Interdisciplinary Perspectives On Aging(2)


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Interdisciplinary Perspectives On Aging(2)

  2. 2. <ul><li>Aging and Cognitive Change </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity and Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity—a measure of divergent thinking, meaning the production of alternative solutions to a problem or situation </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom—an expert knowledge that people acquire in the fundamental pragmatics of life </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence—the capacity to process novel information </li></ul><ul><li>Ex) being able to figure out the rules governing a number series </li></ul><ul><li>Classic aging pattern—age-related declines in verbal and performance intelligence among people older than 60 </li></ul><ul><li>The Seattle Longitudinal Study conducted by psychologist K. Warner Schaie has proven faultiness of classic aging pattern </li></ul><ul><li>A Swedish Study of the Heritability of Intelligence—genetic factors accounted for 55% of individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence—based on the information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Learning and Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Aged-related changes: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning—the process of acquiring knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Memory—the retention of storage of that knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Blink Classical Conditioning (EBC) </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term and long-term memory: </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term memory—a “limited capacity system that keeps memory in consciousness” </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term memory—the permanent storage site for past experiences </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Learning and Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>-only 17% of people over 50 use the internet </li></ul><ul><li>-less exposure to the new technology </li></ul><ul><li>-make more errors, learn slower </li></ul><ul><li>-not a lot of research done in this area as to why </li></ul><ul><li>older people have a hard time with computers or other </li></ul><ul><li>Technological devices </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mental Disorders <ul><li>Dementia </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Dementia -severe organic deterioration of the brain. Effects </li></ul><ul><li>memory, cognitive functions, and personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Two common ones: Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia. </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s Disease- affects short term memory, forget </li></ul><ul><li>permanently, repetition and confusion. (cognex, aricept) </li></ul><ul><li>RO-Reality Orientation -staff in nursing homes constantly </li></ul><ul><li>Remind the elders of the date, their names, events,etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular Dementia -blackouts, heart problems, kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Failure, hypertension. Also, strokes, aphasia which is </li></ul><ul><li>damage to the speech and language centers in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>53% of stroke patients eventually deveop this disease. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE <ul><li>Current Events of Interest </li></ul><ul><li>More than 1 billion spent a year on prescription drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Only marginal effects </li></ul><ul><li>4.5 million have the disease </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 10 over 65 and nearly half of those over 85 </li></ul><ul><li>Taking care-100 billion/yr </li></ul><ul><li>By 2050-11-16 million </li></ul><ul><li>Positive note: drug companies trying to find effective drugs through research. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Government </li></ul><ul><li>The more we study Alzheimer’s, it leads us to </li></ul><ul><li>developments of many new drugs and treatment </li></ul><ul><li>strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Story of My Father </li></ul><ul><li>-Sue Miller </li></ul><ul><li>Just describing some of the effects of the disease </li></ul><ul><li>That her father had. It shows that you may </li></ul><ul><li>posses a certain personality trait, but the disease </li></ul><ul><li>changes that and you become another person. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Parkinson’s Disease <ul><li>What is Parkinson’s disease? </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s disease is a chronic brain disorder of central nervous system, which is the result of the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s disease is both chronic, meaning it persists over a long period of time, and progressive, meaning its symptoms grow worse over time. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The primary symptoms are; </li></ul><ul><li>slowing of movement </li></ul><ul><li>stooped posture with the head forward </li></ul><ul><li>elbows flexed </li></ul><ul><li>a shuffling gait (walking style) </li></ul><ul><li>slurred speech </li></ul><ul><li>noticeable tremor </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics on Parkinson’s disease: </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s disease may occur as early as age 30 but is more commonly diagnosed among people aged 60 or older. </li></ul><ul><li>40% to 60% of people with Parkinson’s disease also show mental impairment involving a loss of memory, an inability to concentrate, and a deep depression (Bootzin and Acocella, 1988). </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Is there any treatment? </li></ul><ul><li>There is no diagnostic test for Parkinson’s disease. </li></ul><ul><li>But the key to making accurate diagnosis is clinical knowledge and skill. </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of medication and rehabilitative therapy can often help patients achieve adequate control of motor symptoms and maintain a high quality of independent living (Marjama-Lyons and Koller, 2001). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Depression <ul><li>What is depression? Is it depressing to grow old? </li></ul><ul><li>The answer partly depends on how depression is defined. </li></ul><ul><li>According to current psychiatric philosophy, depression is more than a fleeting (brief) sense of sorrow or despondency (hopelessness) that we all feel on occasion (Perlmutter and Hall, 1992). </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of Depression </li></ul><ul><li>To be diagnosed with major clinical depression, an individual must report five of the symptoms, and the five must include the first two symptoms listed; </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed mood </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of interest in pleasurable activities </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Feelings of worthlessness and guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in thinking and concentration </li></ul><ul><li>psychomotor disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal notions for at least a two-week </li></ul><ul><li>period </li></ul><ul><li>What accounts for the rise in </li></ul><ul><li>depression among old age? </li></ul><ul><li>Around age 60, income begins to decline </li></ul><ul><li>as people retire from the labor force and </li></ul><ul><li>the likelihood of being widowed increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, much of the depression that occurs among the aged may not be due to aging per se; rather, it may be a consequence of having low income, being single, and being detached from social networks and stable employment (Mirowsky and Ross, 1992). </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>GENDER DIFFERNCES IN DEPRESSION </li></ul><ul><li>Why do women have higher rates of depression than men? </li></ul><ul><li>Women of all ages report higher levels of depression than men. </li></ul><ul><li>Women may report feeling more depressed because of tensions arising from combining work and family responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>On average, even women who work full-time do more housework than their husbands, and they carry primary responsibility for child care and parent care. </li></ul><ul><li>These losses have less effect on men because they are more likely than women to remarry after becoming widowed and they have lower rated of disability. