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Technology and curriculum issues day 4 vikki bridgewater nr


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Technology and curriculum issues day 4 vikki bridgewater nr

  1. 2. Technology and Curriculum <ul><li>What are some of the issues? </li></ul>
  2. 3. Myths… <ul><li>Myth #1: Technology is going to be the great equalizer of society. In reality, technology is actually polarizing society. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth #2: The Internet is going to provide a diversity of opinion. We will have an input of ideas from around the world and generally have a better educated society. In reality, people are going to the web to get their “version” of the truth. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth #3 Technology is going to make kids smarter. In reality, it’s a distraction. Overall we are missing out on critical thinking. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Technology is just a tool. In terms of getting the kids working together and motivating them, the teacher is most important. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Gates (For the Record, January 15, 2003) </li></ul>
  4. 5. What Technology Has to Offer <ul><li>Authentic challenging tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Active learning - students benefit from exposure to real world problems, scientific modeling, feedback from peers and experts and global communities. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond Bells and Whistles: Affecting Student Learning Through Technology </li></ul>
  5. 6. Some Things to Consider for Quality Tech Integration <ul><li>Allows for different learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Uses tasks that are intellectually demanding/require higher level thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Provides open-ended questions and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Requires more abstraction and complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Based on student interests </li></ul><ul><li>Requires student to be more self-directed </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Inquiry process </li></ul><ul><li>Develops problem finding and problem solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>Based on an authentic or real-world task(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to discover and uncover information </li></ul>
  6. 7. What DI with Technology is NOT . . . <ul><li>Computers are not fancy workbooks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more than tools, they are an environment for communication, learning, work and play. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not a place to put students to keep them occupied while we work with other students. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They should enhance instruction, not just parallel it. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Myths of Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>Students will be unprepared for tests </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation = Individualization </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation means unbalanced workloads </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of mastery at the same time as others means lack of credit </li></ul><ul><li>“ I taught it, it’s up to students to learn it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson plans must be turned in </li></ul>
  8. 9. Myths continued… <ul><li>Summative assessment leads to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Students won’t be able to compete in the real world </li></ul><ul><li>If we don’t differentiate, students will toughen up </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one way to differentiate </li></ul>
  9. 10. What DI with Technology IS … <ul><li>constructivist, higher level thinking, communication, creation of original work, and problem solving in non-routine ways and authentic ways </li></ul><ul><li>Technology as a means of providing support, opportunity and meaning. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Article <ul><li>Using Flexible Technology to Meet the Needs of Diverse Learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this what differentiation with technology is? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this realistic? </li></ul>
  11. 12. What’s your Technology Profile? Have things changed in reality since 1997?
  12. 13. Things to Consider in Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Depth and Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Task difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Equalizer (Carol Ann Tomlinson) </li></ul>
  13. 14. These continuums can help you plan content, process, and products for gifted learners, as well as other learners with diverse needs. They are not a recipe, but rather a guide for your thinking. In general, students who are gifted in a given subject or very advanced in a particular topic need to function toward the right end of the continuums. There will be exceptions, of course. For example, a highly able learner may at times need to work at a slower pace to study a topic in greater breadth or depth. At the beginning of a complex study, even a highly able learner may need to work at simpler tasks, toward the left of the continuums will need to move toward the right. Simple Complex Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills Concrete Abstract Examples, Illustrations, Applications, Conclusions Single – faceted Multi – faceted Problems, Applications, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections Small Leap Great Leap Application, Insight, Transfer Closed Open Solution, Decisions, Approaches Less Independence Greater Independence Planning, Designing, Monitoring Foundational Transformational Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications Slow Quick Pace of Study, Pace of Thought Continuums for Planning Differentiated Lessons ASCD, 1994
  14. 15. Learning Contracts <ul><li>Blend skills and content </li></ul><ul><li>Match skills to readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Match content to readiness, interest, learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Allow student choice </li></ul><ul><li>Clear and challenging criteria for success </li></ul><ul><li>Set rules in the contract </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on concepts, themes or problems if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Vary levels of independence/time to match readiness </li></ul>
  15. 16. Compacting <ul><li>1) Pre-assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Plan for learning what was missed and excuse what is mastered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Plan how free time may be spent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allow student choice in how time is spent </li></ul><ul><li>Written plans and guidelines </li></ul>
  16. 17. Questioning <ul><li>Target some questions and leave others “open” to group </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions when possible </li></ul><ul><li>Wait time </li></ul><ul><li>Think- pair-share </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage “building” on previous answers </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to “explain and defend” </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust difficulty of question based on student needs </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>look at flexbooks </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  18. 19.
