Prof.Marik @ Stanford University


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Prof. Vladimir Marik presented at Stanford's program on European Entrepreneurship and Innovation at the Engineering School. At the invitation from Burton Lee, PhD, MBA Lecturer at Stanford School of Engineering.

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Prof.Marik @ Stanford University

  1. 1. Technology Transfer and Spin-offsatCzech Technical University(CTU)Vladimír MAŘÍKDepartment of CyberneticsEU Center of ExcellenceCzech Technical University in Prague Prague, Czech Republic<br /><br />
  2. 2. Established in 1707 2nd oldest Technical University in Europe24.000 studentsA. Einstein, E. Mach, N. Tesla<br />Czech Technical University in Prague<br />
  3. 3. CTU position in rankings<br />QS World University Rankings 2010 - Engineering & Technology <br />1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) United States <br />2 Stanford University United States <br />3 University of California, Berkeley (UCB) United States <br />120 Duke University, United States <br />121 Czech Technical University In Prague Czech Republic <br />122 École des Ponts, ParisTech France <br />123= University of Amsterdam A* Netherlands <br />123= University of Southern California (USC) United States <br />"Where do we stand globally" <br />#2 in former Eastern Europe & Russia (after #1 96 Lomonosov Moscow State U.) <br />#2 in Central Europe (after #1 98 TU Vienna) <br />We are trying hard (Technology and Engineering ranking): <br />CTU: 121 (2010), 171 (2009), 228 (2008) , 359(2007). <br />
  4. 4. Department of Cybernetics, Czech Technical University<br />Research orientation:<br /><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence
  5. 5. Machine Learning & Robotics
  6. 6. Computer Vision & Perception
  7. 7. Biomedical Engineering </li></ul>155 academic staff members (110 FTE): <br />20 faculty members<br />82 research fellows and 53 Ph.d. students <br />Mission Objectives: <br />Perform internationally recognized research, build teams of research excellence<br />Support industrial acceptance of research <br />Demonstrate potential of industry-university cooperation<br />Undergraduate and graduate education in the field of cybernetics<br />EU Center of Excellence since 2000<br />
  8. 8. Selected Industrial Contracts and Grants<br />Rockwell Automation: Distributed artificial intelligence <br />BAE Systems:UAV collision avoidance systems <br />Medtronic: SW for pacemakers and other medical devices<br />Honeywell: Observing people with video cameras<br />TOYOTA Motor Corporation: Computer vision - blue sky research<br />Volkswagen:Image processing from a moving car<br />DENSO Automotive: Agent-based on-board car diagnostics<br />CADENCE Design Systems:Multi-agent modeling of IC design process<br />Samsung:Reconstruction of images<br />Google: Image-based search, security systems<br />Texas Instruments: Control and interfacing of digital cameras<br />Hitachi: Image processing and face recognition <br />Siemens: Planning and scheduling for in-store logistics<br />US Air Force Research Lab, U.S.Navy Research, U.S. Army, NASA: Deployment of Agent-based technology<br />
  9. 9. Department Know-How Transfer Vehicles<br />Start-up and Spin-off Companies: <br />CERTICON, a.s.: (100+ employees): Software Development, Network Integration Services, Software Testing, Predictive Algorithms, Planning and Scheduling, ASIC Design<br />ProTyS, a.s.: (43) Real-time Control Software Development & Testing, Intelligent Control, Fuzzy Logics<br />NeoVisions.r.o.: (21): Computer Vision<br />Eydea, s.r.o. (5): Image Processing<br />Cognitive Security, s.r.o.(2): Network Security<br />AgentFly Technologies, s.r.o. (2): Air Traffic Control<br />National Center for Applied Cybernetics (Competence Center):<br />CTU, TU Brno, WBU, Academy of Science, CertiCon, Neovision+ 7 other companies. <br />The main goal: Technology Transfer, Spreading Excellence<br />
  10. 10. Czech Institute of Informatics and Cybernetics<br /><ul><li>Center of Research Excellence
  11. 11. 36.000 sqm, 450 researchers
  12. 12. Incubator (15-20 spin-offs), representative offices of large companies (IBM, Honeywell, Google, Microsoft..)
