PUBLIC SPEAKING
Angga Putra Perkhasa
11.10.010.745.002
Lecturer:
Sutria Rahayu
English Department
CHAPTER 1 : Getting Started
 HOW SPEECH IS LEARNED
 SELF-CONCEPT
 SIGNIFICANT OTHERS
 IMPROVING SELF-CONCEPT
 THE IDE...
HOW SPEECH IS LEARNED
1. You learned how to speak by imitating those around you.
When you said or repeated words correctly...
SELF-CONCEPT
1. Self-concept refers to the perception you
have of yourself in regard to your physical
appearance, intellig...
SIGNIFICANT OTHER
1. Significant others are those people we respect, whose
opinions are particularly important to us. If s...
IMPROVING SELF-CONCEPT
Self-concept has a great deal to do with your ability
to communicate. Following are specific sugges...
THE IDEAL SELF
1. The ideal self is the kind of person you
would most like to be. This refers to the
kind of qualities or ...
THE WAY OTHERS SEE YOU
1. For example: “Your parents may have said you weren’t as
talented as your sister or as nice as yo...
SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY
1. For example: you expected to be nervous and do a poor job
on your first speech and you did, or...
THE COMMUNICATIVE ACT
There are five elements involved in the speech
communication process: a speaker, a message, a
channe...
 Speaker
The image that the audience has of the speaker
affects the message. Those in audience who perceive
a speaker as ...
 Channel
Messages can be transmitted through hearing, seeing,
smelling, tasting and touching channels. A speaker can
choo...
COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWNS
 You fail to hear your instructor announce a quiz for
the next class period because you were day...
LISTENING
 External noise
 Internal noise
 Bias toward speaker
 Emotional reaction
 Daydreaming
 Faking attention
 ...
WAYS TO IMPROVE LISTENING
Prepare to listen
Avoid distractions
Identify the central idea
Identify the main points
Thi...
NOTE-TAKING TIPS
 Write down only important ideas
 Write legibly
 Keep up
 Use your own words
 Be brief
 Don’t erase...
Thank You For Your
Attention
See You Next Time…
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Angga P. Perkhasa (Public Speaking Chapter 1)

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Angga P. Perkhasa (Public Speaking Chapter 1)

