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Group2presentation

  1. 1. ICT as a Teaching andICT as a Teaching and Learning ToolLearning Tool Group #2 PresentationGroup #2 Presentation Gwen CoffinGwen Coffin Carlene WalterCarlene Walter John BriseboisJohn Brisebois ***All the information on the slides is automatic; therefore, just click between slides.
  2. 2. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 22 Obstacles to Using ICT EffectivelyObstacles to Using ICT Effectively The use of ICT as an effective tool for student learning inspired aThe use of ICT as an effective tool for student learning inspired a growing debate among educators and policy makers.growing debate among educators and policy makers. Teachers, students, parents and many others with an interest inTeachers, students, parents and many others with an interest in technology integration frequently are overwhelmed bytechnology integration frequently are overwhelmed by providing and assessing quality technological instruction.providing and assessing quality technological instruction. Although this outcry created many obstacles to the effectiveAlthough this outcry created many obstacles to the effective integration of technology into educational programs, there areintegration of technology into educational programs, there are two major culprits:two major culprits: 1.1. Implementation failureImplementation failure 2.2. Lack of teacher supportLack of teacher support
  3. 3. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 33 Implementation FailureImplementation Failure:: Absence of a Shared VisionAbsence of a Shared Vision Often, the impetus for aOften, the impetus for a technology initiative stemstechnology initiative stems from the educational policyfrom the educational policy makers.makers. If this vision is not adequatelyIf this vision is not adequately communicated to thecommunicated to the teacher, the success of thisteacher, the success of this technological initiative willtechnological initiative will be in jeopardy.be in jeopardy. Implementation of technologyImplementation of technology into educational programsinto educational programs fail when the initiatives dofail when the initiatives do not originate or are notnot originate or are not shared with the teachers.shared with the teachers.
  4. 4. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 44 Implementation BarriersImplementation Barriers:: Variances in ObjectivesVariances in Objectives “…“… technology is integratedtechnology is integrated when it is used in awhen it is used in a seamless manner toseamless manner to support and extendsupport and extend curriculum objectives and tocurriculum objectives and to engage students inengage students in meaningful learning. It ismeaningful learning. It is not something one doesnot something one does separately; it is part of theseparately; it is part of the daily activities taking placedaily activities taking place in the classroom.”in the classroom.” Dias, L. (2001). Technology Integration. Learning and Leading withDias, L. (2001). Technology Integration. Learning and Leading with Technology, 27 (3).Technology, 27 (3).
  5. 5. Coffin, Walter, and Brisebois 5 Implementation Failure: Variances in Objectives The initiative to incorporate technology effectively into classroom instruction must begin with the curriculum objectives. This ensures a consistent goal. A mismatch between values of the teacher and the technology initiative will cause an incorporation failure. Infusing technology initiatives into curricular standards allows teachers to readily create meaningful learning experiences for students and increase technological literacy.
  6. 6. Coffin, Walter, and Brisebois 6 Implementation Failure: Planning and Leadership School divisions require tech planning and leadership in order to ensure the success of integrating technological initiatives. This involves the provision of clear goals and a collaborative effort between the policy makers and all educational stakeholders Failure to provide sufficient inservicing or modeling of effective technology usage will lead to unsuccessful implementation. Integrating technology into the curriculum requires: 1. numerous professional development opportunities, 2. a shared vision, and 3. time for professional interaction and planning.
  7. 7. Coffin, Walter, and Brisebois 7 Implementation Failure: Lack of Access and Resources Successful tech programs and initiatives hinge on: 1. a clear vision and 2. the availability of the required technology. Immense frustration and eventual abandonment of initiatives occur if teacher are unable to access adequate technology. This resource-intensive endeavor is a continual process as technology continues to evolve. Technology must be continually upgraded, support is readily available, and there is a low student/computer ratio.
