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1
Methods for ODP reuse
Valentina Presutti
Semantic Technology Laboratory (STLab), ISTC-CNR
Rome/Catania, Italy
17/10/2016...
• Questions we will try to answer
• Background on ontology reuse
• Classification of reuse models
• Impact of reuse models...
What is the best practice for ontology reuse?
Is it fine to use external ontology entities to model my local
entities?
Sho...
Ontology reuse is a recommended practice (see e.g. [Burleson et al.,
2014], [Bizer et al., 2009])
reuse of standard vocabu...
[d’Aquin and Noy, 2012]: how to choose ontology libraries and current
open issues for ontology library developers (many ar...
Non-linear evolution of ontology design
Diversity of modelling requirements
Availability of existing ontologies
Sustainabi...
Reuse models
• Type of reused ontologies
• Type of reused ontology fragments
• Amount of reused axioms
• Alignment policy
Classificatio...
Reuse of foundational [Gangemi et al, 2003] or top-level
ontologies [DBpedia Ontology]
Specialising DOLCE or the DBpedia O...
Reuse of Ontology Design Patterns
Participation ODP to model event participation
Type of reused ontologies
Reuse of domain ontologies
Reusing the Event Ontology [Raimond and Abdallah, 2007]
Music events
Type of reused ontologies
Reuse of individual entities (classes, relations, individuals)
dolce:hasParticipant, dbpedia-owl:Event
Reuse of “groups” o...
Reuse of ontologies including all their axioms
the whole DOLCE, the whole Event Ontology
Reuse only of axioms in a given n...
Direct reuse
entities and axioms delegated to an external ontology
dolce:Event as type of ontology individuals in my ontol...
Reusing an ontology, ontology fragment, or ontology entity does
not imply to use <owl:import>, nevertheless
In order to as...
The only shared characteristic among all these practices is that
entities are reused with their original logical type
If O...
All these models can be mixed in a same ontology project, or
different projects from the same organisation may apply diffe...
Ontology semantics
maximal commitment: when we reuse a whole ontology with
all its axioms
minimal commitment: when we indi...
Sustainability and usability
maximal reuse may mean less usability
useless or undesired entities and axioms
strong depende...
Interoperability
minimal reuse may simplify interoperability
the less constraints given by axioms the simpler
interoperabi...
The focus on quality of semantics pushes towards maximal reuse,
while the focus on interoperability and sustainability/usa...
Direct reuse of individual entities
E
X
T
O
N
T
L
O
C
O
N
T
Advantages Disadvantages
Semantic ambiguity
Difficulty in veri...
Direct reuse of ODP
2
3
Advantages Disadvantages
Dependency on external module
Mitigated risk of instability
Stability and...
Indirect reuse of modules
2
Advantages Disadvantages
Possible heterogeneity in module
identification
Difficulty in providi...
Indirect reuse of ODP
2
Advantages Disadvantages
Effort for replicating the ODP
implementation
Dependency on external chan...
Summarising table
Direct reuse Indirect reuse
Individual
entities
• Dependency on standards,
if required
• LD praxis
• Sha...
The second part of the morning session (Pascal Hitzler and
Giorgia Lodi) is about use case scenarios
both academic and rea...
• Ontology reuse is a key factor for the success of Semantic
Web technologies
• There is no “one fits all” solution
• Trad...
29
Stupid questions are only those that are not asked (Prof. Paolo Ciancarini)
[Bizer et al., 2009] Christian Bizer, Tom Heath, Tim Berners-Lee:
Linked Data - The Story So Far. Int. J. Semantic Web Inf...
[Suárez-Figueroa et al., 2011] Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa, Asunción Gómez-
Pérez, Mariano Fernández-López: The NeOn Metho...
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Methods for Ontology Design Patterns reuse

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This tutorial tries to answer the following questions:
What is the best practice for ontology reuse?
Is it fine to use external ontology entities to model my local entities?
