Women empowerment in post independence india

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Lecture delivered on Rescue women campaign by Kota city Police

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Women empowerment in post independence india

  1. 1. Vijay Sardana MD; DM(Neurology) Professor & Head Deptt. Of Neurology,Govt. Medical College, Kota
  2. 2. Bhikaji Cama Rajkumari Amrit KaurAruna Asaf Ali Sucheta Kriplani Kasturba Gandhi
  3. 3. • President of India• Speaker of Lok Sabha• Leader of opposition in Lok Sabha (Lower house)
  4. 4. • Hard working• Sincere• More honest• More meticulous Software industry – 30% women
  5. 5. • Women in all professions, all levels of employment, efficient workers• Still seen by some as -Reproducers, care givers, sexual receivers, agents of family’s general prosperity
  6. 6. • Sex determination of fetus• Child marriages• Poor education• Eve teasing• Bride burning• Exploitation in office• Domestic violence• Lower wages for laborers
  7. 7. Constitutional guarantees• Women equality – Article 14• No discrimination by state – Article 15(1)• Equality of opportunity – Article 16• Equal pay for equal work – Article 39(d)• Allows special provisions to be made by state for securing just and humane condition of work & for maternity relief – Article 42
  8. 8. • Sex ratio at birth : 1991 – 945 2001 – 927 2011 – 940• Sex ratio of last birth : Delhi - 681 Punjab - 504 Rajasthan - 717 Haryana – 540• Sex ratio : With ultrasound - 851 Without ultrasound - 941
  9. 9. • Strong son preference• Girls under represented at birth & over represented in child deaths• Ultrasound abused despite PNDT Act
  10. 10. • 10 or more years of education (20-25 yrs ) 27% women 39% men• Never gone to school (15-49 yrs ) 41% women 19 % men Census 2011 India Rajasthan Total 74.04% 67.1% Male 82.14% 80.5% Female 65.46 52.7%
  11. 11. • Lesser access to Money (about 15% bank/saving account) Healthcare Media• Movement outside restricted – one in three allowed to go alone to market, health centre & outside the community
  12. 12. UNICEF – State of the world’s children 2009 report• 47% of women age 20-24 yrs were married before legal age of 18• 40 % of world’s child marriages in India
  13. 13. • 1961 – Dowry prohibition act• 1985 – Dowry prohibition ( maintenance of list of presents to the bride & bridegroom) rules framed
  14. 14. • 15 – 49 yrs :- Women – 43% Men – 87%• Most work in agriculture 7% professional, technical & managerial occupations• Largely employment is a result of economic necessity rather then expression of choice or a self fulfillment
  15. 15. • Majority men advocate joint decision making but significant number of husband feel they should have major say• >50% women & men agree with reasons that justify wife beating -Women disrespecting in - laws -Women neglecting house & children• Common “taken for granted” rights of husband -Rights to be key decision maker in major household decisions -Rights to control wife’s behavior & body, with violence if necessary -Right to have sex when they want
  16. 16. • Those employed & earn - one fifth have major say in spending own earned money• One fifth earn same as their husband – more likely to have say in husband’s earned money• Participation in decision Alone Jointly Own health care 27 35 Visit to own family 11 50 Large household purchase 8 44 Daily need purchase 32 28
  17. 17. • 39% of women 15 - 49 yrs age ever experience physical, sexual or emotional violence Duration of Physical or sexual Emotional marriage 0-4 yrs 25 % 18 % >10 yrs 40 % 17 %
  18. 18. Common physical violence• Slapping – most common• Twisting of arm & pulling of hair• Pushing, throwing something on her• Kicking, dragging, beating• Punching with fist or something that could hurt
  19. 19. Common emotional violence• Humiliating in front of others• Insulting or making her feel bad about herself• Threatens to hurt or harm her/ someone close to her Sexual violence• Physically forcing to have sex against her will• Forcing unwanted sexual act
  20. 20. Variable affecting• Education more than 10 years• Wealth• Husband – alcohol drinking• Mother’s experience of spousal violence
  21. 21. S. No. Year Total IPC Crime against %age of crimes women (IPC total IPC cases) crimes1 2006 1878293 154158 8.22 2007 1989673 174921 8.83 2008 2093379 186617 8.94 2009 2121345 203804 9.25 2010 2224831 213585 9.6
  22. 22. State Total Number of Percentage women policeTamilnadu 102421 10225 9.98%Orrisa 47216 3092 6.55%Kerala 43909 2783 6.34%Goa 5055 315 6.23%Arunachal Pradesh 6018 288 4.79%Sikkim 3886 179 4.61%Maharashtra 201251 9165 4.52%Himachal Pradesh 14369 605 4.21%Rajasthan 72626 2662 3.67%
  23. 23. Rank IG DIG SP Add Dy IAS SI ASI HC Consta Total SP SP bleTotal 36 26 82 189 427 872 2627 4242 8202 54166 70869Women 1 4 10 2 37 9 137 39 69 4161 4469 6.30%
  24. 24. • General sense – refers to empowering women to be self dependent by providing them access to all the freedom & opportunities• Specific sense - enhancing their position in the present structure of society 1st generation rights – Political & civil liberties 2nd generation rights – Economic & social rights
  25. 25. • Dec 1992 – 73rd & 74th constitutional amendments – 33% reservation in Panchayats & Municipal councils• 1996 onwards – bill for 33% reservation in Parliament & State assembly moved many times• % of women in Parliament India – 9 China – 21.8 Sweden - 45.3 Pakistan - 21.6 Cuba – 30 Srilanka – 4.4
  26. 26. • Hindu Personal Law 1956s• Hindu Succession Amendment Act 2005• Reduction Of Stamp Duty For Women Violence incidence against women 49% - without property 18% - land owners 7% - both land & house
  27. 27. • 1956 – Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act• 1986 – Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act• 1987 – Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act• 1994-- PNDT Act• 2005-- Domestic violence act
  28. 28. • 1987-- Support to Training cum Employment for women (STEP)• 1998 – Swa-shakti project (earlier Rural Women Development & Empowerment Project)• 2001 – Swayam Siddha• 2001 – Year of women empowerment National policy for the empowerment passed
  29. 29. • Lack of awareness• Lack of political will• Lack of social & political empowerment• Feebleness of accountability mechanism• Lack of law enforcement
  30. 30. • “There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless condition of women is improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing” Swami Vivekanand• “You can tell the condition of a nation by looking at the condition of its women” Jawahar Lal Nehru
  31. 31. • Gender inequality is persistent in in every domain of life. Women are disempowered both absolutely & in relation to men• Gender equality and women empowerment are two sides of same coin• There is a great divergence between constitutional position of women and stark reality. Progress is slow.
  32. 32. • Women welfare Development Empowerment• It is moral, social & constitutional responsibility of every Indian to ensure equal rights, opportunities & progress of women• Condition will improve only when complementory role of women is recognized by the society
  33. 33. Thank you

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