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2014 08 13 rainwater conservation presentation 1

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Water Conservation

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2014 08 13 rainwater conservation presentation 1

  1. 1. Sustainable Water conservation ICRISAT, Patancheru, Hyderabad. AP *MURLI.SHARMA@CGIAR.ORG. MM Sharma* A Vani Vengala Reddy
  2. 2. Hundreds and thousands tanks, Did not appear from ‘no where’ ! Behind them were ‘ a few’, who got them made, and ‘many more’ who made them !! These, ‘a few’ and ‘many more’ joined To make ‘hundreds and thousands’ tanks !!! And this system remained sustainable for centuries !!!! But then in the past two centuries, A few of ‘a bit educated’ in the society, Turned this system of ‘a few’, ‘many more’, ‘hundreds’ and ‘thousands’,
  3. 3. Gadsisar Rainwater at Gadsisar
  4. 4. Population growth Sentencing millions to Hydrological Poverty 2050 Projections: Additional: India 520 m people China 210 m people Pakistan 200 m people Philippines 130 m
  5. 5. Water Scarcity In both quantitative and qualitative manifestation is a major development challenge in developing countries
  6. 6. In many countries The physical limits to fresh water availability is a key concern
  7. 7. In the expanding Urban settlements Industrial sector and Commercial agriculture Water quantity is major concern
  8. 8. During flood situations considering Serious economic Ecological and Welfare consequences Water crisis is to be viewed in a much broader sense than scarcity issue
  9. 9. Water Crisis is due to Inefficient use and Poor management Rather than any physical limits or supply augmentation
  10. 10. Water crisis-mismatch in demand and supply? But this is much more It is pervasive gaps in economic and institutional dimension of Water Resource Development Allocation Use and Management
  11. 11. Water is most abundant resource • 97.5% is too salty for human consumption • Remaining 35 m cu km/year fresh water is not fully accessible • It is locked in ice in Arctic and Antarctic or deep underground
  12. 12. Physically accessible freshwater potential • Only 90000 cu km /year • = 0.26 % of global fresh water • 2/3 of this water – called green water evaporates to atmosphere
  13. 13. Green Water • Provides indirect and indispensable ecological benefit • Sustains life support systems of ecosystems • Also sustains livelihood needs of people dependent on rain-fed agriculture
  14. 14. Remaining 1/3 of fresh water called Blue water Not accessible due to : *Economic, technological and environmental limits *Spatial and Temporal mismatch e.g. Brazil: Fraction of global population, 1/5 of global water. India and China, 1/3 of population and 1/10 of global water.
  15. 15. Desalinization and recycling • Costly • Desalinization: only 18 m cu m/day, • But also contributes to heap of salts accumulated • Water reuse and recycling: not more than 2% of total water demand
  16. 16. Improving water use is promising • 10% improvement in water use efficiency can add 15 million ha land to irrigation • In terms of Food Grain this could be 75 to 100 million tones • Modern irrigation tech. Can increase WUE by up to 95% and saving of 50% water
  17. 17. Global Population • Since 1950, has increased to over 7.5 billion • Expected by 2100: 12 billion • Present global urban population 43% • Expected by 2025 to be 61%, i.e. 5 billion
  18. 18. Irrigation accounts for ¾ of total water use • 1900-2000: Expanded from 50 to 250 m ha • Expected by 2020: 296 m ha
  19. 19. Expansion in irrigation, drinking and industrial use • 1900-2013: 500 to 5000 cu km/year • Increase: 10 times !
