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  • 08/15/13
  • 08/15/13
  • Kaizen

    1. 1. 08/15/13 KAIZEN STRATEGY FOR CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 98-1-31 Prima Tanjung, Jalan Fettes, Tanjong Tokong 11200 Pulau Pinang Tel : 604-8996020 Fax : 604-8994020 Email : admin@qms-mal.com
    2. 2. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 2 Topics of Discusion Kaizen Introduction Why Kaizen? Terms Used Typeso f Kaizen Gemba Kaizen Kaizen Tools Practical Similar Programs
    3. 3. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 3 Introduction To Kaizen • KAIZEN means improvement. • KAIZEN means continuing improvement in personal life, home life, social life, and working life. • KAIZEN means continuing improvement involving everyone - managers and workers alike, when applied to the workplace. KAIZEN as originally defined in the book of: "KAIZEN, the Key to Japan's Competitive Success" by Mr. Masaaki Imai, is:
    4. 4. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 4 Traditional Management Figure 1: How Kaizen Systems Differ From Traditional Systems Characteristics Kaizen Traditional Purpose  employee involvement and development  communication  economic benefits  economic benefit its Focus  many very small changes (e.g. revising a form)  elimination of daily hassles  few very large changes (e.g. changing a manufacturing process) “breakthroughs” Awards  few dollars  merchandise  usually thousands of dollars  cash Participation  50% and higher  many ideas accepted  5% and lower  many ideas not accepted Implementation  employees implement most of own ideas  quick  suggestion implemented = improvement idea  Management, engineering driven  slow, drawn-out employees less accountable  suggestion = improvement idea Adoption rate  near 100%  approximately 25% Administrator  majority of time spent processing implemented ideas and issuing awards  specialist  Majority of time spent investi- gating un-implemented ideas and explaining “rejected” ones  manager Suggestions received per year  Thousands  Hundreds Highest award  Varies (or merchandise valued at)  Large amount Motivators  Intrinsic satisfaction — personal development and recognition  frequent feedback and awards  extrinsic rewards money infrequent
    5. 5. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 5  The Wet Blanket List • Too busy to study it. • Premature timing. • No budget. • Theory is different than practice. • Does not match corporate policy. • Not our business. • Common sense. • Isn’t there something else for you to do? • Are you dissatisfied with your work? • I know the result, even if we don’t do it. • I will not be held accountable for it. • Can’t you think of a better idea?  The Traditional Management • Two classes of people in an organization - Thinkers and Workers • Thinkers who think and innovate new ideas • Workers who are required to work with their hands. Traditional Management
    6. 6. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 6  Not Invented Here (NIH) Syndrome • That’s not ours. • Their culture is different. • We did not learn that way. • We’ve tried that, it could not work. • We are doing what we can.  Type A - Total Rejection • Over confident about past success or excessively biased with ethnocentrism which indicates a real NIH person.  Type B - Unconditional Imitation • Blindly follow to implement when having a new idea, prone to fail and end with a giving up.  Type C - Selective Acceptance • Picking up the workable elements in the beginning and proceed from the point. • Practicing learning by doing until determine which elements could be implemented well and improved afterward. Traditional Management
    7. 7. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 7 Kaizen Values and Concepts  Kaizen Values • Contains two elements - improvement/change and ongoing/ continuity. • “Business as usual” contains the element of continuity without improvement. • “Breakthrough” contains the element of change or improvement without continuity. • Constant improvement • Continual, organized efforts. • Incremental improvements.  Kaizen Concepts • Kaizen is an umbrella concept covering most of those uniquely Japanese practices that have recently such worldwide fame. • These concepts have helped companies generate a process-oriented way of thinking and develop strategies that assure continuous improvement involving people at all levels. • Not a day should go by without some kind of improvement being made somewhere in the company.
