Cognitive load b_holmes_nov10

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November 2010 presentation to IxDA Portland and Art Institute of Portland

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Cognitive load b_holmes_nov10

  1. 1.  Cognitive Load  Applying principles to design  Q&A  Social  Ping 4th and NW Couch, under the Hung Far Low sign
  2. 2. Working Memory Short-Term Memory Sensory Memory Verbal Processing Auditory Visual Processing Visual Printed Words Long-Term Memory Spoken Words
  3. 3. Information is constantly bombarding our senses. Do we perceive all of it? We’ll watch a video. When watching the video, your job is to count number of times that the people wearing white shirts pass the basketball. Sensory Memory
  4. 4. Information that passes our perceptual filters enters short-term memory. What is the estimated length of time that short-term memory will hold information? How much information can we hold in short- term memory? Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Auditory Visual
  5. 5. Information is held in short-term memory for 2-30 seconds. We can hold 7+-2 (5-9) chunks in short-term memory. However, visual short- term memory (VSTM) probably only holds 4 chunks. Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Auditory Visual
  6. 6. Individual must focus to select what will be processed. Individual rehearses information in working memory to organize and integrate it with existing knowledge in long-term memory. Working memory: “remembering what we are doing as we do it.” Letters memory test Visual memory test Working Memory Verbal Processing Visual Processing Long-Term Memory
  7. 7. Retrieval: New knowledge and skills must be retrieved from long-term memory for transfer to the job. Working Memory Verbal Processing Visual Processing Long-Term Memory
  8. 8. Working Memory Short-Term Memory Sensory Memory Verbal Processing Auditory Visual Processing Visual Printed Words Long-Term Memory Spoken Words
  9. 9. Use words and graphics rather than words alone.  Use graphics and text to present instructional content.  Ensure graphics are relevant, not decorative.  Use graphics as topic organizers. How a bicycle pump works As the rod is pulled out, air passes through the piston and fills the area between the piston and the outlet value. As the rod is pulled out air passes through the piston and fills the area between the piston and the piston and outlet valve
  10. 10. A client wants us to create an e-learning course for IT project managers. She says “Since they are used to doing Internet research. Let’s put more text on the pages, the pages can scroll, and learners don’t have to hit the Next button as often.You could put one topic on each screen and cut way down on the number of pages.” Is this a good idea? Will putting more text on a page increase learning?
  11. 11. Place corresponding words and graphics near each other. A bicycle pump is a type of positive-displacement pump specifically designed for Inflating bicycle tires. It has a connection or adapter for use with one or both of the two most common types of valves used on bicycles, Schrader or Presta. A third type of valve called the Woods valve exists, but tubes with these valves can be filled using a Presta pump. Several basic types are available: •Floor models or track pumps •Frame mounted •Compact or mini •Foot operated •Double action In its most basic form, a bicycle pump functions via a hand-operated piston. During the up- stroke, this piston draws air through a one-way valve into the pump from the outside. During the down-stroke, the piston then displaces the air from the pump into the bicycle tire. Most floor pumps, also commonly called track pumps, have a built in pressure gauge to indicate tire pressure. Text is too far from the graphic that illustrates the concept.
  12. 12. Place corresponding words and graphics near each other.  Don’t separate text and graphics through long scrolling screens.  Use pop-up text, reduced graphics, and other techniques that support integration of text and graphics.  For quiz questions and activities, put feedback on the same screen as the question.  Put activity instructions on the same screen where the actions will be made. (Don’t put the instructions on a separate screen.)
  13. 13. You recommended a Flash animation with audio narration to explain a complex process.The client wants to reduce costs and suggests just using text and still graphics – no audio. Is this a good idea? Will it aid learning?
  14. 14. Working Memory Short- Term Memory Sensory Memory Verbal Processing Auditory Visual Processing Visual Printed Words Long-Term Memory Spoken Words Present words as audio narration rather than onscreen text for graphics and animations.
  15. 15. A client requires that all web content support people with disabilities. They have asked that you include both audio narration and text – that say the same thing. “This will support users who are deaf as well as supporting both visual and auditory learning styles.” Will this increase understanding and comprehension?
  16. 16. Presenting words in both text and audio narration can hurt learning and comprehension.  Avoid narrating onscreen text when words and pictures are presented simultaneously at a fast pace.  You could consider narrating onscreen text when:  There are few words.  There are no pictures.  The learner has amble time to process the pictures and words.  The learner is likely to have difficulty processing the spoken words.
  17. 17. A client wants to jazz up a eLearning course on the dull topic of understanding financial codes. They have suggested a jeopardy style game. Will this aid learning? If not, what would you suggest to make the e-learning more interesting?
  18. 18. Adding interesting material can hurt learning.  Omit extraneous sounds.  Do not play background music.  Do not use graphics or video that are related but not essential.  Omit extraneous words. Keep text concise.  Use exercises and activities that allow direct transfer to the work situation.
  19. 19. Use conversational style and virtual coaches.  Use a conversational style for narration and text, using “you,” “your, “I,” “we,” and “ours.”  Consider providing conversational onscreen characters (agents).These agents may be visually realistic or line art. Agents should serve a valid instructional purpose.
  20. 20.  Human memory has two channels for processing information: auditory and visual  Human memory has a limited capacity.
  21. 21. Working Memory Short-Term Memory Sensory Memory Verbal Processing Auditory Visual Processing Visual Printed Words Long-Term Memory Spoken Words
  22. 22.  For online articles and links, see my brilliant colleague Katherine’s bookmark list http://www.delicious.com/KatherineStevens/cognitiveload  Stay in touch @volleyballbarb

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