  20. 20. Telltale symptoms of water scarcity • In 80 countries with 40 % world population • 55 of these in Asia and Africa can’t meet basic water need • 2.2 billion people don’t have access to clean water • 2.7 billion people don’t have access to sanitation
  21. 21. Water challenge has • Economic • Institutional and • Policy dimensions
  22. 22. How serious? Too serious to be left only to • Government • Bureaucracy and • Technocrats We all need to help ourselves and “the national system”
  23. 23. How? • By suitable rainwater management for potable water: • In urban house holds • In rural areas; and • By Watershed based Farming Systems in dry-land agriculture
  24. 24. City of Hyderabad • 425 year old • Piped water supply system introduced- 1910, for 0.5 million population • Capacity installed initially: for 1 million population • Present population: between 7.5 million • Increase in 103 years: 15 folds
  25. 25. This city is thirsty • Like many other cities in India • Hyderabad has serious water problem • Water has become limiting for domestic, agriculture and industrial use • Our expectations from Government are very high
  26. 26. Essential to understand • Water is a precious natural resource and can’t be created
  27. 27. Limitation of Government No magic wand Developing dependable sources is- • Technically difficult • Time consuming • Expensive • Often not environmentally sound • Often not efficient
  28. 28. Issue at hand The problem of guaranteeing sufficient quantity of water is too serious to be left to the Government alone
  29. 29. The role of public • Step forward to help manage water • Create awareness for its proper use • Why? • Because the ‘blame game’ will not help solve the problem
  30. 30. Present status • Protected water supply meets only 40% requirements • Water in most colonies is supplied alternate or third day, for one hour only • Remainder is met by ground water: by dug wells and bore wells
  31. 31. Ground water status • Most dug wells have dried in the past 10 years, except low areas • Bore wells in residential areas are at 30-60 feet distance • Recharge is poor • Excess drawing is obvious • Average bore well depth 10 years back: less than 100 ft • Present average bore well depth: over 700 ft
  32. 32. Deep bore wells • Unlikely to yield sufficient water to a family • Water quality is poor • Expensive to drill • Requires more electrical power • Water lost to ‘dry faults’ is not accessible to none
  33. 33. Urban Rainwater Conservation At Hyderabad: A Test–Case since 1995, in Hyderabad, India Collection of Rainwater from roof in an underground tank.
  34. 34. Test case: our house • We decided to meet part of our requirement by rain water conservation from roof • Location: in Sainikpuri area of Secunderabad
  35. 35. Our attempt • Traditional technology with a modern twist • To develop an optimum system of rainwater conservation in the living dwelling
  36. 36. Concept: 1. Rainwater directed to one corner of roof 2. Collection in an underground tank 3. Pumped to an overhead tank 4. Utilized in kitchen, toilets and for other household needs 5. Used water directed to soak pit to enrich ground water table
  37. 37. Input required for computing • Standard weekly rainfall data (mm) • Roof area in sq. m
  38. 38. Equation • Required- Roof area in sq. m and annual rainfall (mm) • 1mm rain, on 1 sq. m roof, gives 1 lit water • Normal annual rainfall in Hyderabad: 800 mm • Our roof area: 160 sq. m
  39. 39. Rainwater from your roof a. 1 mm rain; on 1 sq. m roof; gives 1 lit water b. This means that if you know roof area (length x width) in sq. m It is possible to calculate total quantity of water from your roof Eg. For 150 sq. m roof in Hyderabad, total rain water on the roof in a year will be 150 x 800 = 120000 lit
  40. 40. Quantity of water • 160 sq. m roof *800 mm rains = 125000 lit water • What is the optimum size of tank required? • Need some computing be done. • Why? • Because all rain water does not come on one day • Also we draw water from tank everyday
  41. 41. Optimum tank size computing • “Rainwater” year at Hyderabad begins Standard week 22. • Optimum tank size for the house: 55000 lit. • Tank capacity constructed 100000 lit • Thumb rule for optimum tank size: 40-50% of annual water received on roof
  42. 42. Rainwater Rainwater Weekly RainwaterCumulativeCumulative Water Normal on Addition Withdrawl Balance Standard Rainfall Roof in Tank from Tank in Tank S.No Month Week No. mm. mm. lit. lit. lit 1 5-6 22 8.3 1328 1328 0 1328 2 6 23 17.1 2736 4064 2450 1614 3 6 24 18.8 3008 7072 4900 2172 4 6 25 32.1 5136 12208 7350 4858 Total Rainwater on the roof : 125280 lit Maximum water in the tank at any time: 54806 lit Optimum size of underground tank: 60000 lit File: Rainwater conservation from Roof Consider "Rainwater Year" at Hyderabad beginning with Standard week no 22 Normal annual rainfall at Hyderabad: 783 mm Roof area of the house: 160 sq.m. Computing of water conservation
