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Alloy HMVC PHP Framework


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A new Hierarchical MVC framework for PHP 5.3+ with a modular organization and REST-centered architecture. Alloy strikes a balance between well-structured and well designed object-oriented code that adheres to the best programming practices and code that is truly simple and enjoyable for programmers who use it on a daily basis.

This talk focuses on introducing Alloy Framework, its philosophies and concepts, why it is Hierarchal MVC and what that means for you as a developer, and showing how easy it is to build an app with both HTML output and a full REST API using a single controller.

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Alloy HMVC PHP Framework

  1. 1. Alloy Framework PHP 5.3+ Modular Hierarchical MVC http://alloyframework.orgWednesday, March 30, 2011
  2. 2. Who am I? Vance Lucas @vlucas Business: PHP dev since 1999 (PHP 3) I love good OOP code and concepts, but hate the complexity it brings Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 2Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  3. 3. A Few Points... Kind of a disclaimer, but not reallyWednesday, March 30, 2011
  4. 4. You May NOT Like Alloy If... You are an Object-Oriented Programming Purist You don’t care how complex code is as long as it’s “correct” OOP (because some guy’s book said so) You LOVE using Zend Framework, Symfony, or FLOW3 You LOVE XML and Dependency Injection Containers You are looking for a component library Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 4Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  5. 5. You MIGHT Like Alloy If... You think frameworks like Zend, Symfony, or FLOW3 make some things too difficult and cumbersome You don’t think any PHP framework has it quite right You don’t like “too much magic” You want to know what your framework is doing You value ease of use over everything else You want good OOP code that follows known coding standards that is still easy to use and understand Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 5Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  6. 6. Philosophy Usefulness, Simplicity and Strong Design Minimum code, maximum impact Use OOP principles and design, but don’t over-do it PHP is not Java with dollar signs Explicitness > “Magic” Easier to understand & see what is going on Design patterns should never trump user experience or get in the way Users over “correctness” Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 6Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  7. 7. Alloy Framework Goals Lightweight Modular Organization Hierarchical MVC (HMVC) Easy to understand and use Easy to make REST APIs and HTML pages No config/setup necessary, works anywhere Follow PEAR/Zend Coding Standards Strike a balance between good OOP concepts and ease of use with low learning curve Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 7Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  8. 8. Alloy Architecture Inside & OutWednesday, March 30, 2011
  9. 9. Alloy Architecture Overview Modular Organization Kernel Plugins Hierarchical MVC (HMVC) Controllers as Resources Events and Filters Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 9Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  10. 10. Modular Organization All related files in a single top-level named folder No separate “controllers”, “models” and “views” directories at same level Unlimited levels of nesting Easier distributable packages Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 10Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  11. 11. Kernel Core object available from anywhere in your app Kernel() - only global-scope function in Alloy Multiple uses: Config access Lazy-loading Factory / Service Locator Extension Point for Modules and Plugins Sole Dependency Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 11Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  12. 12. Kernel - Config Access Getter Setter Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 12Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  13. 13. Kernel - Lazy-Load Factory Write This: Not That: Or This: Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 13Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  14. 14. Kernel - Extension Point Proxies to callbacks added at runtime via __call Enables all kinds of custom functionality Factory methods for loading & using 3rd party libs Exposing plugin methods for global use Helper or utility methods Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 14Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  15. 15. Plugins The primary way of extending AlloyWednesday, March 30, 2011
  16. 16. Plugin - Symfony2 Finder File: app/Plugin/Finder/Plugin.php Libs: app/Plugin/Finder/lib/Symfony/Component/ ... Add finder method to Kernel for use Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 16Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  17. 17. Plugin - Add to Config File: app/config/app.php Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 17Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  18. 18. Plugin - Usage Use finder method on Kernel instance Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 18Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  19. 19. Hierarchical MVC Solves the “widget problem”Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  20. 20. Hierarchical MVC Multiple MVC dispatches to fulfill a single request Solves the “widget problem” Sidebar content can be self-contained module Ads, tag clouds, blog headlines, etc. Encourages module re-use & helps DRY Not strictly “hierarchical” - more like nested Hierarchy is not tracked or enforced in any way Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 20Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  21. 21. Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 21Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  22. 22. Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 22Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  23. 23. Controllers Respond to both internal and external requestsWednesday, March 30, 2011
  24. 24. Controllers Part of the Module package that handles requests Special name “scope” for web-accessible actions GET = <action>Action POST, PUT, DELETE, etc = <action>Method Ensures HTTP methods are required for access AlloyRequest object is first parameter All named params from route set on Request object Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 24Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  25. 25. Controllers (cont’d) NOTHING is automatically or implicitly loaded No views, models, or anything else Explicitly return response or content to send Controllers are not factories Controllers are extremely lightweight Controllers do not hold the context of their requests Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 25Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  26. 26. Example REST Controller Notice <name>Action vs <name>Method Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 26Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  27. 27. Controller Response Types Sending output and manipulating control flowWednesday, March 30, 2011