    8. 8. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 8 Kaizen Values and Concepts  Kaizen7 Key Concept • Standardize-Do-Check-Act (SDCA) to Plan-DO-Check-Act (PDCA) - Follow the Shewhart cycle • The next process is the customer – Ask what you can do to improve product or services that you pass along to the next process. • Quality first – Improving quality automatically improves cost and delivery, while focus on cost usually causes deterioration in quality and delivery. • Market-in vs. product out – Instead of pushing products into the market and hoping customers will buy them, ask potential customers what they need/want and develop products that meet these needs and wants. • Upstream management – The sooner in the design/pilot test/production/market cycle a problem can be found and corrected, the less time and money is wasted. • Speak with data – The statistical tools will provide data for convincing arguments. • Variability control and recurrence prevention – Ask ‘Why?’ five times to get to the real cause of a problem and to avoid just treating the effect of the problem.
    9. 9. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 9  The Kaizen Umbrella • Customer orientation • TQC (Total Quality Control) • Robotics • QC Circles • Suggestion System • Automation • Discipline in workplace • TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) • Kanban • Quality Improvement • Just-in-time • Zero Defects • Small-group activities • Cooperative labor - management relations • Productivity Improvement • New-product development Figure 2 Figure 3 KAIZEN Kaizen Values and Concepts
    10. 10. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 10 Kaizen and Management  Maintenance, Innovation and KAIZEN  Maintenance • Maintaining current status. • Procedures are set. • Standards are implemented • For lower level of an organization.  Innovation • Breakthrough activities • Purchase new machine, equipment. • Developing new markets. • Directing R&D. • Change of strategy. • For top level of an organization  KAIZEN • Small steps of continuing improvement • Implemented by lower/ middle management and workers. • Encouraged, cultivated and directed by top management.
    11. 11. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 11 Kaizen and Management  Maintenance, Innovation and KAIZEN Top Mgmt Mid-Mgmt Supervisors Workers KAIZENInnovation Maintenance  Innovation and KAIZEN Figure 4 Figure 5 KAIZEN VS. INNOVATION FACTOR KAIZEN INNOVATION Size of improvement Small improvements Major improvements Basis of improvement Conventional knowledge Technology or equipment Main resource Personal involvement Money investment People involved Many people A few champions Orientation Improve the process Improve results Economy Even in slow economy Mainly in good economy
    12. 12. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 12 Management Commitment  Top Management • Introduce Kaizen as a corporate strategy • Provide support and direction bt allocating resources • Establish policy and cross-functional goals. • Realize goals through deploymwnt and audits. • Build systems, procedures, and structures conducive to KAIZEN.  Middle Management and Staff • Deploy and implement goals as directed through policy deployment and cross-functional management. • Use KAIZEN in functional capabilities. • Establish, maintain and upgrade standards. • Make employees conscious through training programs. • Assist employees develop skills and tools for problem solving.
    13. 13. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 13 Management Commitment  Management Commitment  Supervisors • Use KAIZEN in functional roles. • Formulate plans and provide guidance to workers. • Improve communication and sustain high morale. • Support Small Group Activities and individual suggestion system. • Introduce discipline. • Provide KAIZEN suggestion.  Workers • Engage in KAIZEN through suggestion system and small group activities. • Practice discipline • Engage in continuous self-development to become better problem solver. • Enhance skills and job-performance expertise with cross-education.
    14. 14. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 14 KAIZEN by Total Quality Control (TQC)  Quality Control (QC) and the “Quality of People”  Quality Control • Defined as “ a system of means to economically produce goods or services which satisfy customer requirements” - JIS Z8101 (1981) • Quality is associated with products, services, way people work,way machines were operated, and way systems and procedures are dealt with.  Quality of People • A company able to build quality into its people is already halfway towards producing quality products. • Total Quality Control starts with human-ware. • TQC is defined as implementing quality control effectively necessitates the cooperation of all people in the company.