  43. 43. Rainwater collection system • Water from roof comes down by a PVC pipe • Filtering by vertical mesh filters • Enter underground tank by a PVC pipe • Tank walls made of stones, cement at joints • Tank floor cement mortar
  44. 44. House Plan
  45. 45. Water level at the end of summer
  46. 46. ♣ 0.5 hp pump used to fill over-head tank ♣ No chemical treatment for water ♣ Used rainwater for drinking, cooking, bath and washing clothes since 1997. ♣ Only 50% detergent powder needed for washing ♣ Manage judiciously to last for the whole year Practice followed:
  47. 47. Economic Considerations Cost of construction: 41000 1. Savings during 1995-02: 50000 2. Savings during 2003-07: 75000 3. Savings on electricity( 2003-07): 52800 4. Total savings 1995-07: 177800 Present Savings 5. Annual savings: 5a. By water: 15000 5b. By electricity: 9600 5c. Deduct interest on investment: 4900 5d. Net savings: 19700/year
  48. 48. Potable Rainwater Conservation System
  49. 49. Salient features: 1. High quality crystal clear water 2. No chemical treatment 3. Minor maintenance, no running cost 4. Easy in design and construction 5. Sustainable and eco-friendly
  50. 50. Water Conservation at ICRISAT Farm
  51. 51. Watershed based Farming Systems The Resilient Technology for next Green Revolution from Dry-land Agriculture
  52. 52. Integrated Watershed Management: An opportunity for resource poor environments  Green revolution areas are showing yield increase fatigue  Systems are not sustainable  Green revolution bypassed large grey areas Dr. SP Wani
  53. 53. Very High Quality Rain Water Conservation System ICRISAT Glass House Complex
  54. 54. Rainwater at ICRISAT farm a. Area of the farm 1400 ha b. 1 ha = 10000 sq. m c. Total farm area in sq. m = 1400x10000=14000000 d. Average annual rainfall = 800 mm e. 14000000x800=11200000000 lit = Eleven Thousands two hundred million lit.
  55. 55. Expansion of Dryland Technology in Farmers Fields Kothapally Village Watershed One of the best example of Research FOR Development
  56. 56.  Groundwater recharging  Decreased runoff and soil losses  Reduction of droughts Adarsh Watershed, Kothapally, India: Benefits to the Community  Increased water levels in the wells  Increased cropping intensity
  57. 57. Conclusion: Cultivating Peace  Peace can be cultivated in drought-prone areas by a Grey to Green Revolution  A paradigm shift is needed to reduce poverty through integrated natural resource management  Integrated watershed management will result to the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources
  58. 58. “ History has taught us that wars produce hunger, but we are now aware that mass poverty, water poverty and hunger can lead to war, violence and political instability ” Dr. WD Dar
  59. 59. Choice: Water quality and quantity affect our living If we manage water well we live happy “life” If not, we only “survive” We need to choose one Let us choose “life” rather than “survival”
  60. 60. Core issues for sustainable India in next 50 Years In our vision • Water Conservation • Dry-land Agriculture • Environmental Conservation • Population growth Will determine sustenance of our country and the world
  61. 61. Fifty years from now……… • My time on this earth would be done • But the trees and the flowers • The birds and the butterflies • The land and the water • And the industries for growth • On this planet, our mother earth would go on … And so will be 10 billion, more demanding people, for food and water. Let us do our bit for all that is possible • And now I stop with many wishes, congratulations for your efforts and interest and much gratitude
  62. 62. Acknowledgement • I am grateful to Dr. SP Wani, Dr. P Pathak, Dr. RC Sachan • Mr R Sudi, Mr R Jangawad for their consistent help in my work on rainwater conservation. • Our DG, Dr. WD Dar has always been encouraging this work. Thanks to Ms Vani for her beautiful poems which make this issue very emotional and close to heart for me. and Mr Vengala Reddy has always given shape to my ideas by his work.
  63. 63. M M Sharma Mailing Address: ICRISAT, Patancheru P O, 502324 Tel Office: +91 040 30713170 +91 098490 21472 Residence Address: 19 Hastinapuri colony, Near Sainikpuri P.O. Secunderabad 500094. Tel Resi. +91 040-55172220 E-mail: MURLI.SHARMA@CGIAR.ORG Thanks
  64. 64. Thanks . . .

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