Dealing with security threats
A more connected world than what you think…..
Director EMEA & APJ Government Relations
Kenya 9 March 2010 1
• A bit about Symantec and where
the information comes from
• The current threat landscape
– Threats to government and national
– Threats to consumers
• Anatomy of a security breach
• Operationalising security
Symantec Global Presence
Global Intelligence Network (GIN)
ATTACK ACTIVITY MALCODE INTELLIGENCE VULNERABILITIES SPAM / PHISHING
• 240,000 sensors •130M+ clients, servers, • 32,000+ vulnerabilities • 2.5M decoy accounts
• 200+ countries gateways • 11,000 vendors ‐72k techs • 8B+ emails analyzed daily
Reading, Green Park, GBR Wiesbaden, Germany
Calgary, Alberta, CA Ratingen, Germany
Dublin, Ireland Warsaw, Poland
Roseville, MN Shannon, Ireland
Seattle, WA Bloomfield Hills, MI Toronto, CA Zaltbommel, NLD
Springfield, OR Englewood, CO Brussels, Belgium Milan, Italy
San Francisco, CA Herndon, VA Seoul, South Korea
Oak Brook, IL Madrid, Spain Beijing, China
Mountain View, CA Alexandria, VA Tokyo, Japan
Cupertino, CA Durham, NC
Dallas, TX Atlanta, Georgia Chengdu, China Shanghai, China
Santa Monica, CA
Houston, TX Heathrow, FL Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Dubai, UAE
San Luis Obispo, CA
Culver City, CA Austin Texas Miami, FL Taipei, Taiwan
Mumbai, India Hong Kong, China
Mexico City, Mexico
Sao Paola, Brazil
Sandton, South Africa Sydney, Aus
Buenos Aires, Argentina
4 MSS Security 11 Security Research 29 Global Support
Operations Centers Centers Centers
Government – Commercial ‐ Consumer
How Likely Is It?
To be struck by lightening? To be bitten by a snake?
1 in 2.6M 1 in 42M
To be in car accident?
? To be attacked online?
1 in 300 1 in 5
The current threat landscape
Threats to Government and CIIP
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Malicious code is installed…
• Over 60% of all malicious code detected by Symantec discovered in 2008.
• Over 90% of threats are threats to confidential information.
Information is at risk
Majority of data breaches in More than half of breaches
Education (27%), followed by (57%) due to theft or loss,
Government (20%) and followed by insecure policy
Healthcare (15%) (21%)
Threat Activity Trends - Malicious Activity
• In 2008 the United States was the top country for malicious activity
(raw numbers) with 23% of the overall proportion. China was ranked
second with 9%.
• As Internet and broadband grows in certain countries their share of
malicious activity also grows.
Governments Are Prime Targets
Certain contact and account data were taken, including user IDs and
passwords, email addresses, names, phone numbers, and some basic
Data breach at federal government jobsite USAJobs.gov
Hackers breached the site, then modified it to redirect users to a
rogue URL that in turn directed attack code against their systems.
Government travel site GovTrip.gov users suffer malware attacks
Administrators … were forced to withdraw the page after it was
defaced by more than 170 people over a frenzied few hours.
Defra website using Wiki editing techniques defaced
Shortly after police confiscated the group's servers, DoS attacks
took the official government website and the Swedish national
police site offline. The attacks were assumed to be a
reprisal from disgruntled Pirate Bay users.
DoS attacks on Swedish policy and official government website
Different threat scenarios
• Collect intelligence on the infrastructure
– To attack the infrastructure
– To determine the location of valuable
• Collect intelligence
– Capture and extract information
– Intercept communications and ciphers
• Disable the infrastructure
– That you have already infiltrated
– Directly attack it from outside
• Collect OSINT
• Conduct Psyops
• Achieve information dominance by
communicating your own message
DDoS on Estonia some stats
• Attack Duration: •Peak saw traffic
• 128 Unique DDoS equivalent of 5000
Attacks: 17 attacks – Less than 1 minute clicks per second
– 115 – ICMP Floods 78 attacks – 1 minute ~ 1 hour •Attacks stopped at
16 attacks – 1 hour ~ 5 hours Midnight
– 4 – TCP SYN Floods
– 9 – Generic Traffic 8 attacks – 5 hours ~ 9 hours •Tactics shifted as
Floods 7 attacks – 10 hours or more
Source = ArborSert •Swamped web sites
80 associated with
Banks, Newspapers &
• Daily Attack Rate: 60
– 03/05/2007 = 21 40
– 04/05/2007 = 17 20 Number disabled for at
least 1 hour
– 08/05/2007 = 31 0
•Access was cut to
– 09/05/2007 = 58
sites outside of Estonia
– 11/05/2007 = 1 in order to keep local
Attack Intensity access available
Source = ArborSert
Cyber defense and shooting warfare
• Why blow something up?
