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En toen was er niets meer ....

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Keynote door Herbert van de Sompel bij de VOGIN-IP-lezing, Amsterdam 9 maart 2017

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En toen was er niets meer ....

  1. 1. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Herbert  Van  de  Sompel LANL  &  DANS @hvdsomp En toen was  er niets meer …
  2. 2. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 The  Web
  3. 3. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 The  Web  Evolves
  4. 4. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Yet,  the  Web  Exists  in  a  Perpetual  Now
  5. 5. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 • Content  Management  Systems • Web  Archives • Transactional  archives • Search  engine  caches • … Traces  of  the  Past  Web  Exist
  6. 6. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 But  Past  and  Current  Web(s)  are  Parallel  Universes
  7. 7. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 The  Memento  Protocol  Integrates  the  Current  and  Past  Web 7 http://mementoweb.org/guide/rfc/
  8. 8. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Original  Resource  and  Mementos
  9. 9. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Bridge  from  Present  to  Past
  10. 10. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Bridge  from  Present  to  Past
  11. 11. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Bridge  from  Past  to  Present
  12. 12. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Today Select  Date Mar  9  1999 Feb  8  1999 Bibliotheca   Alexandrina Web  Archive Memento:  Access  Versions  via  the  Original  URI  and  a  Datetime
  13. 13. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 vogin.nl in  1999 http://web.archive.bibalex.org/web/19990208021257/http://www.vogin.nl/
  14. 14. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Memento  for  Chrome http://bit.ly/memento-­for-­chome
  15. 15. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Hyperlinks Eric  Sieverts  (2017)  https://vogin-­ip-­lezing.net/2017/01/17/linkrot-­linkroest-­en-­webarchieven/
  16. 16. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Hyperlinks  in  Theory
  17. 17. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Hyperlinks  in  Reality
  18. 18. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Hyperlinks  in  Reality
  19. 19. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Link  Rot
  20. 20. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Link  Rot http://404-­resto.com/typo3temp/pics/7580ea80fa.jpg
  21. 21. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Hyperlinks  in  Reality
  22. 22. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Content  Drift
  23. 23. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Content  Drift
  24. 24. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Content  Drift http://icecube.wisc.edu/  on  May  8  2009  (left)  and  August  27  2009  (right)
  25. 25. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Content  Drift 2000 2004 2005 2008 http://dl00.org  in  2000,  2004,  2005,  2008
  26. 26. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 No  Content  Drift http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/~cowie/k_table.html on  June  9  1997  (left)  and  March  2016  (right)
  27. 27. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 The  Web,  All  Hyperlinks  Subject  to  Link  Rot,  Content  Drift
  28. 28. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 The  Web,  All  Hyperlinks  Subject  to  Reference  Rot • Reference  Rot  hinders  our  ability  to  follow  links  as  they  were   intended  when  they  were  put  in  place: • Link  rot:  A  link  stops  working  all  together • Content  drift:  The  Linked  content  changes  over  time  and  may   eventually  no  longer  be  representative  of  the  content  that  was   originally  linked
  29. 29. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Creating  Pockets  of  Persistence • How  to  maintain  the  integrity  of  links?   • This  challenge  exists  for  the  entire  web.  Some  communities  with  well   managed  collections  care  about  addressing  it  because  they  consider   it  a  Quality  of  Service  issue: • Scholarly  communication • Cultural  heritage • Legal  publications • Government  communication • Journalism • Wikipedia • … • What  can  these  communities  do  to  create  Pockets  of  Persistence?
  30. 30. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 A  Managed  Collection  Desires  Reliable  Outlinks
  31. 31. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Links  to  another  Managed  Collection
  32. 32. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Links  to  Web  at  Large  Resources
  33. 33. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Exploring  Link  Rot  &  Content  Drift
  34. 34. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Preamble  2  -­ Hiberlink Study  of  Reference  Rot  in  STM  Articles PMC  articles  published  1997-­2012 PMC Total 479,194 With  links  to  articles 240,857 With  links  to  web-­at-­large  resources 156,160 Links PMC To  articles 744,678 To  web-­at-­large  resources 480,853A B A B
  35. 35. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Number  of  Articles  &  Links  -­ PMC Martin  Klein,  Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  et  al.  (2014)  Scholarly  context  not  found.  In:  PLOS  ONE https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115253
  36. 36. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Links  to  Articles  &  to  Web  At  Large  Resources  -­ PMC Martin  Klein,  Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  et  al.  (2014)  Scholarly  context  not  found.  In:  PLOS  ONE https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115253
  37. 37. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Exploring  Link  Rot  &  Content  Drift
  38. 38. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Links  Rot  Occurs  when  B  moves  to  C
  39. 39. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Introduce  PID(B)
  40. 40. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Link  to  PID(B)  ;;  HTTP  Redirect  from  PID(B)  to  B
  41. 41. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 When  B  moves  to  C:  HTTP  Redirect  from  PID(B)  to  C
  42. 42. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  Martin  Klein,  and  Shawn  Jones  (2016)  Persistent  URIs  Must  Be  Used   to  Be  Persistent.  In:  WWW2016.  http://arxiv.org/1602.09102 Core  assumption  in  the  PID  solution:   PIDs  will  be  used  to  establish  links. But  are  they?
