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Types of Reactions Na 2 CO 3(aq)  + CaCl 2(aq)    2NaCl (aq)  + CaCO 3(s) 1. Precipitation 2.  Acid - Base 3.  Oxidation ...
Acids & Bases (Bronsted) Acid = Proton (H + ) donor  Base = Proton acceptor Acid Properties: sour (vinegar and citrus frui...
Strong Acids HCl, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 HCl (aq)      H + (aq)  + Cl - (aq)   or ….. HCl  + H 2 O (l)      H 3 O + (aq)  + Cl...
Weak Acids HCN (aq)      H + (aq)   +  CN - (aq) HCN, H +   and CN -  are present in solution H 2 O (l)     H + (aq)   +...
Base Properties: bitter  slippery turns litmus blue Strong bases: NaOH; KOH Weak bases: NH 3 , CO 3 2-
Neutralization Reactions Acid  +  Base     salt  +  H 2 O HNO 3(aq)   +  KOH (aq)      KNO 3(aq)   +  H 2 O (l) HCl (aq)...
Oxidation Reduction Reactions (Redox) Transfer of electrons  (between atoms in compounds) oxidation = loss of electrons re...
Oxidation State - Rules 1.  0 in elemental form (e.g. H 2 , O 2 , Zn (s) ) 2.  Ion charge = oxidation state for ions  (of ...
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Any combustion reaction cpd of (CHO) + O 2      CO 2   +  H 2 O example methane combustion ...
Balancing Redox Reactions Half-reaction Method –  see pgs 46-47 in lab manual   1.  Separate ionic cpds into their ions. 2...
Blood Alcohol Levels Legal limit = 0.1% by mass/(weight) What is approximate Molarity?  ethanol ~ 46.0 g mol -1 How much d...
Breath Analyzer ___C 2 H 6 O + ___ K 2 Cr 2 O 7   +  ___ H 2 SO 4      ___C 2 H 4 O 2  + ___  Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3  + ___ K 2 S...
Getting Mg from seawater 1.  CaCO 3(s)      CaO (s)   +  CO 2(g) 2.  CaO (s)  + H 2 O (l)      +  Ca 2+ (aq)   +  2OH - ...
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04 Solutions

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04 Solutions

  1. 1. Types of Reactions Na 2 CO 3(aq) + CaCl 2(aq)  2NaCl (aq) + CaCO 3(s) 1. Precipitation 2. Acid - Base 3. Oxidation – Reduction (Redox)
  2. 2. Acids & Bases (Bronsted) Acid = Proton (H + ) donor Base = Proton acceptor Acid Properties: sour (vinegar and citrus fruit) turns litmus red
  3. 3. Strong Acids HCl, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 HCl (aq)  H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) or ….. HCl + H 2 O (l)  H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) There is no HCl present in solution proton hydronium ion monoprotic diprotic
  4. 4. Weak Acids HCN (aq)  H + (aq) + CN - (aq) HCN, H + and CN - are present in solution H 2 O (l)  H + (aq) + OH - (aq) All aqueous solutions will contain protons and hydroxide ions. Acetic acid = H(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) Phosphoric Acid = H 3 PO 4
  5. 5. Base Properties: bitter slippery turns litmus blue Strong bases: NaOH; KOH Weak bases: NH 3 , CO 3 2-
  6. 6. Neutralization Reactions Acid + Base  salt + H 2 O HNO 3(aq) + KOH (aq)  KNO 3(aq) + H 2 O (l) HCl (aq) + Na 2 CO 3(aq)  KNO 3(aq) + CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l)
  7. 7. Oxidation Reduction Reactions (Redox) Transfer of electrons (between atoms in compounds) oxidation = loss of electrons reduction = gain of electrons oxidizing agent – gets reduced by accepting electrons reducing agent – gets oxidized by donating electrons
  8. 8. Oxidation State - Rules 1. 0 in elemental form (e.g. H 2 , O 2 , Zn (s) ) 2. Ion charge = oxidation state for ions (of elements ) 3. O = -2 (except in peroxides, e.g. H 2 O 2 ) 4. H = +1 (except as hydride in ionic cpd) 5. F = -1 (other halides = -1 if ionic cpd) 6. Sum of ox #s = charge of ion or 0 for neutral cpd
  9. 9. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Any combustion reaction cpd of (CHO) + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O example methane combustion …. Reaction of acid with metals …. 2HCl (aq) + Zn (s)  ZnCl 2(aq) + H 2(g)  __Al (s) + __Fe 2 O 3(s)  __Fe (s) + __Al 2 O 3(s) + heat
  10. 10. Balancing Redox Reactions Half-reaction Method – see pgs 46-47 in lab manual 1. Separate ionic cpds into their ions. 2. Assign ox. #s to all atoms in equation. <ul><li>Determine what is oxidized and what is reduced </li></ul><ul><li>begin to write ½ reactions for each. </li></ul>4. Add electrons to ½ reactions. <ul><li>Balance charges on each side of ½ reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>by adding H + if acid soln or OH - if basic soln. </li></ul>6. Balance the atoms (add H 2 O as needed) 7. Select coefficients of ½ rxs so e - cancel 8. Add two ½ Rxs. (cancel materials on both sides)
  11. 11. Blood Alcohol Levels Legal limit = 0.1% by mass/(weight) What is approximate Molarity? ethanol ~ 46.0 g mol -1 How much dilution of 3.2% beer results in this? Why is this misleading?
  12. 12. Breath Analyzer ___C 2 H 6 O + ___ K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + ___ H 2 SO 4  ___C 2 H 4 O 2 + ___ Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + ___ K 2 SO 4 + ___ H 2 O
  13. 13. Getting Mg from seawater 1. CaCO 3(s)  CaO (s) + CO 2(g) 2. CaO (s) + H 2 O (l)  + Ca 2+ (aq) + 2OH - (aq) 3. Mg 2+ (aq) + 2OH - (aq)  MgOH 2(s) 4. MgOH 2(s) + HCl (aq)  MgCl 2(aq) + 2H 2 O (l) 5. MgCl 2(l) + e -  Mg (l) + Cl 2(g) 

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