to escape a rural environment increasingly incapable of sustaining them, and they may be attracted of by an urban environment that seems to offer a better standard living.
  137. 137. REGIONS 137 Regions can be defined by physical characteristics, human characteristics, and functional characteristics. As a way of describing spatial areas, the concept of regions is important and widely used among the many branches of geography, each of which can describe areas in regional terms. For example, ecoregion is a term used in environmental geography, cultural region in cultural geography, bioregion in biogeography, and so on. The field of geography that studies regions themselves is called regional geography. Regions defined based on landform characteristics are called "physiographic" or "geomorphic" regions. A functional region or Nodal region, is a region that has a defined core that retains a specific characteristic that diminishes outwards. To be considered a Functional region, at least one form of spatial interaction must occur between the center and all other parts of the region. A functional region is organized around a node or focal point with the surrounding areas linked to that node by transportation systems, communication systems, or other economic association involving such activities as manufacturing and retail trading. In politics, regionalism is a political ideology that focuses on the interests of a particular region or group of regions, whether traditional or formal (administrative divisions, country subdivisions, political divisions, subnational units). Regionalism centers on increasing the region's influence and political power, either through movements for limited form of autonomy (devolution, states' rights, decentralization) or through stronger measures for a greater degree of autonomy (sovereignty, separatism, independence). Regionalists often favor loose federations or confederations over a unitary state with a strong central government. Regionalism may be contrasted with nationalism.
  138. 138. 138 Urban, city, and town planning integrates land use planning and transport planning to improve the built and social environments of communities. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment, at a less detailed level. Regionalplanning
  139. 139. 139 Regionalisation is the tendency to form regions, or the process of doing so. Regionalisation can be observed in various disciplines: In geography, it is the process of delineating the Earth into regions. In globalization discourse, it represents a world that becomes less interconnected, with a stronger regional focus. In politics, it is the process of dividing a political entity or country into smaller jurisdictions (administrative divisions or subnational units) and transferring power from the central government to the regions; the opposite of unitarisation. In sport, it is when a team has multiple "home" venues in different cities. Examples of regionalised teams include a few teams in the defunct American Basketball Association, or the Green Bay Packers when they played in both Green Bay and Milwaukee. In linguistics, it is when a prestige language adopts features of a regional language, such as how, in medieval times, Church Latin developed regional pronunciation differences in Italy, France, Spain, and England. Regionalisation
  140. 140. The goal of socioeconomic study is generally to bring about socioeconomic development, usually in terms of improvements in metrics such as GDP, life expectancy, literacy, lev els of employment, etc Although harder to measure, changes in less-tangible factors are also considered, such as personal dignity, freedom of association, personal safety and freedom from fear of physical harm, and the extent of participation in 140 socioeconomicstudy
  141. 141. 141 Urbanisation is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. urbanisation
  142. 142. Urbanism is a focus on cities and urban areas, their geography, economies, politics, social characteristics, as well as the effects on, and caused by, the built environment. Urbanism is distinct from new urbanism in that it shies away from greenfield development in favor of revitalizing existing urban areas. The of urbanism posits that traditional cities are vitally important to society. Cities or other dense human settlements are said to serve a variety of important functions. 142 urbanism
  143. 143. Urbanism is a focus on cities and urban areas, their geography, economies, politics, social characteristics, as well as the effects on, and caused by, the built environment. Urbanism is distinct from new urbanism in that it shies away from greenfield development in favor of revitalizing existing urban areas. Urbanism as a philosophy The of urbanism posits that traditional cities are vitally important to society. Cities or other dense human settlements are said to serve a variety of important functions. 143 region
  144. 144. 144 Planning • Ensure proper utilization of land in the interest of the residents of the area • Provision of an efficient traffic and transportation network • Make provisions for civic amenities and social facilities to cater to the present and future needs of the residents community • Reserve sites for public utilities, transport and other services to meet present as well as future requirements of the area • Preserve buildings and areas of historical, religious and cultural significance • Improve existing living conditions, physical quality of life, and guide future development. planning
  145. 145. 145 Aspects of planning 1. Urban Aesthetics 2. Safety 3. Slums 4. Urban Decay 5. Reconstruction & Renewal 6. Transport planning
  146. 146. Development is index of our pursuit for comfort and has thus become index of sellable comfort in modern times and is challenging sustainability through consumption of natural resources and damage to the delicate balance of Environment through multiple means. When Planners talk about Urban issues, they mention forces in the system of a settlement and public habits and prescribe step by step evolution of corrections in the settlements rather than one time ready to use designs . 146 The context is development as a consequence.