– If you can use it to collect intelligence
– If you can disable it when you want
– If you can use it afterwards again
• Russian attack in Georgia
– Information‐intelligence is power
– Preceded by cyber attack
– Psychological effect/operations
– Information dominance
A Real And Present Danger
Suddenly the blue screen of death has a different meaning……..
FOOD, WATER, ENERGY
SEA, AIR, ROAD & RAIL TRAFFIC
IT & TELECOMS
Current and future trends
• Hacking is for fortune not for fame
• Attackers become more sophisticated and
• Target is confidential information
• Attack techniques increase in
sophistication and stealth
– Single use malware
– Evasion techniques (web and coding)
• Increased sophistication of botnets
• Virtual worlds and social engineering
• Critical infrastructure protection
dependant on Internet Security
Threats to consumer…….
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Stolen information is sold
• Credit card information (32%) and bank account credentials (19%)
continue to be the most frequently advertised items.
• The price range of credit cards remained consistent in 2008, ranging
from $0.06 to $30 per card number.
• Compromised email accounts can provide access to other confidential
information and additional resources.
• Attackers locate and compromise a high-traffic site through a vulnerability
specific to the site or in a Web application it hosts.
• Once the site is compromised, attackers modify pages so malicious content is
served to visitors.
Site-specific vulnerabilities Web application vulnerabilities
Browser plug-in vulnerabilities
• Vulnerabilities in Web browser plug-ins are frequently exploited to install
• Memory corruption vulnerabilities again made up the majority of the type
of vulnerabilities in browser plug-in technologies for 2008, with 272
vulnerabilities classified as such.
Unpatched vulnerabilities by vendor
• In 2008, there were 112 unpatched vulnerabilities affecting enterprise-class vendors
compared to 144 in 2007.
• Microsoft had the most, with a total of 46 unpatched vulnerabilities.
• Of the 112 unpatched enterprise vulnerabilities, 37 were low severity, 71 were medium
severity, and 4 were high severity.
Malicious Code Trends Types
• Trojans made up 68 percent of the volume of the top 50 malicious code
samples reported in 2008, a minor decrease from 69 percent in 2007.
• Worms increased slightly from 26% in 2007 to 29% in 2008.
• The percentage of back doors decreased from 21% to 15% in the
Malicious Code Trends
• 66% of potential malicious code infections propagated as shared executable
files, up significantly from 44% in 2007.
• Malicious code using P2P file sharing protocols declined from 17% in 2007 to
10% in 2008.
Country of Origin
• Over the past year, Symantec observed a 192 percent increase in
spam detected across the Internet as a whole, from 119.6 billion
messages in 2007 to 349.6 billion in 2008.
• In 2008, bot networks were responsible for the distribution of
approximately 90 percent of all spam email.
• Russia, Turkey, and Brazil experienced significant increases in spam
volume this year.
• Internet-related spam was the top category with 24% followed by
commercial product spam with 19%
• Financial spam relatively constant at 16%.
An example how to exploit a users
Egg Drop (+ Trojan horse)
Anatomy of a security breach
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Anatomy of a breach
Disruption of operations
DDoS attacks websites
Organized Well Meaning Malicious
Criminal Insider Insider
Malware outbreaks within Stealthy ex-filtration or unintended
protected perimeter loss of confidential data
“Well-Meaning Insider” Breach
1. Data on servers & desktops
2. Lost/stolen laptops, mobile devices
3. Email, Web mail, removable devices
4. Third‐party data loss incidents
5. Business processes
1 2 3 4
INCURSION DISCOVERY CAPTURE EXFILTRATION
Attacker breaks in via Map organization’s Access data on Confidential data sent to
targeted malware, systems unprotected systems hacker team in the clear,
improper credentials or wrapped in encrypted
SQL injection Automatically find Install root kits to packets or in zipped
confidential data capture network data files with passwords
Malicious Insider: Four Types
Employee 1. White collar criminals
2. Terminated employees
Mobile 3. Career builders
4. Industrial spies
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Establishing In‐depth Defense
Future government Interconnected networks
capabilities are built on security models do not
proactive & agile defense
interconnected systems effectively support such
at the periphery and the
and effective information agile, interconnected
endpoint of infrastructure
Collecting intelligence – Real time
what enables the wise sovereign and
the good general to strike and
conquer, and achieve things
beyond the reach of ordinary men,
SUN TZU – on the Art of
Conficker/Downadup – Cumlative
Source – Conficker Working Group and Shadowserver
How to Stop Security Breaches
Automate review Identify threats in
of entitlements real time
Integrate security Prevent data Stop targeted
operations exfiltration attacks