  8. 8. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 88 Implementation FailureImplementation Failure:: RemediesRemedies 1.1. As teachers, administrators, and policy makers develop aAs teachers, administrators, and policy makers develop a unifying set of goals that links technology initiatives tounifying set of goals that links technology initiatives to curricular goals, teachers are provided the sufficient time,curricular goals, teachers are provided the sufficient time, resources and opportunities to implement the use ofresources and opportunities to implement the use of technology in the classroom.technology in the classroom. 2.2. During teachers’ investigation of their values andDuring teachers’ investigation of their values and instructional practices in regards to technology integration,instructional practices in regards to technology integration, support is readily available. This includes professionalsupport is readily available. This includes professional development opportunities and provision for professionaldevelopment opportunities and provision for professional discourse.discourse. 3.3. Fostering a positive climate allows teachers to engage inFostering a positive climate allows teachers to engage in risk-taking and modify their beliefs of how students learn inrisk-taking and modify their beliefs of how students learn in a technology advanced environment.a technology advanced environment.
  9. 9. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 99 Lack of Teacher SupportLack of Teacher Support Computer access and to otherComputer access and to other forms of technology haveforms of technology have dramatically increased.dramatically increased. However, the level of classroomHowever, the level of classroom utilization does not correlateutilization does not correlate with this significant rise.with this significant rise. Despite improved access, severalDespite improved access, several factors prevent the effective integrationfactors prevent the effective integration of technology into instruction.of technology into instruction. These barriers stem from a lack ofThese barriers stem from a lack of teacher support.teacher support.
  10. 10. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 1010 Lack of Teacher SupportLack of Teacher Support:: Teaching ConditionsTeaching Conditions  Technology initiatives can only be successful if they are compatibleTechnology initiatives can only be successful if they are compatible with the conditions of teaching.with the conditions of teaching.  If inadequate computer access or if there is a high pupil/computerIf inadequate computer access or if there is a high pupil/computer ratio, teachers will be reluctant to employ technology as anratio, teachers will be reluctant to employ technology as an instructional tool.instructional tool.  The technology that is available must be reliable. Computers thatThe technology that is available must be reliable. Computers that are outdated or frequently requiring repair will cause frustrationare outdated or frequently requiring repair will cause frustration rather than a strong commitment to change.rather than a strong commitment to change.  The training of a teacher as a technical specialist is instrumental toThe training of a teacher as a technical specialist is instrumental to successful integration. As the specialist provides suggestions forsuccessful integration. As the specialist provides suggestions for integration technology into the curriculum and instructionalintegration technology into the curriculum and instructional activities, teachers understand how technology can be used as anactivities, teachers understand how technology can be used as an instructional tool across all disciplines.instructional tool across all disciplines.
  11. 11. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 1111 Lack of Teacher SupportLack of Teacher Support:: Technological Skill of TeachersTechnological Skill of Teachers  Teachers require continuous support and training toTeachers require continuous support and training to effectively integrate technology initiatives.effectively integrate technology initiatives.  Successful technology integration involves theSuccessful technology integration involves the allocation of time for teachers to experiment withallocation of time for teachers to experiment with new technologies, collaborate with peers, and thenew technologies, collaborate with peers, and the provision of professional development opportunities.provision of professional development opportunities.  As teachers collaborate and plan lessons thatAs teachers collaborate and plan lessons that integrate technology, they reframe their perceptionsintegrate technology, they reframe their perceptions towards innovative technology implementation and,towards innovative technology implementation and, ultimately, student achievement.ultimately, student achievement.
  12. 12. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 1212 Lack of Teacher SupportLack of Teacher Support:: AccountabilityAccountability  If teachers are held immediatelyIf teachers are held immediately responsible for changes that take time toresponsible for changes that take time to show results, the process will undoubtedlyshow results, the process will undoubtedly fail.fail. • Significant changes to perspective andSignificant changes to perspective and pedagogy require time and support.pedagogy require time and support.  Exemplary technology use requires moreExemplary technology use requires more than access and training; it also involvesthan access and training; it also involves the support and mentorship to make thethe support and mentorship to make the vision clear and attainable.vision clear and attainable.
