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©2010 British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery
Focus On
Tears of th...
by measurements of offset-ratio, alpha and beta angles on
or MRI....
The cam variety of impingement presents with intermittent
discomfort in the groin during or after repetitive or persiste...
CT. The use of 3D reconstruction of CT scans has proved useful in
the recognition ...
Labral refixation provides better results than simple excision,40
and correction of the underlying structural deformity ...
27. Clohisy JC, Carlisle JC, Beaulé PE, et al. A systematic approach to the plain ...
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Impingement Femoroacetabular - Lee en forma todo lo que de dice de FAI es clinicamente cierto.


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Entiende, evalua y trata de una manera diferente las patologias de cadera. El impingemet (FAI) es una entidad muy estudiada medicamente y muy poco desarrollada y entendida en kinesiologia. Aprende nuevas formas de trabajar la cadera, cursos de manejo de la cadera en

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Impingement Femoroacetabular - Lee en forma todo lo que de dice de FAI es clinicamente cierto.

  1. 1. 1 ©2010 British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery Focus On Femoroacetabular impingement Introduction Tears of the acetabular labrum are a recognised cause of hip pain.1-4 Possible causes of labral tears include trauma, hypolaxity of the anterior capsule, dysplasia, bony impingement and reduced biomechanical properties in the area most susceptible to tears.5,6 Impingement of the proximal femur against or within the acetabular rim is a common underlying cause of a labral tear in the non-dysplastic hip.7,8 Leunig et al9 defined morphological abnormalities in the shape and orientation of the femur and acetabulum that charac- terised femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and proposed a causative link between FAI and the development of osteoarthri- tis.9-12 Wagner et al13 showed that the cartilage from the non- spherical portion of the femoral head in FAI showed histological changes similar to those of an arthritic hip, and different to a spherical head control group. Chondral damage is associated with FAI in a predictable man- ner,14,15 and damage to the acetabular rim has been postulated as part of a sequence of events causing hip osteoarthritis.16 The key morphological characteristics of FAI relate to abnor- malities in the shape and orientation of the femoral head and neck (cam impingement) or to abnormalities in the shape and orientation of the acetabulum (pincer impingement). While gross examples of cam impingement (pistol-grip deformity, post Slipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis) and pincer impingement (severe acetabular retroversion) have been recognised for many years, the recognition of more subtle variants of these condi- tions and their links to the early development of arthritis has allowed greater understanding of early adult arthritis and facili- tates the development of new treatment options. Cam Impingement The basic hypothesis is that cam impingement arises when the radius of curvature of the femoral head or neck profile exceeds the radius of curvature of the acetabulum, and can arise from a number of basic abnormalities. A key element of cam impinge- ment is a reduced or absent offset between the femoral head and neck (Fig. 1). The degree of cam deformity has been defined Offset ratio = x/y y x Alpha angle Alpha angle Ideal hip Retroverted Beta angle Beta angle Alpha angle Beta angle Alpha angle Beta angle Aspherical hip Broad hip Fig. 1 Varieties of cam femoroacetabular impingement
  2. 2. 2 THE JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY by measurements of offset-ratio, alpha and beta angles on radiographs17,18 or MRI.19 As the aspherical, expanded portion of the femoral head-neck complex encroaches on the acetabular rim, the labrum displaces outwards resulting in increased tensile stress at the labrochon- dral junction resulting in labral type-1 tear separation from the adjacent articular cartilage at the watershed.20 As the aspherical portion rotates further within the acetabular rim, compressive forces and shear stress at the osteochondral junction increase, resulting in delamination of the chondral surface from the under- lying bone and producing the so called 'wave sign' visible at arthroscopy. Fissure fractures created by traction forces at the labrochondral junction expose the edge of the chondral surface to the advancing 'front' of the femoral cam