    15. 15. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 15 KAIZEN by Total Quality Control (TQC)  Quality Control (QC) and the “Quality of People”  Total Quality Control • Elaborate system of Kaizen strategies as management tools within TQC movement. • Used Seven Statistical Tools or 7 QC Tools as a management tools. • TQC dealt with:  Quality assurance  Cost reduction  Meeting production quotas  Meeting delivery schedules  Safety  New-product development  Productivity improvement  Supplier management  Marketing, sales and services • Six features of TQC characteristics:  Company-wide TQC, with all employees participating.  Emphasis on training and education  QCC activities  TQC audits  Application of statistical methods  Nationwide TQC promotion
    16. 16. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 16 KAIZEN by Total Quality Control (TQC)  Quality Control (QC) and the “Quality of People”  Speak With Data • Establish data collection and evaluation system. • Information should be shared among executives. • There is always a possibility of improvement if information/data is properly:  collected  processed  channeled  put to practical use • Effective communication network • Develop various systems, tools and formats to facilitate:  new product development  cross-functional organizations  systems diagrams  quality deployment. • Quality First, Not Profit First • Basic elements to manage a company are:  quality (products, services and work)  quantity  delivery (time)  cost  safety  employee morale
    17. 17. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 17 KAIZEN by Total Quality Control (TQC)  Quality Control (QC) and the “Quality of People”  Quality First, Not Profit First (cont’d) • First, establish the technologies and system to make products that can satisfy customers. • Second, making good products at low cost and in large quantity without sacrificing quality.  The Five “Why”s • TQC encourages people to go back to the previous process on the production line to seek out a problem’s causes. • Improvement requires that always be aware of what comes from the previous process. • Ask “why” for five times as to dig out the causes and seek the root cause of any problem. • By repeating “why” five times, it is possible to identify the real cause and hence the real solution.  The Next Process Is The Customers • Realization of the next internal and external customers. • Never send defective parts to the following processes. • Extracted into the Kanban and JIT system. • Assuring quality to each customer at each stage will assure quality in the finished product.
    18. 18. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 18 KAIZEN by Total Quality Control (TQC)  Quality Control (QC) and the “Quality of People”  Training • TQC starts with training and ends with training • Aim for training is to instill TQC thinking in all employees and employees awareness • In building quality into people, it should starts with training and educating the people, from top management to workers including the vendors.  Cross Functional Management • TQC encompasses various levels of management as well as various functional departments as people are not to be isolated. • TQC seeks:  Mutual understanding  Collaboration  Contagious spirit  “Break departmental barriers” • Strengthening the horizontal and vertical interrelations among different organizational levels • Facilitates company-wide communication.
    19. 19. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 19 KAIZEN by Total Quality Control (TQC)  PDCA Cycle  Initially was based on a division of labor among supervisors, inspectors, and workers. (See to Figure 6)  Plan • Plan improvements in present practices by using statistical tools:  Pareto Diagrams  Cause-and-Effect Diagrams  Histograms  Control Charts  Scatter Diagrams  Graphs  Checksheets  Do • Application of plan  Check • Seeing if it has brought the desired improvement  Action • Preventing recurrence and institutionalizing the improvement as a new practice to improve upon  PDCA is a process through which new standard are set only be challenged, revised, and replaced by newer and better standards.  Process of stabilization is often called Standardize- Do-Check-Action cycle.
    20. 20. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 20 KAIZEN by Total Quality Control (TQC)  PDCA Cycle Plan (Mgmt) Plan (Mgmt) Check (Inspector) Check (Inspector) Do (Worker) Do (Worker) Action (Mgmt) Action (Mgmt) Plan (Management) Plan (Management) Check (Inspectors & Mgmt) Check (Inspectors & Mgmt) Do (P-D-C-A) (Worker) Do (P-D-C-A) (Worker) Action (Management) Action (Management) Figure 6 : Initial PDCA Figure 7 : Revised PDCA
    21. 21. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 21 KAIZEN by Total Quality Control (TQC)  Interaction of PDCA and SDCA Cycles P C A D P C A D S C A D S C A D KAIZEN KAIZEN Maintenance Maintenance Figure 8 : Interaction of PDCA and SDCA cycles with KAIZEN and Maintenance
    22. 22. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 22 KAIZEN by Small Group Activities  Small Group Activities  Defined as • Informal • Voluntary organization • Small group organized  Formed for the purpose of stimulating cross- development among its members.  Improves quality, increases productivity and lowers costs.  Small Group Activities represent • non-confrontational improvements • informal ways of solving problems • introducing improvements  Advantages • Strengthen the sense of teamwork • Improves communications • Sharing and coordinating group members respective roles better • Improves morale • Workers acquire new skills and knowledge • Develop more cooperative attitudes • Group is self-sustaining and solves problems • Labor-management relations are greatly improves.