  19. 20. Let’s explore http:// /
  20. 21. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>What would your top ten be? </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Can students customize their education through technology? </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>“ Differentiation can occur in the content, product or environment in the classroom.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the School of One model that is being implemented in New York. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do we do? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can we take? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>School of one video </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>School of one Brochure </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Pick a concept that you teach in your curriculum or a task that students need to perform within the school environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Find as many ‘apps’ as you can that could support this concept or task. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick pair and share </li></ul>
  28. 29. Some Criteria for Software / Application Selection <ul><li>Does things better </li></ul><ul><li>Does better things </li></ul><ul><li>Provides feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Has multiple levels for different learners </li></ul><ul><li>(Tracks student performance) </li></ul><ul><li>(Triggers different problems depending on individual performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions, Decisions (Tom Snyder) </li></ul>
  29. 30. Integrating Technology into DI How Do I Do That?
  30. 31. <ul><li>Technology can be used as a tool to differentiate Content, Process, Product, and Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Technology can be used in key components of differentiation: readiness, interest, learning styles </li></ul>Product Environment Standards Process Readiness Content Learning Styles Interest
  31. 32. Content, Process, Product . . . <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is learning the same concept, but using different levels of complexity, depth or sophistication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is learning the same concept, but using different methods to learn it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is using different ways of showing what they know. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Where’s the Content?
  33. 34. Technology and Content
  34. 35. How do you use technology to differentiate content?
  35. 36. Graphic Organizers <ul><li>Inspiration Software, Inc.htm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidspiration, Inspiration Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Versions for Handhelds (Palm and Windows) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of Template Sample 2 Sample 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schools of California Online Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write Design Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-Line - Graphic Organizers.htm </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Interactive Content – Active Learning <ul><li>Real-time data projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using online data, such as world-wide earthquake activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using and analyzing Primary Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing and compiling data online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partner projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting with another group or organization to complete or share a project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Webquests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher designed, student implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blackboard classes </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorials </li></ul>
  37. 38. NASA Sci Files
  38. 39. Canadian Space Agency
  39. 40. Online lessons Teacher background resources
  40. 41. Ology site map
  41. 42. Collections Primary Documents-journals More depth of content
  42. 45. Technology and Process
  43. 46. Technology & Process <ul><li>VOD (video on demand) Allows for different learning styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PBS – Chalkwaves, United Streaming Video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Webquests learning styles, higher level, interest, self-directed, real-world tasks, uncover information </li></ul><ul><li>Blackboard – eLearning </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Build applications that harness network effects to get better the more people use them. “ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki’s, social networking, blogs, podcasting, eBay, Flickr, iTunes </li></ul></ul>
  44. 47. Technology and Products
  45. 48. Technology & Products <ul><li>Multimedia products </li></ul><ul><li>Text with graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Web-published products </li></ul><ul><li>Stand-alone slide shows </li></ul><ul><li>Digital video </li></ul><ul><li>Visual essays and reports </li></ul><ul><li>Digital storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Products associated with a differentiated approach reflect both the learners' expression and the applied skills of a field of study. </li></ul><ul><li>These products can be achieved through exposure to learning opportunities developed within the classroom or through the external environment (Passow, 1982) </li></ul>