  13. 13. State-of-the-art, competitive and self-sustainable institution </li></li></ul><li>Technology Transfer <br /><ul><li>Technology Transfer Models</li></ul>- Contracts<br /> - Patents<br /> - Licensing<br /> - Joint Research Labs<br /> - Start-ups(e.g. CertiCon, a.s.)<br /> - Spin-offs(e.g. Cognitive Security, s.r.o.)<br /> - Centers for Technology Transfer (Competence Centers)<br /> - Incubators<br /> - Technology Parks<br /><ul><li>None of the models can be implemented without efforts of both the stakeholders (university and industry/enterpreneur) </li></li></ul><li>Industrial Stakeholders of the Technology Transfer <br /><ul><li>AT Departments of the Headquarters of strong international companies or their local branches (Honeywell, Rockwell, IBM, Logica, Toyota, Denso): some of them decided to build a local AT branch (e.g. Honeywell, Rockwell Automation or CA) to leverage the “local” research results
  14. 14. US governmental agencies/services, like US AFRL, ONR, NASA, EPA, FAA, who try to fund/co-fund early stages of very promising research activities
  15. 15. Venture capitalists, usually coming from US, Israel, lately also from India
  16. 16. Local SMEs, e.g. SPEL, Cygni, AWIK, which are looking for governmental support to arrange the transfer</li></li></ul><li>Industrial Stakeholders of the Technology Transfer <br /><ul><li>Czech companies are usually quite weak andthey don’t understand
  17. 17. the need in financial contribution to ensure a smooth technology transfer
  18. 18. that knowledge and IPR play the role of commercial commodities which enter the market
  19. 19. All IPR gained using governmental or public funding belongs to the University, only the specific part of IPR resulting from private/industrial funding belongs to the body which funded it</li></li></ul><li>Technology Transfer Models<br /><ul><li>Business Contracts</li></ul>- Short-term or long-term<br />- IPR fully owns the body who provides funding (= industry)<br /><ul><li>Patents</li></ul>- no sense to patent in the Czech Republic <br /> - we usually patent in the US using US lawyers, and then extend the patent to cover EU countries and/or Japan <br /> - some patents are joint patents with foreign companies<br /> - in the Czech Republic: industrial pattern is a simple form of invention registration and provides good protection<br /> - in general: patents are expensive and provide good protection only in the case you are really ready to invest enough money (>EUR 1.5 mil) to fight and beat your competitors<br />
  20. 20. Technology Transfer Models<br /><ul><li>Licensing</li></ul> - currently the most efficient, fast and transparent vehicle for a technology transfer preferred by the University<br /> - the University usually asks for <br /> (i) a small fixed yearly fee, and <br /> (ii) 5-10% of revenue<br /><ul><li>Joint Research Labs</li></ul> - very efficient in the case of a long-term cooperation with a strong world leader (Microsoft, Cisco, IBM)<br /> - IPR usually shared by the University and Company, or the Company buys it out<br /> - could potentially be converted into a company subsidiary (this did happen in the case of Rockwell Automation Research Center, Honeywell Technology Center, CA Development Center)<br />
  21. 21. Technology Transfer Models<br /><ul><li>Start-ups</li></ul>- built by professors as long-term tools for University-Industry transfer – to bridge the gap <br /> - developers and engineers are employed to ensure various phases of the product life cycle (namely design, implementation and testing) exploring innovative ideas provided by the University<br /> - based on licensing of the University IPRs<br /> - the main difficulty: to properly manage the staff flow between the company and the University<br />
  22. 22. CertiCon <br />Founded in 1996<br />Headquarters in Prague, branch in Pilsen, Vienna-Austria& San Jose-US (US MAC)<br />100+SW Engineers & Researchers<br />Dun & Bradstreet rating 1A1, DUNS 36-690-9096<br />ISO 9001certification UKAS, ANSI-RAB (BVQI)<br />Business focus in consultancy, engineeringand outsourcing services: <br /><ul><li>life and mission-critical systems
  23. 23. decision support and productivity systems
  24. 24. applied research
  25. 25. ASIC design, verification and testing
  26. 26. Revenue $ 8 mil in 2010</li></ul>Main customers: Medtronic, Teradyne, Cadence, IBM, Bosch, Frequentis, Grundfos<br />