  28. 28. Simple Strings Sends 200 OK status with string content as body Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 28Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  29. 29. Any object with __toString Sends 200 OK status with string content as body Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 29Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  30. 30. View Templates Most common Module response type Returns object - template not yet rendered Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 30Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  31. 31. Resource Objects Auto-converts array to JSON or XML for API response Accepts objects with toArray methods Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 31Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  32. 32. Generic Response Body + HTTP Status Base AlloyModuleResponse that view templates and resources extend from Can set custom layout, errors, headers, etc. using a fluent interface just like templates and resources Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 32Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  33. 33. Boolean False Generic 404 (Throws AlloyExceptionFileNotFound) Plugins can filter on ‘dispatch_exception’ event to produce a custom global response Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 33Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  34. 34. Why Explicit Returns? Easier to manipulate responses and control flowWednesday, March 30, 2011
  35. 35. Easier to re-use Actions Re-use form template from ‘newAction’ No forwarding or other indirection necessary Object return lets you modify it further before display through fluent interface Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 35Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  36. 36. Modify Dispatches at Will Template object returned is not yet rendered so we can modify it at will Change path to a local template Change layout Add errors Change response code or headers, etc. Very flexible Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 36Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  37. 37. ... Even pull out values Since the template is not yet rendered, we can even pull out values that have been set and re-use them however we want to We don’t even have to render the dispatch result at all No wasted resources Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 37Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  38. 38. URL Routing Simple named parameters, full controlWednesday, March 30, 2011
  39. 39. Parameter Types <:alpha> Matches [a-zA-Z0-9_-+%s]+ <#numeric> Matches [0-9]+ <*wildcard> Marches .* Does NOT split the URL by “segment” Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 39Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  40. 40. Some Default Routes Fluent interface allows route modification REST verb params will override defaults and matches POST /module/add => Module::postMethod Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 40Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  41. 41. Custom Routes Can be literally anything URL does not have to map <controller>/<action> Example from /<#year>/<:make>/<:model> Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 41Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  42. 42. Static Routes Map arbitrary static path to Module::action No PREG matching overhead Path can include slashes and be as long as necessary Router does not split URL into segments Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 42Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  43. 43. Making an App HTML + JSON API, single Controller methodWednesday, March 30, 2011
  44. 44. app/Module/Blog/Post.php Using Spot ORM (Ships with Alloy, but NOT required) Spot provided with a plugin, not tied to Alloy in any way Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 44Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  45. 45. Blog Example app/Module/Blog/Controller.php Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 45Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  46. 46. app/Module/Blog/views/index.html.php Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 46Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  47. 47. http://localhost/path/blog Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 47Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  48. 48. Magic Datagrid? Alloy has View Generics Extensions of view templates Generic HTML template markup with custom functions that accept Closures to enable fully custom PHP markup in designated areas (like table cells) with no special syntax or recursive includes You don’t have to use them, but they can be huge time-savers if you do Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 48Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  49. 49. Adding an API Template for HTML, Resource object for API Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 49Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  50. 50. http://localhost/path/blog/index.json Array -> JSON via Resource response type Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 50Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  51. 51. API Errors? Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 51Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  52. 52. HTML JSON Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 52Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  53. 53. Layouts & Blocks Make your App Look NiceWednesday, March 30, 2011
  54. 54. Layouts Really just another view template with a special location Includes both header & footer, content placed inside Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 54Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  55. 55. Blocks Named regions that content can be pushed to from any view template in your app Static to current request so no data has to be passed Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 55Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  56. 56. app/layouts/app.html.php Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 56Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  57. 57. app/Module/Blog/views/viewAction.html.php Post tag list in layout sidebar Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 57Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  58. 58. app/Module/Blog/views/viewAction.html.php HMVC dispatches as “widgetized” content Promotes better code re-use, DRY principle, allows polymorphic associations for generic types of content Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 58Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  59. 59. Events & Filters Dynamic Behavior & Manipulating ResponsesWednesday, March 30, 2011
  60. 60. Layout Plugin Layout wrapping is achieved with a plugin in Alloy Filters ‘dispatch_content’ event Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 60Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  61. 61. Main Dispatch Content Filter Many other events and filters not shown in this diagram Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 61Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  62. 62. Layout Plugin - wrapLayout Returns template wrapped in template Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 62Wednesday, March 30, 2011
  63. 63. Thanks! Alloy on the web: Vance Lucas Personal: Business: Vance Lucas (@vlucas) 63Wednesday, March 30, 2011