    23. 23. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 23 KAIZEN by Small Group Activities  Implementing Small Group Activities  Forming a team • Within the same workplace • Elect a leader • Assign roles to each members  Bringing problems to light • Find problems within the workplace  Selecting a subject • Select subject that every member able to involve  Planning activities • According to QC Story • Use 5W1H for making plan • Divide the work amongst members  Understanding the present condition • Data collection • Consider facts from different angles • Classify the obtained information/data  Setting a target • Determine for improvement • Dateline of completion • Show in figures
    24. 24. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 24 KAIZEN by Small Group Activities  Implementing Small Group Activities (cont’d)  Analyzing causes • Use 5-Why • Examine the facts and data obtained  Studying the measures • Collect ideas from all members i.e. Brainstorming session • Collect as many ideas as possible  Carrying out the measures • Decide a plan of implementation using 5W1H • Persist in executing the plan  Confirming the effects • Evaluate the results item by item on the measures • Confirm the tangible or intangible achievement  Maintaining the obtained results • Standardization • Preventing effect shrinking • Provide education and training to members
    25. 25. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 25 KAIZEN by Small Group Activities  Implementing Small Group Activities (cont’d)  Summary and review • Check the achievement of the plan • Make future plans  Presentation • According to QC Story  Suggestion Scheme  Three major types of suggestion system in an organization: • Individual suggestion system and no QC Circles • QC Circles and no individual suggestion system • QC Circles and individual suggestion system  Main subjects for the suggestions may cover for • Improvements in one’s own work • Saving in energy, material and other resources • Improvements in the working environment • Improvements in machines and processes • Improvements in jigs and tools • Improvement in office work • Improvements in product quality • Ideas for new products • Customers services and customer relations
    26. 26. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 26 KAIZEN by Small Group Activities  Suggestion Scheme (cont’d)  Stages of Suggestion System • First stage  Management should make every effort to help the workers to provide suggestions. • Second stage  Management should stress employee education so that employee can provide better suggestion. • Third stage  Management should concern with the economic impact of the suggestion.  Suggestion System Goals • Making job easier • Removing drudgery from the job • Removing nuisance from the job • Making the job safer • Making the job more productive • Improving product quality • Saving time and cost
    27. 27. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 27 KAIZEN by Small Group Activities  Suggestion Scheme (cont’d)  Guidelines on suggestion system: • Always show positive response to suggestion for improvement • Help workers to write easily and give them helpful suggestions about their work • Try to identify even the slightest inconvenience for the workers. (This requires good communication skills) • Make a clear target. • Use competition and games to initiate interest e.g. displaying individual achievement charts. • Implement accepted suggestions as soon as possible. Give awards before payday, if possible.
    28. 28. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 28 KAIZEN by Visible Management  Visual Management  Definition: • A technique of providing information and instruction about elements of a job in a clearly visible manner for worker to maximize his productivity  Visual management is deployed in three areas • For displaying characteristic figures, data and graphics • For depicting and controlling processes • For identifying and marking sources of risks, setting and standards.  In making the workplace easy to understand: 1. Make clear the location of set-up articles, parts, and materials. 2. Any abnormality should be easily noticeable by stock management, set-up order, progress status, or other information management procedures. 3. Place the line stop notice board (abnormality control board) in a conspicuous place. 4. Put Kanban at the head of the line so the present status of production, line status, and the necessary overtime (if any) are clearly visible. 5. Post the standard work sheet so that the cycle time, procedures, and standard time can be easily seen.