  46. 49. Robotics Robolab Mindstorms
  47. 50. Digital Photography <ul><li>Save Samples of work or class projects </li></ul><ul><li>Art/design </li></ul><ul><li>Basic photography techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Record science experiments or other activities </li></ul><ul><li>Creative expression </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate original works </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe Photo-Deluxe, Paint Shop Pro and others </li></ul><ul><li>Photo Story3 </li></ul>
  48. 51. Digital Recorders <ul><li>Reluctant writers – high verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Translations (Spanish to English, etc.) Julia </li></ul><ul><li>Original Books on Tape for young students or ELL </li></ul><ul><li>Record personal performances (music) from home or public venues to include in other work - Eric </li></ul>
  49. 52. Podcasts & Vodcasts <ul><li>Recording audio and video </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting to web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting for downloads </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills, art, technology, organizational skills . . . </li></ul>
  50. 53. Music and Sound <ul><li>Garage Band on Mac </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layer tracks, record, mix, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital recording </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With or without microphone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound Effects in digital video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint & Web Pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Record your own </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add files from Microsoft online files </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 54. Wikis <ul><li>Go to: </li></ul><ul><li>Take a tour </li></ul>
  52. 55. Online Discussion <ul><li>After reading the article, Using Flexible Technology to Meet the Needs of Diverse Learners respond to the following statement: </li></ul><ul><li>It is my experience that “many of the technology resources that most schools already have at hand can be used to facilitate this kind of tailored instruction.” </li></ul>
  53. 56. Tools for the Fluid Classroom Flexible Learning Spaces Adjust to your audience
  54. 57. My Blackberry’s broken! <ul><li> </li></ul>
  55. 58. Multiple Devices in One
  56. 59. Classroom Layout and Design <ul><li>2-3 Student Computers. This is typically desktops, but has been rolled into laptop carts in recent years. </li></ul><ul><li>A mounted data projector </li></ul><ul><li>A teacher accessible computer. Can be a laptop or desktop. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless and wired network access. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to cameras and video cameras. </li></ul><ul><li>What Should All Classrooms Have? </li></ul>Copyright 2009
  57. 60. Classroom Layout and Design <ul><li>Interactive Whiteboards </li></ul><ul><li>Various Peripherials (Document Camera, Response Units, Tablets, Netbooks, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Student Wireless for Various Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Field System </li></ul><ul><li>What Could All Classrooms Have? </li></ul>Copyright 2009
  58. 61. Learning Environments: Where Space, Technology, and Culture Converge <ul><li>“… for much of modern history, the dominant model for a learning space has reflected this structure—a classroom in which the instructor occupies a position of focus in a room and students are arranged as an audience. For certain kinds of teaching and learning, this was and remains an appropriate design. The age of information technology introduced a new lens for examining learning spaces and the model on which they are built. </li></ul>Copyright 2009
  59. 62. Learning Environments: Where Space, Technology, and Culture Converge <ul><li>… . The addition of computers, projectors, networks, and electronic media to classrooms, laboratories, and studios brought about transformations in the physical spaces devoted to instruction. Distance learning prompted a further re-examination of the classroom-based learning paradigm in an effort to understand what characteristics promote effective education, how they can be translated into technology-mediated learning, which of them are intrinsic to physical spaces, and which might be separable from actual places and particular moments in time.” </li></ul>Copyright 2009
  60. 63. Teachers TV Movie <ul><li>ICT in Secondary Schools – New Line Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Is this even remotely possible? </li></ul>
  61. 64. Design and Layout <ul><li>If you weren’t restricted, how would you take the existing dimensions of your classroom (or a classroom) and arrange it for a fluid space. </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine the need for multimedia presentations, online learning, collaboration, conferencing, and all of the elements of technology integration we’ve examined. </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Architect </li></ul><ul><li>Third Teacher </li></ul>Copyright 2009