  13. 13. Changes in Teaching andChanges in Teaching and Learning as a Result of ICTLearning as a Result of ICT It appears that major changes in the ways in which teachersIt appears that major changes in the ways in which teachers and learners view and practice teaching and learning may resultand learners view and practice teaching and learning may result from the shift to using ICT.from the shift to using ICT. Comments from a principal of a school in New Zealand that is “part of the government's ICT contract which provides professional development over three years to a cluster of schools in our city.” “What has pleasantly surprised us is that the focus of this contract has been on learning and teaching. … We have focused on thinking and how ICT can help us to think…. Now that information and data is so easily attainable, children are being taught to use it to solve a problem, complete a task or apply to existing knowledge in a new way…. They can co-operatively work on a project with children in another country who sleep while they are awake!” (Ballantyne, H. message posted to Change Agency electronic mailing list, May 23, 2003)
  14. 14. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 1414 From ICT in the schools -From ICT in the schools - Government of the UKGovernment of the UK  ICT is used as a tool for whole-school improvement;ICT is used as a tool for whole-school improvement;  A hugely powerful medium for transforming teaching and learningA hugely powerful medium for transforming teaching and learning About theAbout the Mayo Demonstration School of Science and TechnologyMayo Demonstration School of Science and Technology, USA, USA  ““What is critical about the success of Mayo is not the use of technologyWhat is critical about the success of Mayo is not the use of technology but the expectations of children and educators to work collaboratively.”but the expectations of children and educators to work collaboratively.” About the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow projectAbout the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow project •• …… broader implications for schooling became apparent. Meaningful use of technology inbroader implications for schooling became apparent. Meaningful use of technology in schools, we realized, goes far beyond just dropping technology into classrooms. By the timeschools, we realized, goes far beyond just dropping technology into classrooms. By the time our sites were reporting new kinds of outcomes for students, we had witnessed whatour sites were reporting new kinds of outcomes for students, we had witnessed what amounted to a transformation of their learning cultures. For example, teachers' instructionalamounted to a transformation of their learning cultures. For example, teachers' instructional beliefs and practices underwent an evolution and we believed the improvement in students'beliefs and practices underwent an evolution and we believed the improvement in students' competencies to be a result of teachers' personal appropriation of the technology.competencies to be a result of teachers' personal appropriation of the technology. (Dwyer, 1994)(Dwyer, 1994) Changes in Teaching and Learning as a Result of ICTChanges in Teaching and Learning as a Result of ICT (con’t)(con’t)
  15. 15. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 1515 It would seem that the shift is not just about technology. It’s about learning to work collaboratively to construct meaning.  It’s a shift from a philosophy which supports a transmission model of instruction  one which embraces constructivism, in which learners construct their own knowledge out of their experiences. Henry J. Becker (2000), used the 1998 national survey of teachers, Teaching Learning and Computing, to examine Larry Cuban’s earlier assertion that computers are incompatible with the requirements of teaching. He wondering if developments in technology might have made it possible to use computers more effectively in the classroom. His findings stated:  that academic subject matter teachers who use computers most productively with adequate resources tend to embrace a constructivist philosophy  that those who used computer regularly over a three-year period were twice as likely to have made constructivist-oriented changes in their teaching practicesand to be more skilled at conducting parallel activities in the classroom. He concluded that teachers are “creating classrooms where both they and their students are engaged in authentic efforts at increased academic understanding.”
  16. 16. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 1616 Dias and Atkinson (2001) describe the progress teachers experience as they move through the stages of learning to use technology finishing with reexamining beliefs about education, their subject matter and themselves. They refer to the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow experiment in which teachers at the final stage of integration of technology into curriculum moved into “interdisciplinary project-based instruction, team teaching and individually paced instruction (p. 4).
  17. 17. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 1717 The Relationship of ICT andThe Relationship of ICT and EducationEducation Many futurists view technology and education as aMany futurists view technology and education as a symbiotic relationship.symbiotic relationship. Scott Reid (2002), Graham White (2003), Kathie FelixScott Reid (2002), Graham White (2003), Kathie Felix (2003), Leila Henderson (2002), James Grylls (2001)(2003), Leila Henderson (2002), James Grylls (2001) are just a few authors who envision an evolution in theare just a few authors who envision an evolution in the parasitic partnership between technology andparasitic partnership between technology and education today, to promise of a synergistic bondeducation today, to promise of a synergistic bond between ICT and curriculum in the future.between ICT and curriculum in the future. Ebsco username: merrittbc Ebsco password: inspire
  18. 18. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 1818 What Do Teachers Believe to beWhat Do Teachers Believe to be Their Role in the Future?Their Role in the Future? ““Some teachers made the point that theySome teachers made the point that they thought that “the main role of the teacherthought that “the main role of the teacher [was] in helping students [to] learn” and[was] in helping students [to] learn” and that was not going to change, but how thatthat was not going to change, but how that objective is accomplished would change”objective is accomplished would change” (Reid, 2001, para. 15).(Reid, 2001, para. 15).