Should I import the ontologies that I reuse?
What if I only need a part of an ontology?
What if an external ontology that I reused, changes?

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Methods for Ontology Design Patterns reuse

  1. 1. 1 Methods for ODP reuse Valentina Presutti Semantic Technology Laboratory (STLab), ISTC-CNR Rome/Catania, Italy 17/10/2016, Kobe, Japan ODP for Linked Data Publishing @ ISWC 2016 http://www.slideshare.net/vpresutti/methods-for-ontology-design-patterns-reuse
  2. 2. • Questions we will try to answer • Background on ontology reuse • Classification of reuse models • Impact of reuse models • Reuse models with their advantages and disadvantages • Conclusion towards working examples Outline
  3. 3. What is the best practice for ontology reuse? Is it fine to use external ontology entities to model my local entities? Should I import the ontologies that I reuse? What if I only need a part of an ontology? What if an external ontology that I reused, changes? Questions we will try to answer
  4. 4. Ontology reuse is a recommended practice (see e.g. [Burleson et al., 2014], [Bizer et al., 2009]) reuse of standard vocabularies linked data principles It favors semantic interoperability [Simperl, 2009] knowledge reuse is a key success factor for the Semantic Web reusability is an intrinsic property of ontologies Ontology Design Patterns (ODP) [Gangemi, 2005] they make reuse easier, as they isolate specific requirements Ontology reuse
  5. 5. [d’Aquin and Noy, 2012]: how to choose ontology libraries and current open issues for ontology library developers (many are still open) [Suárez-Figueroa et al., 2011]: methodological guidelines for ontology engineering. As for reuse it identifies two main scenarios and lists the main activities that characterise them: reuse of ontologies as they are and reuse by alignment. ODP reuse is also considered but the possible process is not detailed in terms of activities [Fernández-López et al, 2011]: guidelines on how to identify parts of ontologies to be reused [Schaible et al, 2014]: survey on vocabulary reuse strategies in linked data. It shows that popularity of vocabulary is one of the most used criteria for reuse and that the focus is at terminology reuse This tutorial is mainly based on [Presutti et al, 2016], [Lodi et al, 2016], and [Hammar and Presutti, 2016] which focus on ontology design patterns reuse for linked open data publishing Literature on ontology reuse
  6. 6. Non-linear evolution of ontology design Diversity of modelling requirements Availability of existing ontologies Sustainability within organisations Trends Personal taste of ontology designers No standard for reuse
  7. 7. Reuse models
  8. 8. • Type of reused ontologies • Type of reused ontology fragments • Amount of reused axioms • Alignment policy Classification of reuse models
  9. 9. Reuse of foundational [Gangemi et al, 2003] or top-level ontologies [DBpedia Ontology] Specialising DOLCE or the DBpedia Ontology Modelling events and participation in them Cultural institutes involved in an exhibition Type of reused ontologies
  10. 10. Reuse of Ontology Design Patterns Participation ODP to model event participation Type of reused ontologies
  11. 11. Reuse of domain ontologies Reusing the Event Ontology [Raimond and Abdallah, 2007] Music events Type of reused ontologies
  12. 12. Reuse of individual entities (classes, relations, individuals) dolce:hasParticipant, dbpedia-owl:Event Reuse of “groups” of entities (modules, ODP, or arbitrary fragments) Participation ODP dolce:hasParticipant and all its relevantly related entities, e.g. dolce:Object, dolce:Event, etc. The whole Event Ontology Type of reused ontology fragments
  13. 13. Reuse of ontologies including all their axioms the whole DOLCE, the whole Event Ontology Reuse only of axioms in a given neighborhood of a specific entity referred to as ontology module dolce:hasParticipant + entities and axioms within a certain graph distance Only reuse individual entities’ URIs with no axioms Amount of reused axioms
