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Chapter17 Section01 Edit


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Chapter17 Section01 Edit

  1. 1. Chemistry 17.1
  2. 2. The Flow of Energy—Heat and Work <ul><li>The temperature of lava from a volcano ranges from 550°C to 1400°C. As lava flows, it loses heat and begins to cool. You will learn about heat flow and why some substances cool down or heat up more quickly than others. </li></ul>17.1
  3. 3. Energy Transformations <ul><li>Energy Transformations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In what direction does heat flow? </li></ul></ul>17.1
  4. 4. Energy Transformations <ul><ul><ul><li>Heat , represented by q , is energy that transfers from one object to another because of a temperature difference between them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat always flows from a warmer object to a cooler object. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  5. 5. Energy Transformations <ul><ul><ul><li>Thermochemistry is the study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance is called chemical potential energy. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  6. 6. Energy Transformations <ul><ul><ul><li>When fuel is burned in a car engine, chemical potential energy is released and is used to do work. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  7. 7. Exothermic and Endothermic Processes <ul><li>Exothermic and Endothermic Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens in endothermic and exothermic processes? </li></ul></ul>17.1
  8. 8. Exothermic and Endothermic Processes <ul><ul><ul><li>In an endothermic process, the system gains heat as the surroundings cool down. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In an exothermic process, the system loses heat as the surroundings heat up. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  9. 9. Exothermic and Endothermic Processes <ul><ul><ul><li>In studying energy changes, you can define a system as the part of the universe on which you focus your attention. The surroundings include everything else in the universe. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The law of conservation of energy states that in any chemical or physical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  10. 10. Exothermic and Endothermic Processes <ul><ul><ul><li>An endothermic process is one that absorbs heat from the surroundings. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  11. 11. Exothermic and Endothermic Processes <ul><ul><ul><li>An exothermic process is one that releases heat to its surroundings. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  12. 12. Conceptual Problem 17.1
  13. 13. Conceptual Problem 17.1
  14. 14. Conceptuall Problem 17.1
  15. 15. for Conceptual Problem 17.1 Problem Solving 17.1 Solve Problem 1 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.
  16. 16. Units for Measuring Heat Flow <ul><li>Units for Measuring Heat Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In what units is heat flow measured? </li></ul></ul>17.1
  17. 17. Units for Measuring Heat Flow <ul><ul><ul><li>Heat flow is measured in two common units, the calorie and the joule. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The energy in food is usually expressed in Calories. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  18. 18. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat <ul><li>Heat Capacity and Specific Heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On what two factors does the heat capacity of an object depend? </li></ul></ul>17.1
  19. 19. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat <ul><ul><ul><li>The heat capacity of an object depends on both its mass and its chemical composition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of an object exactly 1°C is the heat capacity of that object. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  20. 20. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat <ul><ul><ul><li>The specific heat capacity, or simply the specific heat , of a substance is the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 g of the substance 1°C. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  21. 21. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat <ul><ul><ul><li>Water releases a lot of heat as it cools. During freezing weather, farmers protect citrus crops by spraying them with water. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  22. 22. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat 17.1
  23. 23. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat <ul><ul><ul><li>Because it is mostly water, the filling of a hot apple pie is much more likely to burn your tongue than the crust. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1
  24. 24. 17.1
  25. 25. 17.1
  26. 26. 17.1
  27. 27. 17.1
  28. 28. for Sample Problem 17.1 Problem Solving 17.4 Solve Problem 4 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.
  29. 29. 17.1 Section Quiz. <ul><li>17.1 </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><ul><li>1. The energy released when a piece of wood is burned has been stored in the wood as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sunlight. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>calories. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemical potential energy. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1 Section Quiz.
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>2. Which of the following statements about heat is false? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat is the same as temperature. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat always flows from warmer objects to cooler objects. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adding heat can cause an increase in the temperature of an object. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat cannot be specifically detected by senses or instruments. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1 Section Quiz.
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>3. Choose the correct words for the spaces: In an endothermic process, the system ________ heat when heat is ________ its surroundings, so the surroundings _____________. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gains, absorbed from, cool down. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loses, released to, heat up. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gains, absorbed from, heat up. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loses, released to, cool down. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1 Section Quiz.
  33. 33. <ul><ul><li>4. Which of the relationships listed below can be used to convert between the two units used to measure heat transfer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 g = 1 º C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 J = 0.2390 cal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 º C = 1 cal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 g = 4.184 J </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1 Section Quiz.
  34. 34. <ul><ul><li>5. Assuming that two samples of different materials have equal mass, the one that becomes hotter from a given amount of heat is the one that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has the higher specific heat capacity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has the higher molecular mass. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has the lower specific heat capacity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has the higher density. </li></ul></ul></ul>17.1 Section Quiz.
  35. 35. END OF SHOW