  43. 43. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 • When  classifying  links  extracted  from  PMC  as  linking  to  articles,  we   assumed  that  filtering  on  http://dx.doi.org/* would  do  the  trick • But  we  found  a  lot  of  e.g.  http://link.springer.com/article/* • For  example: • http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00799-014-018-0 • Instead  of: • http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00799-014-0108-0 • We  used  CrossRef’s Reverse  Domain  Lookup  to  classify  these   extracted  links  as  linking  to  articles A  Disconcerting  Observation
  44. 44. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 URI  References  -­ PMC Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  Martin  Klein,  and  Shawn  Jones  (2016)  Persistent  URIs  Must  Be  Used  to  Be  Persistent.   In:  WWW2016.  http://arxiv.org/1602.09102 Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  Martin  Klein,  and  Shawn  Jones  (2016)  Persistent  URIs  Must  Be  Used   to  Be  Persistent.  In:  WWW2016.  http://arxiv.org/1602.09102
  45. 45. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Cartoon  by  Patrick  Hochstenbach A  Proposal  to  Get  PIDs  Used:  Signposting http://signposting.org
  46. 46. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Signposting:  HTTP  Link with  identifier Relation  Type http://signposting.org/identifier/
  47. 47. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Signposting:  HTTP  Link with  identifier Relation  Type http://signposting.org/identifier/
  48. 48. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Signposting:  Use  HTTP  Link  with  identifier Relation  Type curl –I http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november15/vandesompel/11vandesompel.html HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Wed, 26 Oct 2016 12:36:37 GMT Server: Apache/2.2.15 (CentOS) Last-Modified: Thu, 19 Nov 2015 14:50:19 GMT ETag: "205a5e-f5ef-524e5e0ab80c0" Accept-Ranges: bytes Content-Length: 62959 Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Link: <http://doi.org/10.1045/november2015-vandesompel> ; rel=“identifier”
  49. 49. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 PID  Alternative  -­ When  B  Moves  to  C:  HTTP  Redirect  from  B  to  C
  50. 50. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 PID  Alternative  -­ When  B  Moves  to  C:  HTTP  Redirect  from  B  to  C • Custodian  of  C  needs  to  hold  on  to  domain  of  B • Custodian  of  C  needs  to  establish  redirection  patterns,  often  rather   simple  rules • No  problem  with  establishing  links  to  PID(B);;  the  URI  in  the  browser   address  bar  (initially  B,  later  C)  is  just  fine
  51. 51. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Exploring  Link  Rot  &  Content  Drift
  52. 52. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Content  Drift  Occurs  when  B  Changes  over  Time
  53. 53. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Content  Drift  Occurs  when  B  Changes  over  Time • Was  not  really  considered  an  issue  because: • the  objects  that  receive  PIDs  were  typically  static,  e.g.  scientific   papers • when  a  (substantially)  new  version  of  an  object  is  published,  a   new  PID  is  assigned • But: • PID  links  (typically)  lead  to  landing  pages,  not  the  identified   objects • increasingly,  landing  pages  are  increasingly  rich,  aggregate   comments,  discussion,  annotations;;  they  do  change  over  time.
  54. 54. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Content  Drift  Occurs  when  B  Changes  over  Time
  55. 55. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Custodian  of  B  Takes  Snapshots  of  B  as  it  Evolves  over  Time
  56. 56. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Custodian  of  B  Ensures  Snapshots  of  B  as  it  Evolves  over  Time • This  does  not  happen  for  PID-­identified  objects,  AFAIK • Version  Control  Systems  (e.g.  Wikipedia)  hold  on  to  all  versions;;   snapshots  are  local. • Pro-­active  archiving  solutions  for  web  servers  that  create  snapshots   when  e.g.  new  content  is  published/visited  or  at  regular  intervals: • on-­demand  archiving  of  a  web  server,  cf.  archiefweb.eu,   archive-­it.org • self-­archiving  web  server,  cf.  SiteStory • How  to  access  the  snapshots  of  B?  Memento!