  14. 14. Direct reuse entities and axioms delegated to an external ontology dolce:Event as type of ontology individuals in my ontology Indirect or template-based reuse define my own entities and align them to external ontologies myont:CulturalEvent rdfs:subClassOf dolce:Event XDP (WebProtégé plugin) offers tool support (afternoon session) Alignment policy
  15. 15. Reusing an ontology, ontology fragment, or ontology entity does not imply to use <owl:import>, nevertheless In order to assess semantic coherence and consistency of the resulting ontology wrt its requirements, one needs to <owl:import> the reused ontologies, at least for the time needed to perform these tasks <owl:import>
  16. 16. The only shared characteristic among all these practices is that entities are reused with their original logical type If Ol reuses Or then e rdfs:type owl:Class and e ∈ Or implies f rdfs:type owl:Class and e ∈ Ol e ≡ | ⊆ f Reuse models
  17. 17. All these models can be mixed in a same ontology project, or different projects from the same organisation may apply different strategies There is not “the best for all situations” model Regardless the trend or taste, the type of reuse impacts on the developed ontology project The choice of reuse model must be done according to the ontology project’s contextual requirements Reuse models
  18. 18. Ontology semantics maximal commitment: when we reuse a whole ontology with all its axioms minimal commitment: when we indirectly reuse an individual entity without importing its related axioms semantics is safer and more complete in case of maximal reuse Impact of reuse models
  19. 19. Sustainability and usability maximal reuse may mean less usability useless or undesired entities and axioms strong dependency on external resources risk of incoherence wrt original requirements after external changes Impact of reuse models
  20. 20. Interoperability minimal reuse may simplify interoperability the less constraints given by axioms the simpler interoperability Impact of reuse models
  21. 21. The focus on quality of semantics pushes towards maximal reuse, while the focus on interoperability and sustainability/usability pushes towards minimal reuse The vision of the designer, the scope of the project, the type of project and the nature of data that we deal with are at the basis of the choice of a reuse model The goal is to maximise the quality of semantics without negatively impact on usability, sustainability, and interoperability Impact of reuse models
  22. 22. Direct reuse of individual entities E X T O N T L O C O N T Advantages Disadvantages Semantic ambiguity Difficulty in verifying consistency Strong external dependency Risk of instability Possible sustainability issues Linked data praxis Reuse of shared terminology Good if one wants to comply with and follow evolution of standards
  23. 23. Direct reuse of ODP 2 3 Advantages Disadvantages Dependency on external module Mitigated risk of instability Stability and sustainability Modularity Interoperability ODP are unlikely to change Easy to re-design in case of changes loc:Person loc:organises
  24. 24. Indirect reuse of modules 2 Advantages Disadvantages Possible heterogeneity in module identification Difficulty in providing formal specification of external module Effort for replicating the module implementation Dependency on external changes is limited to alignment axioms Easier re-design for fixing issues due to external changes Stability and sustainability Modularity and Interoperability Alignment axioms
  25. 25. Indirect reuse of ODP 2 Advantages Disadvantages Effort for replicating the ODP implementation Dependency on external changes is limited to alignment axioms Easier re-design for fixing issues due to external changes Stability and sustainability Modularity and interoperability Alignment axioms
