Changing china


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Changing china

  1. 1.  Throughout the Cultural Revolution, China continued to play a part in the international politics of the Cold War.  At a time when Mao was stressing Communist purity in China, his foreign policy with the USSR moved from an alliance to bitter hostility.  This led China to eventually forge ties with its former enemy, the United States.
  2. 2.  Tensions between the Soviet and Chinese Communists dated back to the 1930s, when Russia supported Chiang Kai-shek over Mao.  In the beginning the People's Republic, Russia and China appeared to stand together.  In 1950 Mao signed a Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union, it offered China a sense of security against American attack.  But almost immediately the Sino- Soviet alliance began to show signs of strain.
  3. 3.  In the mid-1950s a growing ideological divide emerged between Russia and China over the definition of Communism and how best to deal with the West.  While China favored continued aggression towards "imperialist" nations, the USSR began to consider "peaceful coexistence" with the United States.  Soon the ideological differences took on national dimensions, as both the Chinese and Soviets fought for territory and control of Communist satellite states.
  4. 4.  One result of the split  China was forced to find its own way in scientific research….Russia removed scientists from China  China’s first atomic bomb developed in 1964.
  5. 5.  What was/were the key issue(s) that divided The USSR and The People’s Republic of China?  If you were President Nixon witnessing this divide, how could you take advantage of the situation?
  6. 6.  The United States watched the split with satisfaction  The US tried to establish links to China  “The enemy of my enemy is my friend”  The US lifted trade restrictions on China in 1969 Richard Nixon agreed to allow China to the UN This opened the door to warmer US/China relations
  7. 7.  Mao dies September 9,1976  Successor Deng Xiaoping  A cautious reformer  Wanted to lead China down a less dramatic economic path  Introduced the Four Modernizations
  8. 8.  Four Modernizations  Industry  Education  Technology  Defense •Open Door Policy -Deng’s belief that to modernize China's industry and boost its economy it needed to welcome foreign direct investment - US gave China “most favored nation” trading status in 1992
  9. 9.  China’s population reached over one billion in 1977.  In 1981 Deng launched a campaign to restrict families to just one child except under special circumstances.  Would be punished with fines and withdrawal of some health and education benefits.
  10. 10.  Modernization program transformed life in China’s costal countries.  The amount of exported goods multiplied five times over between 1981-1991  Economic growth rates grew 10% per year.  GDP (measure of all goods produced) increased four times.
  11. 11.  Hong Kong originally seized by the British after the first Opium War in 1842  Hong Kong had been a reminder of China’s 19th century weakness and was a center of wealth and prosperity for British.  Was handed back to the Chinese in 1997 after a 99 year lease.
  12. 12.  1986 waves of student protests and demonstrations for human rights, loss of jobs and rising crime rates.  Citizens gathered in Tiananmen Square for over a month in the face of news cameras and the government.  June 23, 1986 As students became more outspoken the government responded with tanks and troops. Soldiers had orders to fire  The students had been removed from the square and/or arrested.  China continues to be accused of UN Human Rights violations.
  13. 13.  Two China’s • Educated citizens growing by 1% per year • Citizens increasingly urban, better educated and nourished • Average living conditions increased 25% • Greater consumer goods • Stronger relations with Western democracies •Population growth slowed, but most populous with 1.2 billion • Populations live on 1/6 of land area • High pollution • Authoritarian government • religious intolerance • Restrictions on free speech and media • Lack of judicial process • Torture in prisons Economic Social/Political