  62. 65. The Learning Curve: <ul><li>With learning technology, the following stages apply: </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1: We don't know that we don't know. Stage 2: We know that we don't know. Stage 3: We know that we know. Stage 4: We don't know that we know. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about It: What stage describes you? </li></ul>
  63. 66. Adopt And Adapt <ul><li>After reading Marc Prensky’s article , do you think we are doing: </li></ul><ul><li>Old Things in Old Ways? </li></ul><ul><li>Old Things in New Ways? </li></ul><ul><li>New Things in New Ways? </li></ul>
  64. 67. Future <ul><li>Take a look at one of the following five categories in 2020 and beyond: Future scenarios for education in the age of new technologies : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• personal devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• intelligent environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• computing infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Report back on the vision the report has for this perspective and the educational implications if this perspective becomes a reality. </li></ul>
  65. 68. Safety? <ul><li>What you don’t know can hurt your child </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think our schools are addressing safety issues as new technologies emerge? </li></ul><ul><li>What is our role? How much responsibility should we have? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the role of the school board? </li></ul>
  66. 69. <ul><li>“ If we are going to prepare kids to be functionally literate in the world today,we're going to have to help them develop critical thinking skills for dealing with the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>They'll have to learn to be savvy about protecting their personal privacy and online safety, and to be discriminating about Internet-based information (Kavur, 2001). </li></ul>
  67. 70. What should kids know about postings? <ul><li>Kids often believe they can exaggerate or </li></ul><ul><li>even lie on the Internet without anyone </li></ul><ul><li>knowing the truth. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s hard to retrieve and delete something </li></ul><ul><li>once it is on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Colleges and employers look at kids’ profiles </li></ul><ul><li>on the Internet. Will a provocative photo or </li></ul><ul><li>a blog about binge drinking affect college </li></ul><ul><li>admission or a future job? </li></ul>
  68. 71. Are kids are being smart about safety? <ul><li>Have they posted provocative pictures? </li></ul><ul><li>Have they given away their identity and </li></ul><ul><li>location (name, school, phone)? </li></ul><ul><li>Do photos give clues to their identity and </li></ul><ul><li>location? </li></ul><ul><li>If predators saw these postings, what could they see or use? </li></ul>
  69. 72. Perceptions of Internet Safety: <ul><li>20% of teens report that it is safe (i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>“ somewhat” or “very safe”) to share personal </li></ul><ul><li>information on a public blog or networking site. </li></ul><ul><li>As well, 37% of 13 to 17-year-olds said they </li></ul><ul><li>are “not very concerned” or “not at all </li></ul><ul><li>concerned” about someone using information </li></ul><ul><li>they’ve posted online in ways they don’t want. </li></ul>
  70. 73. Online Harassment and Bullying <ul><li>Because students use “screen names,” and not their </li></ul><ul><li>real names, there is a feeling of anonymity. </li></ul><ul><li>Students often send messages saying things they </li></ul><ul><li>would never say in person. </li></ul><ul><li>42% of kids have been bullied while online. </li></ul><ul><li>35% of kids have been threatened online </li></ul><ul><li>21% of kids have received mean or threatening e-mail or other message </li></ul>
  71. 74. Free Powerpoint Templates Digital Footprints: Are Students Aware of the Possible Consequences of Their On-line Choices?
  72. 75. <ul><li>To share information regarding the ideas behind 2.1c (21 st Century) responsibility and how it is different from the idea of responsibility that we grew up with. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the sense of urgency within the teaching community regarding the responsible use of technology among our students. </li></ul>
  73. 76. <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did the information come from? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles vs. Research </li></ul></ul>
  74. 77. <ul><li>33% of teens send 100+ text messages each day (Number of texts typically sent each day: Girls - 80, Boys - 30, Adults - 10) </li></ul><ul><li>62% of parents have taken away a cell phone as a punishment </li></ul><ul><li>26% of teens have been bullied or harassed by text or phone </li></ul><ul><li>48% of parents use their child’s cell phone to monitor their location </li></ul><ul><li>(The Pew study, June-September 2009) </li></ul>