  26. 26. Summarising table Direct reuse Indirect reuse Individual entities • Dependency on standards, if required • LD praxis • Shared vocabulary • Less effort in design • Semantics ambiguity • Difficult to verify consistency/coherence • Strong external dependency • Risk of instability • Possible sustainability issues • Dependency on standards • LD principles • Shared vocabulary • Easier to fix possible issues due to external changes • Semantics ambiguity • Indirect dependency from external resources • More sustainable Module • Less effort in design • Clearer semantics • Strong dependency on external resources • Possible heterogeneity in module identification • Difficulty in providing formal specification of external module • Hard to fix possible issues due to external changes • Limited dependency on external changes (only alignment axioms) • Easier re-design for fixing issues due to external changes • Stability and sustainability • Modularity and Interoperability • Possible heterogeneity in module identification • Difficulty in providing formal specification of external module • Effort for replicating the module implementation ODP • Reuse of design good practices • Stability and sustainability • Modularity and interoperability • ODP are unlikely to change • Easy to re-design in case of changes • Dependency on external module • Mitigated risk of instability • Dependency on external changes is limited to alignment axioms • Easier re-design for fixing issues due to external changes • Stability and sustainability • Modularity and interoperability • Effort for replicating the ODP implementation
  27. 27. The second part of the morning session (Pascal Hitzler and Giorgia Lodi) is about use case scenarios both academic and real world scenarios will be discussed and different reuse models applied The afternoon (Karl Hammar) will be dedicated to a practical session where you will apply ontology reuse with some tools support (XDP, WebProtégé plugin) Working examples
  28. 28. • Ontology reuse is a key factor for the success of Semantic Web technologies • There is no “one fits all” solution • Tradeoff between semantic ambiguity, usability, sustainability and interoperability, is the goal • The stronger the commitment the safer and more complete the semantics, the lower the usability/sustainability and interoperability • Different reuse models with their advantages and disadvantages Conclusion
  29. 29. 29 Stupid questions are only those that are not asked (Prof. Paolo Ciancarini)
  30. 30. [Bizer et al., 2009] Christian Bizer, Tom Heath, Tim Berners-Lee: Linked Data - The Story So Far. Int. J. Semantic Web Inf. Syst. 5(3): 1-22 (2009) [Burleson et al., 2014] Linked Data Platform Best Practices and Guidelines. W3C Working Group Note 28 August 2014 https://www.w3.org/TR/ld-bp/ [Simperl, 2009] Elena Paslaru Bontas Simperl: Reusing ontologies on the Semantic Web: A feasibility study. Data Knowl. Eng. 68(10): 905-925 (2009) [Gangemi, 2005] Aldo Gangemi: Ontology Design Patterns for Semantic Web Content. International Semantic Web Conference 2005: 262-276 [Gangemi et al. 2003] Aldo Gangemi, Nicola Guarino, Claudio Masolo, Alessandro Oltramari: Sweetening WORDNET with DOLCE. AI Magazine 24(3): 13-24 (2003) [d’Aquin and Noy, 2012] [DBpedia Ontology] The DBpedia Ontology: http://wiki.dbpedia.org/services- resources/ontology [Raimond and Abdallah, 2007] The event ontology. Technical report, 2007. References
  31. 31. [Suárez-Figueroa et al., 2011] Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa, Asunción Gómez- Pérez, Mariano Fernández-López: The NeOn Methodology for Ontology Engineering. Ontology Engineering in a Networked World 2012: 9-34 [Fernández-López et al, 2011] Mariano Fernández-López, Mari Carmen Suárez- Figueroa, Asunción Gómez-Pérez: Ontology Development by Reuse. Ontology Engineering in a Networked World 2012: 147-170 [Schaible et al, 2014] Johann Schaible, Thomas Gottron, Ansgar Scherp: Survey on Common Strategies of Vocabulary Reuse in Linked Open Data Modeling. ESWC 2014: 457-472 [Presutti et al, 2016] Valentina Presutti, Giorgia Lodi, Andrea Giovanni Nuzzolese, Aldo Gangemi, Silvio Peroni and Luigi Asprino: "The role of Ontology Design Patterns in Linked Data projects”. ER 2016. [Lodi et al, 2016] Semantics for Cultural Heritage Valorisation. Giorgia Lodi, Valentina Presutti, Luigi Asprino, Andrea Nuzzolese, Diego Reforgiato, Aldo Gangemi, Annarita Orsini, Chiara Veninata. Springer, Data Analytics in Digital Humanities, 2016 [Hammar and Presutti, 2016] Karl Hammar and Valentina Presutti - Template-Based Content ODP Instantiation. In WOP 2016. IOS Press References

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