lesion, and result in the creation of chondral flap tears or 'carpet lesions' (Fig. 2). This hypothesis is supported by McCarthy et al,21 who confirmed that 73% of hips with labral tears had adjacent acetabular chondral damage. Johnston et al15 confirmed that cam impingers with high alpha angles were associated with labral injury, chondral damage and decreased range of movement. Pincer Impingement The femoral neck of a hip with adequate head-neck offset can impinge on the rim of the acetabulum at the extremes of its range of movement. However, if the shape or orientation of the acetabular rim results in impingement before the hip has achieved its required functional range of movement, impact damage to the labrum will occur. Radiographic features suggesting a susceptibility to pincer impingement include a deep socket (coxa profunda or protrusio), high centre-edge angle, low sourcil angle and signs of global or seg- mental retroversion or anteversion of the acetabular rim (Fig. 3). Dynamic pincer impingement can occur in 'normal' hips if the required range of movement is large (e.g. dancers and gym- nasts) or translated (e.g. hockey players22 ). Labral impact damage frequently manifests signs of a thick- ened, patulous labrum with 'blunting' of the labral edge and cystic change. Alternatively, the labrum may be almost non-exist- ent as a result of intra-substance calcification,14 which com- pounds the problem of a reduced range of movement. Pincer impingement is associated with a lower incidence of anterior acetabular chondral damage than cam impingement, although it still occurs as a 'contrecoup' degeneration on the posterior aspect of the femoral head and acetabulum (Fig. 4).23 While isolated cam and pincer impingement can occur, the majority of hips present with a mixed pattern. Presenting Symptoms FAI commonly presents in younger adults as a deep intermittent groin discomfort during or after activity.24 Fig. 2 Chondral flap tear or 'carpet lesion' Fig. 3 Abnormalities of acetabular version
  3. 3. 3 The cam variety of impingement presents with intermittent discomfort in the groin during or after repetitive or persistent hip flexion. Sprinting or kicking sports, ascending hills or stairs, pro- longed sitting in low chairs, driving or getting in and out of low vehicles are common exacerbating activities. Pain may be referred to the anterior thigh, to the region of the symphysis pubis and to the ipsilateral testicle in men. Anterior pincer impingement presents with similar symptoms as cam impingement. However, symptoms of posterior impingement may be experienced in the buttock or sacro-iliac region. These symptoms are more common in women, occur when the hip is repeatedly hyperextended as in fast walking or walking downhill and are often difficult to differentiate from pain referred from the low back and sacro-iliac joint. Women with posterior impingement frequently complain of posterior hip pain during intercourse. Mechanical symptoms of catching, clicking and a feeling of giving way are commonly associated with labral tears secondary to hip impingement. Examination The hip is examined in a methodical manner, which should include an assessment of rotational abnormalities in the femur. Hip flexion, adduction and internal rotation most com- monly replicate the pain experienced during anterior hip impingement.25,26 In flexion, the hip is progressively rotated from external to internal rotation while moving from abduction to adduction. Using this technique, it is possible to identify the most likely posi- tion of impingement and the most likely area of acetabular rim injury. A similar examination of the hip in hyperextension may help with the diagnosis of posterior impingement. Investigations Radiology. A systematic approach to the plain radiographic evalu- ation of these patients is essential. An anteroposterior (AP) pelvis film should be supported by a cross-table lateral or Dunn view.18 Key acetabular features on the AP film include the presence of a deep or shallow socket (dysplasia, coxa profunda, protrusio) and an assessment of acetabular version (anteverted, retroverted, focal or global). Pattern recognition of subtle abnormalities takes a long time to develop and is fallible; modern Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) facilities allow accurate meas- urement of centre-edge and sourcil angles as a minimum. Key femoral measurements include head sphericity, neck-shaft angle, alpha angle and offset ratio. The Academic Network for Hip Out- comes Research (ANCHOR) study group27 has published an excel- lent systematic guide to evaluating plain images. MRI. To identify the most