    29. 29. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 29 KAIZEN by Visible Management  Visual Management  Visible Management Through 5Ms • MAN  Worker’s morale can be measured by the number of suggestions each person makes, the level of participation in QC Circles, and absenteeism.  A "multi-skilled" board indicating who is trained to do what and to what level of proficiency. • METHOD  Working method can be made visible by using standard operating sheets displayed at each work station which show sequence of steps, procedures, safety items, quality checkpoints, and what has to be done when variability occurs. • MEASUREMENT  Gauges are well marked to show safe operating ranges.  Trend charts are used at each gemba(workplace) which show ability to meet production schedules, decrease of quality problems, reduction in set-up times, and reduction in safety problems.
    30. 30. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 30 KAIZEN by Visible Management  Visual Management  Visible Management Through 5Ms(cont’d) • MATERIALS  Implementing "5S" tools for cleanliness, efficiency, and order.  With "5S," everything has its own place or location; a clear declination is made between material storage areas and hallways; and every tool is in the right place.  Each tool is outlined, so that if you only see an outline you know the tool is being used by someone.  Production schedule attainment is made visible.  Production control boards clearly show schedule attainment by the month, day, and hour.  TAKT time is clear, a meter at the workstation makes a minute-by-minute assessment of whether or not the production rate is exactly meeting the customer's demands.  Kanban is used to let people know when materials need to be replenished, ordered, or transported.  Rejects are made visible so everyone knows they have occurred and why they occurred.
    31. 31. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 31 KAIZEN by Visible Management  Visual Management  Visible Management Through 5Ms(cont’d) • MACHINE  Indication lights are used to indicate problems.  A matrix of lights showing a machine down by what reason, i.e. scheduled down, changeover and set-up, quality problems, machine breakdown, preventive repair, etc.  Lubrication levels, frequency, and type are indicated on the lubricant chart or transparent covers are made, so the operator can see if the machine is working correctly.  Transparent covers are made to replace metal housings, so the operator can see if the machine is working correctly. Figure 9 : Examples of Visual Management
    32. 32. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 32 KAIZEN by 5S Activities  5S Activities  Introduction • Defined as fundamental discipline for creating and maintaining a highly organized, high performance work place. • Focused on  production  quality  safety  delivery  environment  training  The 5S principles are : • SEIRI - Shifting - Keeping only the minimum of what is required • SEITON - Sorting - “A place for everything and everything in its place” • SEISO - Sweeping - Items clean and able to function properly. Return parts in good conditions. • SEIKETSU - Spic & Span - Working environment clean and safe • SHITSUKE - Strict - Follow the rules and make them a habit.
    33. 33. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 33 KAIZEN by 8 Wastes Elimination  The 8 Wastes • Defined as anything that increases cost without adding value. • Present Status of Ability = Work + Waste • Work Contents = Net Operation + Operation + Non-value Added Operations + Motion + Waste • The 8 wastes are: 1. Over-production 5. Inventory 2. Waiting 6. Motion 3. Transportation 7. Defects 4. Over-processing 8. People utilization Motion Waste Net Operation Operation Non-value Added Operation Figure 10 : Content of Operation In The Workplace
    34. 34. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 34 KAIZEN by 8 Wastes Elimination • Overproduction – Production more than production schedule • Waiting – Poor balance of work; operator attention time • Transportation – Long moves; re-stacking; pick up/put down • Processing – Protecting parts for transport to another process • Inventory – Too much material ahead of process hides problems • Motion – Walking to get parts because of space taken by high WIP. • Defects – Material and labor are wasted; capacity is lost at bottleneck • People – Excessive usage of manpower and overtime • Examples of Waste  Watching a machine run  Waiting for parts  Counting parts  Producing parts that aren’t needed  Moving parts over long distances  Storing inventory  Looking for tools or parts  Machine breakdown  Rework and scrap  Products that don’t meet the needs of customers
    35. 35. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 35 KAIZEN by 8 Wastes Elimination  The 3-MUs  MUDA : or waste is created when unnecessary work is done, unnecessary material is used or processing is done  MURA : or irregularity occurs whenever a smooth work flow is interrupted in an operation, or the flow of parts to machines is interrupted, or change in production schedule is made.  MURI : or strenuous work, or conditions for both workers and machines as well as the work process e.g. when a new worker is assigned to do the job will be strenuous and the chances are he will be slower in his work.  Methods to eliminate the 8 Wastes • Ask 5W1H (Why, What, Where, When, Who, Why) • Repeat 5 Why (Why, Why, Why, Why, Why) • Look for the 3 MUs • Simplify/ Combine/ Eliminate
    36. 36. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 36 KAIZEN in Production Floor  The Real Place - GEMBA  GEMBA is referring as the “real place”  GEMBA is where the value-adding activities to satisfy the customer are carried out.  Good management means establishing: • control • maintaining the process • improving the process.  Therefore: 1. To establish control, you must be able to measure 2. To measure you must be able to define 3. To define you must be able to quantify 4. Quantifying is only possible at the place where value is added: The GEMBA.  It is necessary to pay attention on the GEMBA because: • Solutions are grounded in reality and emphasize commonsense, low-cost approaches. • Continual adjustment and improvement becomes possible. • Resistance to change is minimized. • It is not always necessary to gain upper management approval to make changes. • Reality lies in the work-site, not at the desks.