  75. 78. ORID <ul><li>Form Your Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three people/group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 each from Elementary, Middle and High School </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look at your data together </li></ul><ul><li>O.R.I.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Be Prepared to Share </li></ul>
  76. 79. <ul><li>When you look at the data what do you see? </li></ul><ul><li>What factual statements can you make based on the data? </li></ul>Your Thoughts and Reflections Questions to Consider O Objective Level
  77. 80. <ul><li>What surprised you? </li></ul><ul><li>What encouraged you? </li></ul><ul><li>What discouraged you? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the data make you feel? </li></ul>Your Thoughts and Reflections Questions to Consider R Reflective Level
  78. 81. <ul><li>What does the data tell us? </li></ul><ul><li>What new insights do you have as a result of this data? </li></ul><ul><li>What good news is there for us to celebrate? </li></ul><ul><li>What doesn’t it tell us and what else might we need to know? </li></ul><ul><li>What areas of need seem to arise? </li></ul>Your Thoughts and Reflections Questions to Consider I Interpretive Level
  79. 82. <ul><li>What are our proposed next steps? </li></ul><ul><li>What decisions can we make? </li></ul><ul><li>What is our action plan for moving forward? </li></ul>Your Thoughts and Reflections Questions to Consider D Decisional Level
  80. 88. Summary You Can’t Undo Your Digital Mistakes There is a sense of urgency. I wanted you to also have a sense of urgency. Do you? What we’re teaching is; how to use a computer, how to use a cell phone, how to use an iPod, but what we need to be teaching is the thought that, “ What I am about to do is public and permanent”
  81. 89. Resources to help you…
  82. 90. Explore an Internet Safety online activity. <ul><li>Jo Cool or Jo Fool – Cyber Tour and Cyber Quiz. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  83. 91. For Younger Students
  84. 93. Resources Videos: Sexting on CNN - You can’t undo your digital mistakes - MTV broadcast - Research/Articles: Social Media and Mobile Internet Use Among Teens and Young Adults , Amanda Lenhart, Kristen Purcell, Aaron Smith, Kathryn Zickuhr, February 2010 Much Ado About Sexting , Miranda Jolicouer and Edwin Zedlewski, June 2010 Sex and Tech , The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, Website(s):
  85. 94. Could you go without your laptop, cell phone or iPod for a day? Or until Saturday?
  86. 95. 24 hrs: Unplugged Media Addiction Presentation by: Heather and Peter Crouse
  87. 96. Addiction : being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming.
  88. 97. University of Maryland Phillip Merrill College of Journalism Dr. Susan Moeller (Project director) The study - “24hours:Unplugged ”– was conducted by the university’s International Center for Media and the Public Agenda. Between Feb 24 – March 4 , 2010 students had to go media free for 24hrs. 24 hrs : Unplugged
  89. 98. 200 students 24 hours <ul><li>No cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>No computers </li></ul><ul><li>No internet </li></ul><ul><li>No television </li></ul><ul><li>No newspapers </li></ul>Media
  90. 99. Study’s top five highlights Students use literal terms of addiction to characterize their dependence on media. isolated alone secluded lonely Fidgety deserted jittery anxious bored distracted frustrated unbearable Addict - someone who is physiologically dependent on a substance; abrupt deprivation of the substance produces withdrawal symptoms 1
  91. 100. ; ( . . . . Students hate going without media. In their world, going without media, means going without friends or family. Student's news awareness comes from nontraditional sources. Students do not make fine distinctions between news and more personal information News via facebook, twitter, blogs,.. 2 3
  92. 101. 18 -21 year old college students are constantly texting and on Facebook . A phone call or email have become a distant second as a way of staying in touch. 4
  93. 102. Students could live without their TV's and the newspapers, but they can’t survive without their I Pods. 5
  94. 103. 111,109 words Most students failed to make it through the 24 hour span. <ul><li>They didn’t know what to do with themselves without the media. </li></ul><ul><li>Many needed to communicate with friends or professors. </li></ul><ul><li>There was no place on or off campus where they wouldn’t be swimming in media. </li></ul>
  95. 104. Social Implications John Fang from the journal Physics Today , July 2009 recommends stepping away from the computer. “ Play in the real world and stop looking for answers on the Internet.” What are the social implications of being “plugged in” for : Elementary students? Middle level students? High school? Adults?
  96. 105. Seinfeld CrackBerry Quiz CBC interview with Jesse Hirsh Click Here Click Here Click Here Related Links
  97. 106. Resources Fang, John (2009). Step Away from the Computer. Physics Today, Jul2009, Vol. 62 Issue 7, p12-13:,2p Domar, Alice (2010). Do you have an Unhealthy Tech Addiction. Redbook, Mar2010, Vol. 214 Issue 3, p96-96:,1p Moeller, Susan . (n.d.). A day Without Media. In undefined. Retrieved January 22,2011, from .
  98. 107. Multi-tasking <ul><li> </li></ul>