  27. 27. Technology Transfer Models<br /><ul><li>Spin-offs</li></ul>- built to develop a sound idea into a specific product <br /> - oriented to EXIT <br /> - based on licensing of the University IPRs<br /> - they suffer from lack of money<br /> - they look for pre-seed investors and seed capital<br /> - the main difficulty: to find good managers and business oriented leaders (professors and researchers can play this role successfully in exceptional cases, only) <br /><ul><li>Incubators needed – we are in the initial phase:</li></ul>- CTU Media Lab <br />- eClub: joint activity of CTU Media Lab & Credo Ventures<br />- Linkages with Plug-and-play Center are being built <br />- Part of the Czech Institute of Informatics and Cybernetics<br />
  28. 28. Cognitive Security Start-up<br />Mission: Providing attack intelligence and last line of defense against highly sophisticated attackers<br />Main Product: CognitiveOne is based on the CAMNEP intrusion detection algorithm, developed at CTU. The solution in parts funded by the U.S. Army, CERDEC under a grant W91 1NF-08-1-0250. <br />The technology spun-off into Cognitive Security by licensing from CTU <br />History-in-brief:<br />August 2009- Cognitive Security was established, CertiCon’s pre-seed funding<br />January 2010- CognitiveOne launched as commercial product <br />April 2010- Cognitive Security opens branch office in Silicon Valley, (CA, USA), with the support of Czechinvest<br />November 2010- Second version of its CognitiveOne product<br />February 2011 – Talks with a strong investor – Term Sheet signed <br />April 2011 - Credo Ventures invested 2 mil EUR<br />
  29. 29. Centers and Technology Parks<br /><ul><li>Technology Transfer Centers (Competence Centers):</li></ul>- efficient if very narrowly focused towards specific technology<br /> - very good experience with virtual competence centers <br /><ul><li>Technology Parks:</li></ul>There are 21 of them in the Czech Republic, 2 of them useful<br />Not very efficient, they don’t satisfy the needs of technology transfer, very bureaucratic <br />Very dangerous trend: EU funding used to build new buildings for technology parks in regions (out of the capital city of Prague)<br />CTU Technology Innovation Center:<br />4 administrators paid by the University, <br />4.000 sq feet of space<br />provides space, courses<br />no links with enterpreneurs, venture capitalists<br />no guidance, no motivation<br />
  30. 30. Government Financing Schemes<br /><ul><li>The Government Financing Schemesfor the early stages of the spin-of companies mainly aimed at support of competence centers and technology parks and explore – as a rule – the structural EU funding for this purpose. These schemes provide just an indirect support to spin-off and start-ups.
  31. 31. New trend (under implementation) in 2011: Direct support to spin-offs and start-ups:
  32. 32. Pre-seed fund - $ 30 mil.
  33. 33. Seed fund - $ 70 mil.
  34. 34. These funds will be managed by experienced venture capitalists who promised to add $ 50 mil.
  35. 35. CTU: University Challenge Fund of $ 250 k to provide pre-seed capital</li></li></ul><li>Professors and Spin-offs<br /><ul><li>There are no principle obstacles to form a spin-off by professors, CTU supports their initiatives, but certain rules should be followed:
  36. 36. Their business and academic activities should be clearly separated
  37. 37. Either licencies should be paid (5-10% of revenue and/or exit price) or shares of the company (20-30%) are awarded to the University for exchange of IPR
  38. 38. Main obstacles:
  39. 39. Some professors not motivated enough, wanting to live in their academic shells
  40. 40. No reasonable advice provided at critical junctions (opportunity recognition, business visions and plans, no links to experienced spin-off advisors)</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br /><ul><li>Technology and innovative solutions available, many results cannot be absorbed by local industry
  41. 41. University management support to technology transfer provided, very friendly atmosphere/environment
  42. 42. Motivation and enthusiasm of researchers – in general - present, funding is missing
  43. 43. There is no efficient University infrastructure and environment to absorb the funding (if there is any) in an appropriate way
  44. 44. Lack of tradition and experience in venture investments
  45. 45. We are trying to find the optimal methods for technology transfers and spin-offs
  46. 46. Licensing, start-ups and spin-offs are the most popular technology transfer methods</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br /><ul><li>Government Financing Schemes are starting to directly help to spin-offs financially:
  47. 47. Czechinvest governmental agency: has selected the Plug-and-Play Center as a place to learn, helps to bring spin-offs to Silicon Valley to gather experience
  48. 48. Support to private companies acting as technology transfer bodies – privatization of the technology transfer area strongly needed </li>