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Personality and Adaptation <ul><li>Personality Traits : enduring dispositions towards thoughts, feelings, and behavior, both inherited and learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Trait Theory : everyone has most personality traits to some degree, but everyone also has a core group of traits that define his of her personality; defining traits can be organized into five major factors: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept: the organized and integrated perception of self; consists of such aspects as self-esteem, self-image, beliefs, and personality traits </li></ul>
  16. 16. Personality and Aging <ul><li>Growing old is mandatory; growing up is optional.   ~Chili Davis </li></ul><ul><li>Belief systems and values change over time, but our basic temperament is relatively enduring. Longitudinal data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging suggest that personality is stable after age 30. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Personality and Health <ul><li>Is there a health benefit to being optimistic? </li></ul><ul><li>A study consisting of four interviews with 887 men, aged 64-84 years, over 15 years showed that men classified as optimists had a reduced risk of death from heart disease 15 years later. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Personality and Coping <ul><li>Coping: a state of compatibility between the individual and the environment that allows a person to maintain a sense of well-being or satisfaction with quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation: a range of behaviors an individual uses to meet demands, such as developing habits to confront problems and to manage frustration and anxiety </li></ul>
  19. 19. Stage Theories of Adult of Identify Development <ul><li>Erickson’s Theory of Identity Development </li></ul><ul><li>Eight Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Basic trust vs. mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs .shame </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative vs .guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Industry vs .inferiority </li></ul><ul><li>Identity vs. identity confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs. isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity vs. stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity vs. despair </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Daniel Levinson </li></ul><ul><li>In 1978 he published a book based on in-depth interviews he conducted with </li></ul><ul><li>40 men between the ages of 35-45. </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty years later he conducted the same study with 45 women. </li></ul><ul><li>He concluded that men and women shared a developmental pattern that could be </li></ul><ul><li>divided into a sequence of eras. </li></ul><ul><li>The cross-era transition </li></ul><ul><li>an era is terminated </li></ul><ul><li>and followed by another </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s Transition though Adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>* early adult transition </li></ul><ul><li>* age 30 transition </li></ul><ul><li>* midlife transition </li></ul><ul><li>* middle adulthood </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Women in the midlife transition </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Marriage Enterprice </li></ul><ul><li>Terry Apter </li></ul><ul><li>traditional women </li></ul><ul><li>innovative women </li></ul><ul><li>expansive women </li></ul><ul><li>protestors </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>identify predicable patters between both men and women </li></ul><ul><li>created controversy due to the social class status the men and women belong to </li></ul><ul><li>overall it did not demonstrated a clear developmental path but rather a cohort effect. </li></ul>
  22. 22. WERE YOU PAYING ATTENTION? <ul><li>1. --------------- is the study of mental processes. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Industrial psychology </li></ul><ul><li>B. Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>C. Cognitive psychology </li></ul><ul><li>D. Creative psychology </li></ul><ul><li>2. ---------------refers to the capacity to process novel information. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Fluid intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>B. Passive-dependent </li></ul><ul><li>C. Integrative intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>D. Classic aging pattern </li></ul><ul><li>3. Which of the following is not a symptom of clinical depression? </li></ul><ul><li>A. loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>B. fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>C. sleep disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>D. being a male </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>4. Wisdom consists of all of the following traits except the </li></ul><ul><li>A. ability to reason </li></ul><ul><li>B. ability to learn </li></ul><ul><li>C. ability to think </li></ul><ul><li>D. ability to use information </li></ul><ul><li>5. Loss of short-term memory, confusion, and repetition can all be signs of which disease? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>B. Alzheimer's </li></ul><ul><li>C. Parkinson's </li></ul><ul><li>D. clinical depression </li></ul><ul><li>6. According to trait theory, everyone has a core group of traits that define his or her personality. These traits can be organized into five major factors. Which of the following is not one of these factors? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Openness </li></ul><ul><li>B. Neuroticism </li></ul><ul><li>C. Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><li>D. Eroticism </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>7. One of the first individuals to analyze adult development systematically was Erik Erikson. He referred to his theory as a theory of </li></ul><ul><li>A. Ego development. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Life course transitions. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Transitions through adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Personality traits. </li></ul><ul><li>8. _____________ is a limited-capacity system that keeps memory in consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Cognitive process </li></ul><ul><li>B. Personality function </li></ul><ul><li>C. Short-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>D. Long-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>9. _____ of stroke patients eventually develop vascular dementia. </li></ul><ul><li>A. 50% </li></ul><ul><li>B. 53% </li></ul><ul><li>C. 63% </li></ul><ul><li>D. 23% </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>10. A person with _____ may be unable to produce meaningful speech and unable to understand written or spoken language. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Aphasia </li></ul><ul><li>B. Parkinson's disease </li></ul><ul><li>C. Alzheimer's disease </li></ul><ul><li>D. Hypertension </li></ul>