subtle cam imperfections in proximal femoral anatomy, an MRI arthrogram with intra-articular contrast is required. This investigation should include radial sequence scans (Fig. 5) to allow a tangential view perpendicular to the acetabular rim and a detailed analysis of the proximal femoral morph- ology.28,29 Rakhra et al30 showed that the maximum alpha angles obtained on radial scanning were abnormal in 54% of patients with apparently normal alpha angles on conventional oblique axial scanning. We also recommend acquiring cuts through the distal femur to assess abnormalities of femoral torsion. Fig. 4 Contrecoup posterior acetabular damage secondary to anterior pincer impingement Fig. 5 A radial MRI scan Fig. 6 Three-dimensional (3D) CT reconstruction showing a small cam lesion at the femo- ral anterior head-neck junction
  4. 4. 4 THE JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY CT. The use of 3D reconstruction of CT scans has proved useful in the recognition of subtle femoral deformities (Fig. 6) and in pre- operative planning during the management of complex deformi- ties.17 It is particularly helpful in achieving appropriate orienta- tion of the hip during arthroscopic femoral osteochondroplasty. Management of FAI Femoroacetabular impingement is a mechanical problem that requires a mechanical solution. A common presenting feature is failure to respond to analgesia and physiotherapy; stretching exercises and yoga may aggravate the condition. Reduction in the symptoms associated with pincer impingement might be amenable to sports therapy that focuses on modifying the dynamic hip flexion element of pincer impingement by maintain- ing core stability and a more upright stance during activity (e.g. skiing moguls or deep powder). Surgical correction of the deformity remains the mainstay of management, and has been shown to be effective in the short term. Beaulé, Le Duff and Zaragoza31 showed that quality of life scores such as the Short Form (SF)-12 score or Western Ontario McMasters Universities (WOMAC) index increase after FAI surgery. FAI comprises a broad spectrum of disorders that require a wide range of surgical options. With increased understanding of the con- dition, and cross-fertilisation of surgical principles, it is clear that both hip arthroscopy and open surgery have a valuable role to play. Surgical dislocation of the hip using the Ganz trochanteric flip approach is based on a thorough understanding of the vascular anatomy of the femoral head32-34 and allows unparalleled access to the femoral head and acetabulum. A full description of the technique has been summarised by Norton, Fern and Williams.35 The technique facilitates the key elements of basic FAI surgery, namely femoral osteochondroplasty, labral repair or resection or replacement, reshaping of the acetabular rim and acetabular chondral debridement. With adequate experience, the versatility of the technique allows extremely complex hip reconstruction (Fig. 7) to be performed safely and predictably.36,37 Clohisy and McClure38 reported good to excellent results in 24/25 patients at 1.5 years after an anterior exposure of the hip through a limited Smith-Petersen approach (Fig. 8) combined with hip arthroscopy, despite the restricted exposure compared with formal hip dislocation. Although favourable long-term results can be achieved with simple arthroscopic labral resection,39 the early acceptance of the principles of FAI has resulted in considerable advances in both the techniques and equipment associated with arthro- scopic hip surgery. Fig. 7 The Ganz approach (top left) facilitates safe access to the hip and allows correction of the severe deformity which may be seen in slipped upper femoral epiphysis (top row) and Perthes' disease (bottom row)
  5. 5. 5 Labral refixation provides better results than simple excision,40 and correction of the underlying structural deformity produces a better result than dealing with the labrum in isolation.41,42 These results mirror those achieved by open surgery.33 Philippon et al24 reviewed the arthroscopic treatment of FAI and concluded that ther technique had particular relevance to high-demand patients, particularly athletes seeking a return to high-level sport. It is apparent that the key elements of surgery for FAI which have been developed through open surgery are achievable by skilled hip arthroscopists. Avoiding the need for trochanteric osteotomies and prolonged periods of limited post-operative weight-bearing has obvious advantages. Zebala, Schoenecker and Clohisy43 summarised that FAI was a diverse disease with evolving treatment options; the under- standing of