  19. 19. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 1919 What Do Teachers BelieveWhat Do Teachers Believe to be Their Role in the Future?to be Their Role in the Future? Teachers see their role evolving around character buildingTeachers see their role evolving around character building and teaching morals and ethics to students who areand teaching morals and ethics to students who are spending time in front of a computer. One particularspending time in front of a computer. One particular teacher warned educators that schools were going to beteacher warned educators that schools were going to be the only institution where youths would learn manners,the only institution where youths would learn manners, values and ethics (Reid, 2001, para. 17).values and ethics (Reid, 2001, para. 17). The ‘tech-generation’, who is graduating now, will acquireThe ‘tech-generation’, who is graduating now, will acquire powerful, decision-making positions in approximately 7powerful, decision-making positions in approximately 7 years. Their knowledge and abilities about usingyears. Their knowledge and abilities about using technology will influence educational direction and resulttechnology will influence educational direction and result in major innovations.in major innovations.
  20. 20. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 2020 What Do Teachers BelieveWhat Do Teachers Believe to be Their Role in the Future?to be Their Role in the Future? The creation of a “virtual school where students wouldThe creation of a “virtual school where students would not come to a brick-and-mortar facility but rather log onnot come to a brick-and-mortar facility but rather log on to connect with teachers and other students” (Reid,to connect with teachers and other students” (Reid, 2001, para. 20). Teachers who are experts in certain2001, para. 20). Teachers who are experts in certain fields can also offer specific disciplines over the Internetfields can also offer specific disciplines over the Internet to numerous students in various countries.to numerous students in various countries.
  21. 21. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 2121 What Do Teachers BelieveWhat Do Teachers Believe to be Their Role in the Future?to be Their Role in the Future? Some teachers believe that software programs, likeSome teachers believe that software programs, like PowerPoint and other presentation programs, will have aPowerPoint and other presentation programs, will have a profound effect on student assignments and homeworkprofound effect on student assignments and homework projects.projects. One particular teacher wants students to take on moreOne particular teacher wants students to take on more responsibility concerning learning. Educators would becomeresponsibility concerning learning. Educators would become less like a teacher and more like a facilitator.less like a teacher and more like a facilitator.  The traditional physical structure of the classroom would beThe traditional physical structure of the classroom would be reorganized. The desks and chalkboard at the front of thereorganized. The desks and chalkboard at the front of the class be removed; the new classroom would resembles aclass be removed; the new classroom would resembles a library where students have the freedom to openly andlibrary where students have the freedom to openly and independently search for knowledge through access toindependently search for knowledge through access to technology.technology.
  22. 22. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 2222 3 Questions to Ponder & Discuss3 Questions to Ponder & Discuss 1.1. What have you experienced in your own work with regards to the use of ICT? If you have noted changes in your own philosophy or practice, please describe them with reference to the articles you/we have read.
  23. 23. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 2323 3 Questions to Ponder & Discuss3 Questions to Ponder & Discuss 2. If implementation is successful and there is2. If implementation is successful and there is adequate teacher support, does teacheradequate teacher support, does teacher disposition and style of teaching play a role indisposition and style of teaching play a role in the success of ICT initiatives?the success of ICT initiatives?
  24. 24. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 2424 3 Questions to Ponder & Discuss3 Questions to Ponder & Discuss 3. If a true partnership between education3. If a true partnership between education and technology is inevitable, how do we,and technology is inevitable, how do we, as educational leaders, envision ouras educational leaders, envision our teaching environment in 5, 10, or 20 yearsteaching environment in 5, 10, or 20 years from now?from now?
  25. 25. Coffin, Walter, and BriseboisCoffin, Walter, and Brisebois 2525 The EndThe End We would like to encourage you to post yourWe would like to encourage you to post your discussion in the appropriate location indiscussion in the appropriate location in WebCT.WebCT. ThanksThanks for yourfor your time.time.

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