    37. 37. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 37 KAIZEN in Production Floor  The Golden Rules of GEMBA Management • Staying in close contact with and understanding GEMBA is the first step in managing a work site effectively. • The five golden rules of GEMBA Management are: 1. When a problem (abnormality) arises, go to gemba first. 2. Check the gembutsu (relevant item). 3. Take temporary countermeasures on the spot. 4. Find the root cause. 5. Standardize to prevent recurrence.
    38. 38. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 38 KAIZEN by Total Productive Maintenance  Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)  What is TPM? • Breakdown maintenance  repairs to make failed machine operational • Preventive Maintenance  system of periodic inspection & maintenance to keep machines operating • TPM combines preventive maintenance and total quality concepts i.e. TPM is a process of taking the methodologies of Preventive Maintenance, quality control and small group activities, mixing them together and using the final output to improve productivity.  How does it work? • Small teams look at all aspects of a machine or process with the goal of eliminating waste - or zero losses.
    39. 39. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 39
    40. 40. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 40 KAIZEN by Total Productive Maintenance  Total Productive Maintenance  Why do TPM? • One of the largest assaults on quality is the breaking down or deterioration of machines. • Aiming to reach 100% up-time on all machinery through the use of cross-functional teams. • Equipment is not kept up at the condition it was in when it was new. • Dusts collects, leaks appear and are not fixed, vibrations begin to wear parts which contributes deterioration of equipment.  How stop the deterioration and breakdowns? • Through the TPM methodologies,  learn to spot abnormalities with the equipment  fix the problem immediately  set up an inspection system to monitor the equipment  set up a series of standards that the equipment must meet in order to stay running  learn how to track down equipment problems to the root cause
    41. 41. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 41 KAIZEN by Total Productive Maintenance  Total Productive Maintenance  Zero losses • Losses are categorized as follows: 1. Break down loss - the machine is inoperable 2. Set up and adjustment loss - the time it takes to change over to different parts or different processes 3. Minor stoppage loss - product gets stuck in a machine, slowing down throughput 4. Speed loss - worn parts slow down the operating time of a machine 5. Defect and rework loss - producing defective work that must be scrapped or redone. 6. Start up and yield loss - machines take longer to warm up as they get older  TPM requires management to: • Design products that can be easily produced on existing machines • Design machines for easier operations, changeover, maintenance • Train & retrain workers to operate machines • Purchase machines that maximize productive potential • Design preventive maintenance plan spanning life of machine.
    42. 42. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 42 KAIZEN by Total Productive Maintenance  Total Productive Maintenance  Factors contributes to machine problems: • Machines • Dirty and oily • Oil pan overflow • Leaks • Overheated • Vibration • Improper routine inspection • Operators • Lack of concern for dirty machines • No training is given to conduct simple maintenance. • Lack of knowledge • Keeping quiet when problem arises • Quantity more important than maintenance • Repair Crew • Do not practice 5 Why to seek for the root cause • Do not teach operator on simple maintenance • Attending for major breakdowns only • Always assumed machines eventually breakdown • Suggestion through new machines for improvement.