the genetic elements of FAI44 might allow selective screening and earlier diagnosis of the condition. Long-term out- come studies showing a beneficial effect of peri-acetabular oste- otomy after 20 years support the use of biological solutions.45 Although FAI surgery is effective in the short term, evidence is still required that early intervention prevents or delays the devel- opment of arthritis in the long term. Surgically induced acetabular dysplasia as a result of inappropri- ate acetabular rim trimming has been linked with a poor outcome after FAI surgery,46 and has prompted a change in management, emphasising femoral correction and minimal removal of the acetabular rim and/or labral calcification in our centre. Publication of definitive reference ranges for femoral cam lesions43 and acetabular rim morphology in the near future should allow surgeons to become more accurate with patient selection in the future. In return for professional services, 2 authors (MN and EDF) obtained or will obtain outside funding from a commercial group (Corin Group PLC). This is not directly related to the preparation of material for this article. In addition, Corin Group PLC support a research fund directed by the same 2 authors. ED Fern MR Norton Cornwall Hip Foundation Truro, Cornwall Correspondence to: Darren Fern Point Quay House, Point, Devoran, Truro, Cornwall, TR3 6NL e-mail: References 1. Altenberg, A.R. Acetabular labrum tears: a cause of hip pain and degenerative arthritis, Southern Med J 1977;70:174-5. 2. Suzuki S, Awaya G, Okada Y, Maekawa M, Ikeda T, Tada H. Arthroscopic diagnosis of ruptured acetabular labrum, Acta Orthop Scand 1986;57:513-15. 3. Ikeda T, Awaya G, Suzuki S, Okada Y, Tada H. Torn acetabular labrum in young patients. Arthroscopic diagnosis and management. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1988;70-B:13- 16. 4. Fitzgerald RH. Acetabular labrum tears: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Orthop 1995;311:60-8. 5. Smith CD, Masouros S, Hill AM, Amis AA, Bull AM. A biomechanical basis for tears of the human acetabular labrum. Br J Sports Med 2009;43:574-8. 6. Groh MM, Herrera AEJ. A comprehensive review of hip labral tears. Curr Rev Muscu- loskelet Med 2009;2:105-11 7. Ito K, Minka MA, Leunig M, Werlen S, Ganz R. Femoroacetabular impingement and the cam-effect. A MRI-based quantitative anatomical study of the femoral head-neck off- set. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2001;83-B:171-6. 8. Ito K, Leunig M, Ganz R. Histopathologic features of the acetabular labrum in femoroa- cetabular impingement. Clin Orthop 2004;429:262-71. 9. Leunig M, Beck M, Woo A, Dora C, Kerboull M, Ganz R. Acetabular rim degenera- tion: a constant finding in the aged hip. Clin Orthop 2003;413:201-7. 10. Ganz R, Parvizi J, Beck M, Leunig M, Nötzli H, Siebenrock KA. Femoroacetabular impingement: a cause for osteoarthritis of the hip. Clin Orthop 2003;417:112-20. 11. Tanzer M, Noiseux N. Osseous abnormalities and early osteoarthritis: the role of hip impingement. Clin Orthop 2004;429:170-7. 12. GanzR,LeunigM,Leunig-GanzK,HarrisWH.Theetiologyofosteoarthritisofthehip: an integrated mechanical concept. Clin Orthop 2008;466: 264-272 13. Wagner S, Hofstetter W, Chiquet M, et al. Early osteoarthritic changes of human fem- oral head cartilage subsequent to femoro-acetabular impingement. Osteoarthritis Carti- lage 2003;11:508-18. 14. Beck M, Kalhor M, Leunig M, Ganz R. Hip morphology influences the pattern of dam- age to the acetabular cartilage: femoroacetabular impingement as a cause of early oste- oarthritis of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2005;87:1012-18. 15. Johnston TL, Schenker ML, Briggs KK, Philippon MJ. Relationship between offset angle alpha and hip chondral injury in femoroacetabular impingement. Arthroscopy 2008;24:669-75. 16. Tannast M, Goricki D, Beck M, Murphy SB, Siebenrock KA. Hip damage occurs at the zone of femoroacetabular impingement. Clinical Orthop 2008;466:273-80. 17. Beaulé PE, Zaragoza E, Motamedi K, Copelan N, Dorey FJ. Three-dimensional com- puted tomography of the hip in the assessment of femoroacetabular impingement. J Orthop Res 2005;23:1286-92. 18. Meyer DC, Beck M, Ellis T, Ganz R, Leunig M. Comparison of six radiographic projec- tions to assess femoral head/neck asphericity. Clin Orthop 2006;445:181-5. 19. Beaulé PE, Rakhra K. Cam-type FAI: is the alpha angle the best MR arthrography has to offer? Skeletal Radiol 2009;38:855-62. 20. Seldes RM, Tan V, Hunt J, Katz M, Winiarsky R, Fitzgerald RH. Anatomy, histologic features, and vascularity of the adult acetabular labrum. Clin Orthop 2001;382:232-40. 