English Language teaching and learning in the Age of Technology Vera Menezes
1. The age oftechnology2. Theoretical Support.3. Digital tools.4. Conclusion
1. The age of technology 845 million monthly active users at the end of (December 2011) More than 140 million active users, 340 million Tweets a day, which means 1 billion Tweets every3 days. (March 2012) 79.9 million = number of Brazilians with internet access (home, work, school and cybercafésamong others) (2011) The Internet became really big
2. Theories Connectivism (SIEMENS, 2006, 2006) New literacies (RHEINGOLD, 2012) Framework for technology- based teaching and learning (SCHNEIDERMAN, 2003).
Connectivism“A central tenet of most learning theories is thatlearning occurs inside a person” (Siemens,2005)“These theories do not address learning thatoccurs outside of people (i.e. learning that isstored and manipulated by technology)”.(Siemens, 2005) “Learning is evolutionary. It is not an event orend goal. Learning is a process. Our personalnetwork is continually being augmented andenhanced by new nodes and connections”.
ConnectivismSiemens (2005, 2006) proposes analternative theory integrating“principles explored by chaos,network, and complexity and self-organization theories. He calls itConnectivism – “the assertion thatlearning is primarily a network-formingprocess” (Siemens 2006, p. 15).
Principles of connectivism Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources. Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
Principles of connectivismCapacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known.Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.
Principles of connectivismCurrency (accurate, up-to-dateknowledge) is the intent of allconnectivist learning activities.Decision-making is itself a learning process.Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate
Principles of connectivism“knowledge as a river, not a reservoir” Diversity Autonomy Openness Interactivity
Examples of connectivismUFMG =Ingrede Project: 1500 students(Moodle platform)Diversity of opinions and learning routesAutonomy :digital library and a collectiveglossaryInteractivity: reading and postingOpenness ; new material brought by thestudents themselves.
Examples of connectivismUFSC: undergraduate course (Moodleplatform)Diversity of materialAutonomy is one of the objectiveInteractivity: forums for debatesOpenness : students can post new content.
New literacies Rheingold (2012) “Literacy now means skill plus social competency in using that skill collaboratively”. (K.163) Five Literacies: Attention Participation Collaboration Consumption of information (aka “crap detection”) Network smartsWatch a video with Reingold at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxmG6VeNSuQ
New literacies Rheingold (2012)Attention literacy refers to the mindful useof media. Where are you directing yourattention to?Participation: Rheingold (2012, K.2465)believes that participation creates a senseof belonging and empowerment in users.“Participation, however, is a kind of powerthat only works if you share it with others”K.2482) and this leads us to the concept ofcuration.
New literacies Rheingold (2012)Collaboration is a key concept in Rheingold’sproposal. He says that “Collaboration is the mostpurposeful means of collective action”.A typical educational design based on collaborationis tandem learning.Examples: the work of João Telles and hiscollaborators at UNESP. Braga (2004) and Souza(1998) at UFMG. Attention/Participation/Collaboration/Consumption of information/Network smarts
New literacies Rheingold (2012)Collaboration is still a problem. Example: wikiExpected pattern Commonpattern Attention/Participation/Collaboration/Consumption of information/Network smarts
New literacies Rheingold (2012)Consumption of information (aka “crapdetection”):critical consumption of informationNetwork smarts: “the internet and the cell phonehave transformed communication from house tohouse to person-to-person”. “,The person hasbecome the portal”. Network smarts are the oneswho are aware of their networks and the power ofgetting things Attention/Participation/Collaboration/Consumpt done. ion of information/Network smarts
Shneiderman (2003) “You are evaluated today by “how many messages you get a day, how many groups you contribute to, and how many other people link to your Web pages”. (Shneiderman,2003, K, 1062)
Shneiderman (2003)The old education emphasized acquiringfacts and chunks of information,Old education stimulated competition andonly a few students were supposed to getgood marks.Students were prohibited from reading eachother’s work and required to workindependently.The new education emphasizescollaboration.
Shneiderman’s framework for technology-based teaching (2003)COLLECT (Gather information andacquired resources)RELATE (Work in collaborativeteams)CREATE (Develop ambitious projects)DONATE Produce results that aremeaningful to someone outside theclassroom) CRCD
In spite of the natural resistance toinnovations, it seems that digital toolshave been gradually incorporated intodifferent kinds of learning contexts:from face-to-face to blended or onlinelearning contexts.
We never know what newtools will appear andhow they will affect us.Korea is now testing two types of robots to teachyoung students. One is programmed to teachEnglish using voice recognition technology andthe other is a telepresence robot with enableschildren to learn from native speakers of Englishwho are far away.
One 10-year-old boy said he was a littlenervous about the robot at first, but he liked its singing and dancing.His classmate, 10-year-old girl, said, “I like the robot teacher better than human teachers.”
I do not think we will compete with robots in Brazil, but I think we willsurely be invited to produce more and more digital material. That seems to be the direction our government intends to pursue.
O arranjo social da escola é do século 18.Os professores são do século 20 e osalunos, do século 21.” (iG 06/03/2012)The school social arrangement is from18th century. Teachers are from 20thcentury and the students are from 21stcentury.
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