  147. 147. 147 CoSGOP is not a planning method but a process model. It provides a framework for communication and joint decision-making in a structured process characterised by feed-back loops and it facilitates a learning process of all the stakeholders involved. The essential elements of CoSGOP are : Analysis of stakeholders (This is oriented towards identifying stakeholders’ perception of problems and their interest and expectations);Analysis of problems and potentials (This analysis does not only include an overview over objective problems but also of problems and potentials as perceived by stakeholders);Development of goals, improvement priorities and alternatives (The definition of goals, objectives for development requires intensive communication and an active participation of the concerned stakeholders);Specification of an improvement programme and main activities CollaborativeStrategicGoal OrientedProgramming
  148. 148. RURAL AREA TRANSITION PHASE URBAN AREA 148 sustainabledevelopment NEEDS RESOURCES CONSUMPTION LOSS
  149. 149. Agenda 21 149 The Agenda 21 addresses the pressing problems of today and also aims at preparing the world for the challenges of the next century. Integration of environment and development concerns and greater attention to problems will lead to fulfillment of basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed ecosystems and a safer, more prosperous future. However, successful implementation is first and foremost the responsibility of Governments, also, national strategies, plans, policies and processes are crucial in achieving this. (United Nations Division for Sustainable Development, 1999) Nongkhai, located in North-East Thailand, used Local Agenda 21 to create a community-based land-use planning and management process. The community, in partnership with local government and other agencies developed and adopted the land use plans. Nongkhai's communities initiated the bottom-up planning approach as a result of community problems and the desire to impart local cultural and social structure to the local government. Representatives from local government and the community formed a Project Team to tackle pressing land use concerns. As a result, community workshops were held and land use plans developed and integrated into community development plans.
  150. 150. The Kyoto mechanisms are: Emissions trading – known as “the carbon market" Clean development mechanism (CDM) Joint implementation (JI). Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012. 150
  151. 151. CARBON BUDGETING The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrospher e, and atmosphere of the Earth. The cycle is usually thought of as four major reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange. 151
  152. 152. CARBON foot printing The Ecological Footprint has emerged as the world’s premier measure of humanity’s demand on nature. It measures how much land and water area a human population requires to produce the resource it consumes and to absorb its wastes, using prevailing technology. The carbon footprint is a measure of the exclusive total amount of carbon dioxide emissions that is directly and indirectly caused by an activity or is accumulated over the life stages of a product." 152
  153. 153. Quantitative Ecology measure the variability present in the natural world and to understand the causes of that variability. However, the spatial and temporal pattern in which nature varies can affect both our ability to measure a particular phenomenon and our perception of its causes, and it is for this reason that the concept of ‘‘scale’’ is important. Consider, first, the issue of measurement. A trivial example illustrates the problem. If one desires to measure a representative air temperature for a site, one must be aware that there are both daily and seasonal fluctuations. Measurements made solely at night in January or at noon in July would not be accurate predictors of the temperature for a time chosen at random. Knowledge of the major temporal scales of variation in temperature (in this case, scales of one day and one year) 153
  154. 154. Sustainable Development "Development which meets the needs and aspirations of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs“ (The Bruntland Report, 1987) Most societies want to achieve economic development to secure higher standards of living, now and for future generations. They also seek to protect and enhance their environment, now and for their children. Sustainable development tries to reconcile these two objectives. 154
  155. 155. 155 sustainabledevelopment Some planners say that modern lifestyles use too many natural resources, polluting or destroying ecosystems, increasing social inequality overheating urban heat islands, and causing climate changes. Many urban planners therefore advocate sustainable cities.
  156. 156. A CONCIOUS DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PLANNING 156 THANK YOU However, sustainable development is a recent, controversial concept – where development comes with momentum of ‘consumption and better needs’.

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