21. McCarthy JC, Noble PC, Schuck MR, et al. The role of labral lesions to development of early hip disease. Clin Orthop 2001;393:25-27. 22. Bizzini M, Notzli HP, Maffiuletti NA. Femoroacetabular impingement in professional ice hockey players: a case series of 5 athletes after open surgical decompression of the hip, Am J Sports Med 2007; 35(11):1955-9. 23. PfirrmannCW,MengiardiB,DoraC,etal.Camandpincerfemoroacetabularimpinge- ment: characteristic MRarthrographic findings in 50 patients. Radiology2006;240:778-85. 24. Philippon MJ, Stubbs AJ, Schenker ML, et al. Arthroscopic management of femoro- acetabular impingement: osteoplasty technique and literature review. Am J Sports Med 2007;35:1571-80. 25. Eijer H, Myers SR, Ganz R. Anterior femoroacetabular impingement after femoral neck fractures. J Orthop Trauma 2001;15:475-81. 26. Philippon MJ, Maxwell RB, Johnston TL, Schenker M, Briggs KK. Clinical presen- tation of femoroacetabular impingement. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2007;15:1041-7. Fig. 8 Limited access via a limited Smith-Petersen approach
  6. 6. 6 THE JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY 27. Clohisy JC, Carlisle JC, Beaulé PE, et al. A systematic approach to the plain radi- ographic evaluation of the young adult hip. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2008;90-A (Suppl 4):47-66. 28. Leunig M, Werlen S, Ungersböck A, Ito K, Ganz R. Evaluation of the acetabular labrum by MR arthrography. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1997;79-B:230-4. 29. Locher S, Werlen S, Leunig M, Ganz R. MR-Arthrography with radial sequences for visualization of early hip pathology not visible on plain radiographs. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 2002;140:52-7. 30. Rakhra KS, Sheikh AM, Allen D, Beaulé P. Comparison of MRI alpha angle meas- urement planes in femoroacetabular impingement. Clin Orthop 2009;467:660-5 31. Beaulé, PE, Le Duff MJ, Zaragoza E. Quality of life following femoral head-neck osteochondroplasty for femoroacetabular impingement. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2007;89-A:773-9. 32. Gautier E, Ganz K, Krügel N, Gill T, Ganz R. Anatomy of the medial femoral circum- flex artery and its surgical implications. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2000;82-B:679-83. 33. Espinosa N, Rothenfluh DA, Beck M, Ganz R, Leunig M. Treatment of femoro- acetabular impingement: preliminary results of labral refixation. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2006;88-A:925-35. 34. Steffen RT, Fern D, Norton M, Murray DW, Gill HS. Femoral oxygenation during hip resurfacing through the trochanteric flip approach. Clin Orthop 2009;467:934-9. 35. Norton MR, Fern ED, Williams MW. Symposium on femoro-acetabular impinge- ment. Br J Hosp Medicine 2009;70:78-83. 36. Fern ED, Easwaran P, Norton MR. Early Aggressive management of Slipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2009;91-B(Supp III):408. 37. Shin SJ, Kwak HS, Cho TJ, et al. Application of Ganz surgical hip dislocation approach in pediatric hip diseases. Clin Orthop Surg 2009;1:132-7. 38. Clohisy JC, McClure JT. Treatment of anterior femoroacetabular impingement with combined hip arthroscopy and limited anterior decompression. Iowa Orthop J 2005;25:164-71. 39. Byrd JW, Jones KS. Hip arthroscopy for labral pathology: prospective analysis with 10-year follow-up. Arthroscopy 2009;25:365-8. 40. Larson CM, Giveans MR. Arthroscopic debridement versus refixation of the acetab- ular labrum associated with femoroacetabular impingement. Arthroscopy 2009;25:369-76. 41. Nepple JJ, Zebala LP, Clohisy JC. Labral disease associated with femoroacetab- ular impingement: do we need to correct the structural deformity? J Arthroplasty 2009;24(6 Suppl):114-19. 42. Bardakos NV, Vasconcelos JC, Villar RN. The role of femoral osteoplasty in symptomatic improvement. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2008;90-B:1570-75. 43. Zebala LP, Schoenecker PL, Clohisy JC. Anterior femoroacetabular impingement: a diverse disease with evolving treatment options. Iowa Orthop J 2007;27:71-81. 44. Pollard TCB, Villar RN, Norton MR, et al. Femoroacetabular impingement and the clas- sification of the cam deformity: The reference interval in normal hips. Acta Orthop 2010;81:134-41. 45. Steppacher SD , Tannest M, Ganz R, Siebenrock R. Mean 20 year follow-up of Bernese Periacetabular osteotomy. Clin Orthop 2008;466:1633-44. 46. Edwards CJ, Reddy R, Bidaye A, Fern ED, Norton MR. Early experience and results for 148 surgical hip dislocations performed for impingement. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2009;91-B(Supp III):404.