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Chapter 11 Presentation - Veronica Martinez


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Chapter 11 Presentation - Veronica Martinez

  1. 1. Chapter 11 presentation<br />Endocrine System<br />By: Veronica Martinez<br />
  2. 2. Glycosuria<br />The presence of sugar or glucose in the urine<br />Urine should contain no glucose because the kidneys are able to reclaim all of the filtered glucose back into the bloodstream<br />Glycosuria is nearly always caused by elevated blood glucose levels, most commonly due to untreated diabetes mellitus<br />Glycosuria leads to excessive water loss into the urine with resultant dehydration, a process called osmotic diuresis<br />
  3. 3. Glycosuria Causes<br />Diabetes mellitus <br />Diabetes mellitus type 2 <br />Pregnancy <br />High sugar diet <br />Following a gastrectomy <br />Hyperthyroidism <br />Liver disease <br />Raised intracranial pressure <br />Glucose -galactose malabsorption <br />Hyperglycaemia <br />
  4. 4. Hypercalcemia<br />Condition of excess calcium in the blood<br />High calcium levels can interfere with bone formation and other calcium roles in the body such as in contracting muscles, releasing hormones, and ensuring that your nerves and brain function properly. <br />The main cause of hypercalcemia is overactivity in one or more of your parathyroid glands, which regulate calcium. <br />Post-menopausal women are most likely to develop hypercalcemia caused by overactive parathyroid glands. <br />Other causes of hypercalcemia include cancer, certain other medical disorders, some medications, and excessive use of calcium and vitamin D supplements. <br />
  5. 5. Hypercalcemia Symptoms<br />Nausea and vomiting <br />Loss of appetite <br />Excessive thirst <br />Frequent urination <br />Constipation <br />Abdominal pain <br />Muscle weakness <br />Muscle and joint aches <br />Confusion <br />Lethargy and fatigue <br />
  6. 6. THE END<br />