Whatever you think, that you will be.
If you think yourselves weak,
weak you will be.
If you think yourselves strong,
strong you will be!
-- Swami Vivekananda
• Trauma, Acute Infections, inflammation, Bacterial*
When severe with immature forms – Leukemoid reaction.
• Fever, Fatigue, Inflammation.
Lymphocytosis: Infectious Mononucleosis
Increased Lymphocytes: (Activated)
• Chronic Inf., Viral, fungal, TB etc.
Large lymphocytes, more cytoplasm. Irregular, indented by
RBC – also known as atypical lymphocyte or virocyte
Clinical features: fever, lymphadenopathy.
Reduction in granulocytes:
• Decreased Production – Marrow aplasia, drugs,
• Increased destruction – drugs, immune,
• Congenital: CGD, Idiopathic, cyclical, Benign ethnic (common)
When severe – Agranulocytosis (drugs, immune)
• Infections, oral ulcers with white thick pus (pseudo membrane) of
bacteria or fungus (candida common)
When your thinking is brilliant, you will be
brilliant, but if your thinking is not brilliant
you will not be brilliant, no matter how
brilliant you may think you are….!
-- Christian D. Larson
Fake it until you make it…!
-- Mohd. Ali. Boxer.
Acute (painful) or Chronic
Infections, Immune & Cancers.
Increased, large follicles with
pale germinal centre & mantle
zones (B cell proliferation* & apoptosis*)
reactive lymphnodes due to
Lymphadenopathy – any
enlargement, but commonly
used for Cancer spread.
B Lymphocyte proliferation* & apoptosis*
“When you see a good person,
learn from her/him. When you
see someone not so good,
reflect on your own weak
Hemato-oncology: Blood Cancer - Summary
Cancer of immature Blast cells. (Bone marrow common)
• ‘White’ ‘blood’ – excess WBC, Starts in bone marrow extends to
blood & hemopoietic Organs - Liver, Spleen & lymphnodes*
• Two Major types: Myeloid & Lymphoid.
• Two presentation: Acute / Chronic. (AML, ALL, CML CLL)
• Many subtypes* – different mutations personalized medicine*(MB3)
• Solid tumour of lymphoid tissue – where ever lymphoid tissue.
• Hodgkins & Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. B cell type common.
• Many subtypes – clinically Low, Intermediate & High grade.
• MPD Myelo-Proliferative Dis: Excess proliferation, more abnormal cells.
• MDS Myelo-Dysplastic Syn.: Dysplastic (abnormal cells) pancytopenia.
Leukemia: Clinical Features
Cancer of Bone marrow Blasts – Excess WBC.
• Erythropoiesis – Anemia - RBC
• Leukopoiesis – Infections - WBC
• Thrombopoiesis – Bleeding. PLT
Bone marrow expansion/destruction:
• Bone pains.
Extraneous hemopoiesis / spread:
• Lymphadenopathy (more in lymphatic malignancy)
Old age, Neoplastic proliferation of stem cells. Reduced normal marrow
(RBC, WBC & PLT - anemia, infections & bleeding. Liver & Spleen enlarged.
Usually transform to Acute leukemia at the end.
Marrow Proliferation with
Increased abnormal cells in
blood – Leukocytosis.
4 major types (mixed types
• Polycythemia Vera (RBC)
• Chronic Myeloid Leuk. (WBC)
• Essential Thrombocythemia
• Myelofibrosis (Fibrosis)
Marrow Proliferation with
Decreased abnormal cells in
blood. – Leukopenia.
4 major types.
• RA (Refractory Anemia)
• RAEB in transformation.
Polycythemia Rubra Vera (PV)
Red skin & Hepatosplenomegaly
Platelets in blood
But clinical bleeding (abnormal platelets)
The goal of mankind is knowledge, which
is inherent in man. No knowledge comes
from outside: it is all inside. What man
'learns' is really what he “discovers” by
taking the cover off his own soul.
- - Swami Vivekananda
‘Education’… from Eduse (latin) to bring out..!
‘Doctor’ … from Dokere’ (latin) to teach…!
I am here for you….
Discussion Board: Questions & Answer others Q.
Need personal guidance? Email me for an appointment.
Office Tel: 4781 4566
Office location – DB39-136 (Townsville)
The only person who never makes
a mistake is a person who
never does anything…!
- Theodore Roosevelt
3 R’s of success:
Respect for self,
Respect for others &
Responsibility for your actions.
Aspire to become good, not great....
Greatness is like a passing cloud,
- Sai Baba - Divine Discourse, July 16, 2001.