2 I November 2006
Those who cannot remember
the past are condemned to
0 From Reliable Sources
0 “The Chinese Mestizo in Philippine History”
* Study of the past
I. methods of historical research
2. writing of history
3. available data on historical topic
l 4. historical literature l
From Reliable Sources
0 An Introduction to Historical Methods
0 Martha Howell &Walter Prevenier
0 Cornell University Press (200|)
0 2:Technica| Analysis of Sources
0 3: Historical Interpretation
0 4: New Interpretive Approaches
0 Comparison of sources
* Seven-step process, stalemate, argument from
silence, interpolation or ana| ogy, “the scientific
0 Establishing evidentiary satisfaction
* True/ false, abundance/ scarcity, participantl
‘ 0 The “facts” that matter
What history is not biased?
Show me a historian, a real
historian who is not biased!
History is never objective.
0 Ferdinand Magellan (|52|)
0 Doctrina Christiana (I593)
0 Independence Day (|2]une I898)
0 Independence Day (4 July I946)
0 Martial Law (I972)
0 People Power Revolution (I986)
0 Las Phelipinas or Las lslas Filipinas (I543?)
0 The Philippine Islands (I898?)
0 The Philippines (|9|6?)
* The First Filipino
Study the historian before you
begin to study the facts.
E. H. Carr
0 PhD, UC-Berkeley (|96|)
0 “Early Chinese Economic Influence in the
Philippines, I 850- I 898” (I 962)
0 The Chinese in Philippine Life: I850-I898 (I965)
0 Professor, UBC (|969- I 992), now Emeritus
0 Co-editor, From China to Canada: A History of
the Chinese Communities in Canada (I982)
0 journal of Southeast Asian History (I960)
0 journal of Southeast Asian Studies (I970)
0 Typographical errors
* “. ..the mestizos lost their change to become a
native middle class. ”
0 “The Chinese Mestizo in Philippines”
It is precisely because they formed a separate
group, legally deﬁned as such by the Spanish
government, that we are able to determine
with considerable clarity the nature of the
mestizos’ activities--and hence, the nature of
their role in that period of Philippine history.
That role was as I will attempt to
demonstrate below, of great signiﬁcance to
Philippine historical development. (p. 62)
0 Spaniards and Spanish mestizos
0 Chinese mestizo
* Philippine National Archives
* Spanish books and documents
*6 Likely, probably
* “. ..no knowledge at present. ..”
I *6 “. ..no documented cases to support. .." I
0 Unsupported statements
* “There being no Chinese women in the
Philippines. ..” (I964, p. 68)
* ‘‘. ..almost complete absence of Chinese
women. ..” (I965, p. I8)
0 Lack of sources
0 Inaccessible sources
“. ..he reveals new possibilities unenvisioned by the
earlier generation. .. he makes legal and tax records yield
ethnic information. ” (Larkin I979)
“Seldom has an historian’s ‘discovery’ of a social group
and its role been as unreservedly received and readily
accepted. ..” (Cruikshank I978)
“. ..the ﬁrst modern historian to highlight the signiﬁcance
of the mestizos. .. cited in almost every subsequent study
of the period. ” (Richardson I989)
I. Chinese--not Spanish--mestizos
2. Rise of mestizos implies social change
3. Return of Chinese led to mestizo displacement
4. Combination of mestizo characteristics led to
identiﬁcation with indio
Ap p I i cati o n
0 “History Lesson” (I949)
0 The Queen (2006)
0 “We Didn’t Start the Fire” (I989)
0 Chinese food prices
.. .the historian’s primary task is
to examine texts, extract the
relevant facts from them, and
recount those facts with
literary grace in approximate
0 Library history
0 History and philosophy of science
0 Doing Exemplary Research
0 Own research
Agonci| |o. T.A. . & Ocampo. A. R. (I995). Talking history: Conversations with Teodoro Andal
Agoncillo. Manilzr De La Salle University Press. I.
Breisach, E. (I994). Historiography: Ancient, medieval 8: modern (2nd ed. ). Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.
Carr. E. H. . & Davies. R. N. (I986). What is history? (2nd ed. ). Basingstoke: Macmillan, I7.
C| arke, A C. (2000). The collected stories. London: Victor Gollancz. 92-99.
Cruikshank. B. (I978). Philippine historiography: Accomplishment and promise: I955-I976. In
Hart. D. V., ed. , Philippine studies: History, sociology, mass media, and bibliography. Detroit:
Center for Southeast Asian Studies. 46-47.
Doctrina Christiana. (I593). Library of Congress Digital Collections. Retrieved 20 November
2006. from httg: //lcweb2.loc. govIcgi-binlampage?
co| lld= rbc3&ﬁ| eName= rbc000 I 2002rosen I 302pgge. db&recNum=4.
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htggzl/ www. gv1u. edul-nsarchiv/ nsa/ publications/ philippines/ phdoc I . htm| .
Evans. R. j. ( I999). In defense of history (American ed. ). New York: VV. VV. Norton. 3.
Facsimile of the proclamation of Philippine independence. (l972). AppendixA. In The laws of
the ﬁrst Philippine Republic. Retrieved 20 November 2006, from htt : //www. hti. umich. edu/
c iltltextl a eviewer-idx?
c= hi| amer&cc= hilamer&idno= aabI246.000I.00|&frm= frameset&view= im e&se =203.
Guerrero. L. M. (I998). The first Filipino: A biography of josé Rizal (Centennial ed. ). Manila:
Historiography. (2006). Encarta. Retrieved 20 November 2006. from http: /lencarta. msn. com/
encnetlfeaturesjdictionaryjDictionaryResu| ts. aspx? refid= I86 I 6 I 8| 33.
Howell, M. C. , 8: Prevenier. )/V. (200|). Historical interpretation: The traditional basics. In From
reliable sources An introduction to historical methods. Ithaca. N. Y.: Cornell University Press.
Hughes-Warrington. M. (2000). Fifty key thinkers on history. London: Routledge.
Iggers, G. G. (2005). Historiography in the twentieth century. Middletown, CT : Wes| eyan
Kuhn. T. S. (I 977). The essential tension: Selected studies in scientiﬁc tradition and change.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. x.
Larkin. j.A. ed. (I979). Introduction. In Perspectives on Philippine historiography: A symposium.
New Haven: YaIe University SoutheastAsia Studies, 3-4.
Richardson. j. (I989). Philippines. Oxford: Clio. 53.
Santayana. George. (I936). The Life of Reason (2nd ed. ). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Wickberg, E. (I962). Early Chinese economic influence in the Philippines, I850-I898. Pacific
Affairs, 35(3), 275-285.
-------- --. ( |964). The Chinese mestizo in Philippine history. journal of Southeast Asian History,
5. 62- I 00.
-------- --. (I965). The Chinese in Philippine life, I850! 898. New Haven: Yale University Press.