  57. 57. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 SiteStory Transactional  Archive  &  Memento https://mementoweb.github.io/SiteStory/
  58. 58. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 SiteStory,  Wikipedia,  Web  Archive,  Memento  in  Action http://lanlsource.lanl.gov/hello
  59. 59. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Exploring  Link  Rot  &  Content  Drift
  60. 60. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Scholarly  Context  Not  Found Martin  Klein,  Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  et  al.  (2014)  Scholarly  context  not  found.  In:  PLOS  ONE https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115253
  61. 61. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Link  Rot  -­ PMC Martin  Klein,  Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  et  al.  (2014)  Scholarly  context  not  found.  In:  PLOS  ONE https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115253
  62. 62. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Exploring  Link  Rot  &  Content  Drift
  63. 63. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Scholarly  Context  Adrift Shawn  Jones,  Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  et  al.  (2016)  Scholarly  context  not  found.  In:  PLOS  ONE   https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167475
  64. 64. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 How  to  Assess  Content  Drift? Shawn  Jones,  Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  et  al.  (2016)  Scholarly  context  not  found.  In:  PLOS  ONE   https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167475
  65. 65. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Step  1:  Find  Pre/Post  Mementos
  66. 66. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Step  2:  Select  Representative  Mementos
  67. 67. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Text  Similarity  Measures • Compute  aggregate  text  similarity  scores  (values  between  0...100)   for: • Simhash • Jaccard • Sørensen-­Dice • Cosine • If  the  aggregate  score  is  100,  we  decide  that  the  Pre/Post   Mementos  are  representative • We  find  313K  URI  references  with  representative  Mementos
  68. 68. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 URI  References  without  Representative  Mementos  -­ PMC Shawn  Jones,  Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  et  al.  (2016)  Scholarly  context  not  found.  In:  PLOS  ONE   https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167475
  69. 69. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Step  3:  Dereference  Live  Web  Version  of  URI
  70. 70. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Step  4:  Representative  Memento  vs.  Live Version
  71. 71. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Content  Drift  -­ PMC Shawn  Jones,  Herbert  Van  de  Sompel,  et  al.  (2016)  Scholarly  context  not  found.  In:  PLOS  ONE   https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167475
  72. 72. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Exploring  Link  Rot  &  Content  Drift
  73. 73. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Uncertainty  Regarding  the  Future  of  B  when  A  Links  to  It
  74. 74. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Custodian  of  A  Takes  a  Snapshot  of  B  when  Linking  to  It
  75. 75. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Taking  a  Snapshots  of  B:  Automation  is  Key • Web  archive  APIs  for  on-­demand  archiving • perma.cc,  Internet  Archive,  archive.is,  webcitation • Amber  for  Wordpress &  Drupal  archives  resources  linked  in  a  page • http://amberlink.org/ • Hiberlink’s experimental  Zotero extension  archives  bookmarked   URLs • http://hiberlink.org/zotero.html • Hiberlink’s experimental  HiberActive archives  all  URLs  referenced  in   a  newly  submitted  paper • https://www.slideshare.net/martinklein0815/hiberactive
  76. 76. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Linking  to  Snapshot  of  B  =  Potentially  Creating  a  Rotten  Link • Existing  practice  for  linking  to  snapshots: <a href=“URL of snapshot of B”> • Problems  with  existing  practice: o Impossible  to  visit  the  original  URI,  if  desired o Requires  the  permanent  existence/uptime  of  the  archive  that   holds  the  snapshot -­ One  link  rot  problem  replaced  by  another http://robustlinks.mementoweb.org/about/
  77. 77. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Permanent  Existence/Uptime  of  Archives?   Capture  of  http://webcitation.org dated  July  17  2013 https://archive.today/eAETp
  78. 78. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Permanent  Existence/Uptime  of  Archives? Remnant  of  discontinued  web  archive  http://mummify.it captured  on  February  14  2014 https://web.archive.org/web/20140214233752/https://www.mummify.it/
  79. 79. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Permanent  Existence/Uptime  of  Archives? http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/russia-­bans-­wayback-­machine-­internet-­archive-­over-­ islamic-­state-­video/510074.html
  80. 80. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Permanent  Existence/Uptime  of  Archives? http://web.archive.org/web/20121101043952/http://vogin.nl on  March  6  2017  at  15:59  CET
  81. 81. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Link  to  Snapshot  of  B  and  Decorate  the  Link • Desired  practice  for  linking  to  captures  is  to  decorate  the  link  so  it   provides  a  variety  of  options: <a href=“URL of snapshot of B” data-originalurl=“B” data-versiondate=“datetime of snapshot of B”> • Supports: o Revisiting  the  original  URL o Finding  snapshots  in  any  web  archive  (original  URL) o Finding  a  temporally  appropriate  snapshot  in  any  web  archive   (original  URL  &  snapshot  datetime) o Automatically  accessing  a  temporally  appropriate  snapshot  in   any  web  archive  (Memento,  original  URL  &  snapshot  datetime) http://robustlinks.mementoweb.org/spec/
  82. 82. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Robust  Links:  Link  Decoration  in  Action Van  de  Sompel H.  &  Nelson,  M.L.  (2015)  Reminiscing  about  15  years  of  interoperability  efforts.  In:   D-­Lib  Magazine.  https://doi.org/10.1045/november2015-­vandesompel JavaScript  makes  the   link  decorations  actionable
  83. 83. Herbert  Van  de  Sompel VOGIN-­IP,  Amsterdam,  Nederland,  Maart 9  2017 Herbert  Van  de  Sompel LANL  &  DANS @hvdsomp En toen was  er niets meer …

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