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  1. 1. Historiography Vernon Totanes FIS 3005 2 I November 2006
  2. 2. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. George Santayana
  3. 3. Overview 0 Definitions 0 From Reliable Sources 0 “The Chinese Mestizo in Philippine History” 0 Application
  4. 4. Definitions 0 History * Study of the past 0 Historiography I. methods of historical research 2. writing of history 3. available data on historical topic l 4. historical literature l
  5. 5. From Reliable Sources 0 An Introduction to Historical Methods 0 Martha Howell &Walter Prevenier 0 Cornell University Press (200|) 0 2:Technica| Analysis of Sources 0 3: Historical Interpretation 0 4: New Interpretive Approaches
  6. 6. Interpretation 0 Comparison of sources * Seven-step process, stalemate, argument from silence, interpolation or ana| ogy, “the scientific method” 0 Establishing evidentiary satisfaction * True/ false, abundance/ scarcity, participantl observer ‘ 0 The “facts” that matter
  7. 7. What history is not biased? Show me a historian, a real historian who is not biased! History is never objective. Teodoro Agoncillo
  8. 8. Philippine History 0 Ferdinand Magellan (|52|) 0 Doctrina Christiana (I593) 0 Independence Day (|2]une I898) 0 Independence Day (4 July I946) 0 Martial Law (I972) 0 People Power Revolution (I986)
  9. 9. The Philippines 0 Las Phelipinas or Las lslas Filipinas (I543?) 0 The Philippine Islands (I898?) 0 The Philippines (|9|6?) 0 Pilipinas
  10. 10. Filipino 0 Person * Pre-I898 * The First Filipino * Filipina 0 Language
  11. 11. Study the historian before you begin to study the facts. E. H. Carr
  12. 12. Edgar Wicl<berg 0 PhD, UC-Berkeley (|96|) 0 “Early Chinese Economic Influence in the Philippines, I 850- I 898” (I 962) 0 The Chinese in Philippine Life: I850-I898 (I965) 0 Professor, UBC (|969- I 992), now Emeritus 0 Co-editor, From China to Canada: A History of the Chinese Communities in Canada (I982)
  13. 13. JSEAH 0 journal of Southeast Asian History (I960) 0 journal of Southeast Asian Studies (I970) 0 Typographical errors * “. ..the mestizos lost their change to become a native middle class. ” 0 “The Chinese Mestizo in Philippines”
  14. 14. Purpose Statement It is precisely because they formed a separate group, legally defined as such by the Spanish government, that we are able to determine with considerable clarity the nature of the mestizos’ activities--and hence, the nature of their role in that period of Philippine history. That role was as I will attempt to demonstrate below, of great significance to Philippine historical development. (p. 62)
  15. 15. Social Classes 0 Spaniards and Spanish mestizos 0 Chinese 0 Chinese mestizo 0 lndio
  16. 16. Methodology 0 Sources * Philippine National Archives * Spanish books and documents 0 Interpretation *6 Likely, probably * “. ..no knowledge at present. ..” I *6 “. ..no documented cases to support. .." I
  17. 17. Weaknesses 0 Unsupported statements * “There being no Chinese women in the Philippines. ..” (I964, p. 68) * ‘‘. ..almost complete absence of Chinese women. ..” (I965, p. I8) 0 Lack of sources 0 Inaccessible sources
  18. 18. Strengths “. ..he reveals new possibilities unenvisioned by the earlier generation. .. he makes legal and tax records yield ethnic information. ” (Larkin I979) “Seldom has an historian’s ‘discovery’ of a social group and its role been as unreservedly received and readily accepted. ..” (Cruikshank I978) “. ..the first modern historian to highlight the significance of the mestizos. .. cited in almost every subsequent study of the period. ” (Richardson I989)
  19. 19. Conclusions I. Chinese--not Spanish--mestizos 2. Rise of mestizos implies social change 3. Return of Chinese led to mestizo displacement 4. Combination of mestizo characteristics led to identification with indio
  20. 20. Ap p I i cati o n 0 “History Lesson” (I949) 0 The Queen (2006) 0 “We Didn’t Start the Fire” (I989) 0 Chinese food prices
  21. 21. .. .the historian’s primary task is to examine texts, extract the relevant facts from them, and recount those facts with literary grace in approximate chronological order. Thomas Kuhn
  22. 22. Application 0 Library history 0 History and philosophy of science 0 Doing Exemplary Research 0 Own research
  23. 23. Bibliography Agonci| |o. T.A. . & Ocampo. A. R. (I995). Talking history: Conversations with Teodoro Andal Agoncillo. Manilzr De La Salle University Press. I. Breisach, E. (I994). Historiography: Ancient, medieval 8: modern (2nd ed. ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Carr. E. H. . & Davies. R. N. (I986). What is history? (2nd ed. ). Basingstoke: Macmillan, I7. C| arke, A C. (2000). The collected stories. London: Victor Gollancz. 92-99. Cruikshank. B. (I978). Philippine historiography: Accomplishment and promise: I955-I976. In Hart. D. V., ed. , Philippine studies: History, sociology, mass media, and bibliography. Detroit: Center for Southeast Asian Studies. 46-47. Doctrina Christiana. (I593). Library of Congress Digital Collections. Retrieved 20 November 2006. from httg: //lcweb2.loc. govIcgi-binlampage? co| lld= rbc3&fi| eName= rbc000 I 2002rosen I 302pgge. db&recNum=4. Documentl . (I972). In The Philippines: The Marcos Years. Retrieved 20 November 2006. from htggzl/ www. gv1u. edul-nsarchiv/ nsa/ publications/ philippines/ phdoc I . htm| . Evans. R. j. ( I999). In defense of history (American ed. ). New York: VV. VV. Norton. 3.
  24. 24. Bibliography Facsimile of the proclamation of Philippine independence. (l972). AppendixA. In The laws of the first Philippine Republic. Retrieved 20 November 2006, from htt : //www. hti. umich. edu/ c iltltextl a eviewer-idx? c= hi| amer&cc= hilamer&idno= aabI246.000I.00|&frm= frameset&view= im e&se =203. Guerrero. L. M. (I998). The first Filipino: A biography of josé Rizal (Centennial ed. ). Manila: Guerrero. Historiography. (2006). Encarta. Retrieved 20 November 2006. from http: /lencarta. msn. com/ encnetlfeaturesjdictionaryjDictionaryResu| ts. aspx? refid= I86 I 6 I 8| 33. Howell, M. C. , 8: Prevenier. )/V. (200|). Historical interpretation: The traditional basics. In From reliable sources An introduction to historical methods. Ithaca. N. Y.: Cornell University Press. 69-87. Hughes-Warrington. M. (2000). Fifty key thinkers on history. London: Routledge. Iggers, G. G. (2005). Historiography in the twentieth century. Middletown, CT : Wes| eyan University Press. Kuhn. T. S. (I 977). The essential tension: Selected studies in scientific tradition and change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. x.
  25. 25. Bibliography Larkin. j.A. ed. (I979). Introduction. In Perspectives on Philippine historiography: A symposium. New Haven: YaIe University SoutheastAsia Studies, 3-4. Richardson. j. (I989). Philippines. Oxford: Clio. 53. Santayana. George. (I936). The Life of Reason (2nd ed. ). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 284. Wickberg, E. (I962). Early Chinese economic influence in the Philippines, I850-I898. Pacific Affairs, 35(3), 275-285. -------- --. ( |964). The Chinese mestizo in Philippine history. journal of Southeast Asian History, 5. 62- I 00. -------- --. (I965). The Chinese in Philippine life, I850! 898. New Haven: Yale University Press.