    43. 43. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 43 KAIZEN by Total Productive Maintenance  Total Productive Maintenance  Steps to achieve TPM 1. Practice the 5S activities 2. Identify problems causes and take the necessary action 3. Draw up standards for cleaning and oiling 4. Review the total system implemented 5. Setting standards for checking procedures 6. Male sure everything is in order and in place 7. Policy deployment.
    44. 44. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 44 KAIZEN Tools  Seven QC Tools  The seven tools of QC: 1. Pareto diagram 2. Tally-sheet 3. Cause-and-Effect diagram 4. Control Chart 5. Histogram 6. Graph 7. Scatter diagram <1> Pareto Diagram • From the information gathered from tally-sheets, many minor problems will be eliminated, leaving only the few main problems to be tackled. <Uses> • To grasp the problem • To grasp the past and present situation of the problem • To stratify • To confirm the improvement results
    45. 45. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 45 KAIZEN Tools  Seven QC Tools (cont’d) <2> Tally-Sheet • To analyze the situation and to look at the important questions. • Depending on the checking done and the data that is available, a table or diagram is derived. <Uses>  To grasp the past and present situation  To stratify  To grasp the changes through time  To grasp the improvement results  To confirm the standards. <3> Cause-and-Effect Diagram • The Effect (result) which is influenced by the main factors (causes) is placed as in a fishbone diagram. • Using this, the real causes of the problem can be found. <Uses>  To grasp the causal relationship between cause and effect  To stratify
    46. 46. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 46 KAIZEN Tools  Seven QC Tools (cont’d) <4> Control Charts • This is a broken line graph used to grasp the variation in the data, which is entered through planning the control limit lines of a centerline, an upper control limit and a lower control limit. <Uses> To discover the variables To grasp the control situation <5> Histogram • The data has a tendency to be centered upon a maximum of large numerical value, and from there it spreads out, gradually decreasing. • The analysis of the situation is placed into columnar graph <Uses> Grasp the past and present situation To stratify To confirm the improvement result
    47. 47. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 47 KAIZEN Tools  Seven QC Tools (cont’d) <6> Graphs • Useful information about control and improvement is put into diagrams, which are visual and easily comprehensible. • Column(bar) graphs, broken line graphs, pie charts, belt graphs, radar graph and so on is commonly used. <Uses> To analyze the cause To record the time and contents To record the time and schedule control To grasp the large and small numbers and time changes <7> Scatter Diagram • This is a diagram where you utilize two sets of data to plot (enter) them onto the vertical axis and the horizontal axis. • From the analysis of the situation, the congenial relationship of the data can be seen. <Uses> To grasp the past and present situation To grasp the correlation
    48. 48. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 48 KAIZEN Tools  New Seven QC Tools (cont’d)  The new seven tools of QC: 1. Tree Diagram 2. Relations Diagram 3. Matrix Diagram 4. Matrix Data Analysis 5. Affinity Diagram 6. Arrow Diagram 7. Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC)  New seven QC Tools is for supervisors and staff development and to re-arrange verbal data into diagrams. <1> Tree Diagram • After establishing the goals of the objectives, targets and results, achieving the goals by systematically developing the steps (plans) at a glance the entire picture of the problem. <Uses> To pursue the steps needed to achieve the objectives (targets) To grasp the problem areas
    49. 49. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 49 KAIZEN Tools  New Seven QC Tools (cont’d) <2> Relation Diagram • This is used to solve the problem by rationally seeing the relationship between “Cause - Results”, and “Objective - Measures”, where complicated circumstances are interwoven into the problem (phenomenon). <Uses> To grasp the casual relationship between cause and effect To grasp the relationship between objectives and measures To grasp the problem areas <3> Matrix Diagram/ Matrix Data Analysis • This is used to find the relationships between two or more sets of information. <Uses> To identify and analyze relationships between information/ data To rate the presence and the strength of relationships
    50. 50. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 50 KAIZEN Tools  New Seven QC Tools (cont’d) <4> Affinity Diagram • This is used to gathering and grouping ideas effectively. <Uses>  To summarize ideas/ issues by understanding the essence of problems and breakthrough solutions.  Encourages creativity by everyone at all phases of a process.  Encourages non-traditional connections among ideas/ issues.  Breaks down long-standing communication barriers. <5> Arrow Diagram • This is used as a schedule planning diagram. • The relation between the essential operations are shown as a network for schedule control. <Uses>  To grasp the whole work process with clear understanding of problem areas.  To identify areas for improvement  To ease the checking process for the progress situation of a operation.  Mutual understanding and agreement of views
    51. 51. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 51 KAIZEN Tools  New Seven QC Tools (cont’d) <6> Process Decision Program Chart • Is a technique to anticipates at the development stage of various results and lead the process in the desired direction. • Effective for unexpected problems which arise where quick expectation targets can be set and readjustment to the route made. <Uses>  To forecast the future and taking the necessary action.  Essential events are confirmed with ease  To have collective views for easy modifications  To achieve the end goal with clear and accurate manner.