  1. 1. PUBLIC SPEAKING Angga Putra Perkhasa 11.10.010.745.002 Lecturer: Sutria Rahayu English Department
  2. 2. CHAPTER 1 : Getting Started  HOW SPEECH IS LEARNED  SELF-CONCEPT  SIGNIFICANT OTHERS  IMPROVING SELF-CONCEPT  THE IDEAL SELF  THE WAY OTHERS SEE YOU  SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY  THE COMMUNICATIVE ACT  COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWNS  LISTENING  WAYS TO IMPROVE  NOTE-TAKING TIPS
  3. 3. HOW SPEECH IS LEARNED 1. You learned how to speak by imitating those around you. When you said or repeated words correctly, you were reinforced by words of phrases, smiles, hugs and other favorable response. 2. At about the age of one you first spoke single words, then two-word combinations and later short phrases. By the time you were two, you had a vocabulary of from twenty five to two hundred words. When you reached four, you spoke in full sentences, and by the time you entered the first grade, you had a vocabulary of about eight thousand words and communicate with four thousand of them. 3. The most important factor in regard to your ability to communicate is the image or concept you have of yourself. How you see yourself is directly related to your ability to communicate.
  4. 4. SELF-CONCEPT 1. Self-concept refers to the perception you have of yourself in regard to your physical appearance, intelligence, personality, strengths and weaknesses. 2. You develop an image of your-self not only by how you view your own behavior, attitudes, values and beliefs but also because of the way others have reacted to you both verbally and non-verbally.
  5. 5. SIGNIFICANT OTHER 1. Significant others are those people we respect, whose opinions are particularly important to us. If significant others see us as being intelligent, competent and caring, chances are we will see ourselves in the same way. Example: did you arrive at the opinion you have of yourself as a student? Did you teachers praise you because of the quality of your work, because you answered the questions correctly, because you turned in the work on time? Or did they complain about your work, wrong answers, or late assignments? 2. Be assured, your perception of how others view you has much to do with the image you have of yourself. 3. If we see ourselves as having positive qualities, our communication will more likely be positive and relaxed. However, if we see ourselves as having negative qualities, the result will probably be negative and result in strained communication.
  6. 6. IMPROVING SELF-CONCEPT Self-concept has a great deal to do with your ability to communicate. Following are specific suggestions for improving your self-concept: 1. Be willing to change 2. Be willing to forgive yourself 3. Set realistic goals 4. Develop your uniqueness 5. Stand up for what you believe 6. View yourself in the proper perspective
  7. 7. THE IDEAL SELF 1. The ideal self is the kind of person you would most like to be. This refers to the kind of qualities or characteristics you would like to possess, qualities that would make you a more substantive person. Keep in mind it is important to view ideal self honestly so who you would like to be is realistic and attainable. 2. For example: you can make yourself into a winner if you have the ideal self.
  8. 8. THE WAY OTHERS SEE YOU 1. For example: “Your parents may have said you weren’t as talented as your sister or as nice as your brother. A teacher might have implied that either of them was smarter than you.” These responses from others could lead you to form a rather negative concept of yourself, resulting in low self- esteem. On the other hand, had these significant others depicted you as the talented brother, the smartest child in the family, the gifted singer, or the ultimate high school quarterback, the result would have been a strengthening of your self-esteem. 2. You perceive how people feel about you by observing their verbal and nonverbal reactions to you. If you say, “Good morning” to an interesting member of the opposite sex who in turn replies, “Good morning,” your ego is reinforced and your self-esteem loses a point or two.
  9. 9. SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY 1. For example: you expected to be nervous and do a poor job on your first speech and you did, or you expected to do poorly on a test and failed it. Or on the positive side: You expected to enjoy yourself at the school dance and had a marvelous time, or you expected to meet some neat people in your communication class and you were right. 2. In each of these situations, it is quite likely that the outcome was the result of you behavior. You expected to do a poor job on your first speech so you prepared halfheartedly and didn’t bother practicing. You knew you would do poorly on the test, didn’t study adequately, and failed. On the other hand, because you thought you’d enjoy the dance you approached it with enthusiasm and confidence, which made you fun to talk to and dance with. And because you thought you’d meet new and interesting people in class your attitude caused others in class to respond to you positively and enthusiastically as well.
  10. 10. THE COMMUNICATIVE ACT There are five elements involved in the speech communication process: a speaker, a message, a channel (through which the message is sent), an audience and a response: 1. A speaker wishes to communicate an idea 2. The speaker encodes the idea in a message 3. The message is sent through a channel to an audience 4. The audience receives and decodes the message 5. The audience responds to the message
  11. 11.  Speaker The image that the audience has of the speaker affects the message. Those in audience who perceive a speaker as being a person of competence, integrity, and goodwill are most likely to believe what the speaker says  Message The speaker must encode it in language that is both interesting and clear. Emphasis, variety and descriptive language help make material interesting. Words that are specific and familiar help to make a message clear.
  12. 12.  Channel Messages can be transmitted through hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting and touching channels. A speaker can choose words that appeal to the audience’s five senses, can include sensory aids in the message or can add nonverbal to the message to make it more meaningful.  Audience The fact that all communication by a speaker must be audience centered. Unless a message is encoded with a specific audience in mind, it is liable to fai  Response The fact that in order to be successful when communicating, the speaker’s purpose to inform, to entertain, or to persuade-must be achieved. Therefore, the success or failure of a communication is measured by whether or not those in the audience are informed, entertained, or persuaded.
  13. 13. COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWNS  You fail to hear your instructor announce a quiz for the next class period because you were daydreaming  You miss much of what your new girlfriend’s father tells you because of his heavy Polish accent  You can’t decipher a message on your answering machine because of telephone static  You fail to understand a lecturer on computer literacy because of the technical terminology used by the speaker  Your girlfriend starts crying when you ask her if she’s gained some weight.
  14. 14. LISTENING  External noise  Internal noise  Bias toward speaker  Emotional reaction  Daydreaming  Faking attention  Fatigue  Improper note taking
  15. 15. WAYS TO IMPROVE LISTENING Prepare to listen Avoid distractions Identify the central idea Identify the main points Think along with the speaker Take effective notes
  16. 16. NOTE-TAKING TIPS  Write down only important ideas  Write legibly  Keep up  Use your own words  Be brief  Don’t erase  Don’t worry about spelling  Date your notes  Expand your notes
  17. 17. Thank You For Your Attention See You Next Time…

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