    52. 52. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 52 KAIZEN Tools  Problem Solving by PDCA Cycle  Plan 1. Select the problem/ process that will be addressed first (or next) and describe the improvement opportunity.  Look for changes in important business indicators  Assemble and support the right team  Review customer data  Narrow down project focus.  Develop purpose statement 2. Described the current process surrounding the improvement opportunity.  Select the relevant process or process segment to define the scope of the project  Describe the process under study 3. Describe all of the possible causes of problem and agree on the root cause(s).  Identify and gather helpful facts and opinions on the cause(s) of the problem  Confirm opinions on root cause(s) with data whenever possible.
    53. 53. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 53 KAIZEN Tools  Problem Solving by PDCA Cycle • Plan (cont’d) 4. Develop an effective and workable solution and action plan, including the solution or process change.  Define and rank solutions  Plan the change process : 5W1H  Do the contingency planning when dealing with new and risky plans  Set targets for improvement and establish monitoring methods • Do 5. Implement the solution or process of the change  Implement the solution in a small scale first  Follow the plan and monitor the milestones and measures. • Check 6. Review and evaluate the result of the change  Confirm or establish the means of monitoring the solution for the validity of measures.  Check for unintended effect and unintended consequences.
    54. 54. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 54 KAIZEN Tools  Problem Solving by PDCA Cycle  Action 7. Reflect and act on learning.  Assess the results and problem-solving process and recommend changes  Continue the improvement process where needed; standardize where possible.  Celebrate success
    55. 55. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 55 KAIZEN and Management Functions  Role of Top Management • Responsible for establishing Kaizen as the overriding corporate strategy • Communicating this commitment to all levels of the organization • Allocating the resources necessary for Kaizen to work.  Role of Middle Management • Responsible for implementing Kaizen policies established by top management. • Establishing, maintaining and improving work standards. • Ensuring that employees receive the training necessary to understand and implement Kaizen. • Ensuring that employees learn how to use problem solving and improvement tools.
    56. 56. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 56 KAIZEN and Management Functions  Role of Supervisors • Responsible applying the Kaizen approach in their functional roles; • Developing plans for carrying out the Kaizen approach at the functional level; • Improving communication at the workplace; • Maintaining morale; providing coaching for teamwork activities; • Soliciting Kaizen suggestions from employees and making Kaizen suggestions.  Role of Employees • Responsible for participating in Kaizen through teamwork activities, • Making Kaizen suggestions, • Engaging in continuous self-improvement activities, • Continually enhancing job skills through education and training, • Continually broadening job skills through cross- functioning training.
    57. 57. Kaizen QMS Management Consultants Sdn Bhd 57 KAIZEN: Conclusion Kaizen teams typically improve all three of the major drivers (quality, cost, and delivery) by eliminating non- value adding tasks and improving process documentation. The resulting documentation (set-up sheets, process procedures, and quality standards) makes training more effective; and, by causing more consistent task execution, it also improves quality. The documentation is helpful for companies pursuing ISO certification and also forms the standard from which to launch further improvement efforts. As quality improves, both cost and delivery improve. Floor space requirements and total process times are usually reduced by at least 20 percent. In conclusion, Kaizen is a low-cost, team-oriented approach that leverages company resources.
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