Introduction to Structural      Engineering 12-100 Introduction to Civil and    Environmental Engineering            Fall ...
Outline•   Objective of Structural Engineering•   Structural Engineering Process•   Types of loads•   Types of structures•...
Civil Engineering Subdisciplines•   structural•   geotechnical•   environmental•   transportation•   construction
Objectives of StructuralEngineering Structural engineering is the science and art of designing and making, with economy an...
Structural Engineering Process• Determine types magnitudes of loads• Determine structural context    • geometric and geolo...
Types of loads•   Dead loads•   Live loads•   Dynamic loads (e.g., trains, equipment)•   Wind loads•   Earthquake loads•  ...
Dead Loads• weight of the structure itself  • floors, beams, roofs, decks, beams/stringers,    superstructure• loads that ...
Live Loads• People, furniture, equipment• Loads that may move or  change mass or weight• Minimum design loadings  are usua...
Load Example: Live Load in Ballroom      Ballroom                        Live Load = 100 lb/ft^2
Dynamic Loads•   Moving loads (e.g. traffic)•   Impact loads•   Gusts of wind•   Loads due to cycling    machinery
Load Example: Dynamic Load      HVAC                    F                             t
Load Example: Water in a dam    Water,    ρ = densityh                  p = ρgh
Earthquake Loads• Structure loaded when base is shaken• Response of structure is dependent on the  frequency of motion• Wh...
Load Example: Earthquake Load                    Earthquake Load                    Earthquake Load     Base Motion
Settlement
Some Types of Structures•   Arch•   Planar Truss•   Beam/Girder•   Braced Frame•   Rigid Frame•   Space Truss•   Cable Sus...
Arch
Planar Truss
Beam/Girder
Frames     Braced   Rigid
Cable Suspended Structure
Cable Stayed Bridge
Load Paths in Structures• Load Path is the term used to describe the  path by which loads are transmitted to the  foundati...
Load Path in Framed Structure
Load Path in a Tied Arch
Summary• Structural Engineering:  • identifies loads to be resisted  • identifies alternatives for providing load paths   ...
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  1. 1. Introduction to Structural Engineering 12-100 Introduction to Civil and Environmental Engineering Fall 1997 Lecture 3
  2. 2. Outline• Objective of Structural Engineering• Structural Engineering Process• Types of loads• Types of structures• Load paths in structures• Summary
  3. 3. Civil Engineering Subdisciplines• structural• geotechnical• environmental• transportation• construction
  4. 4. Objectives of StructuralEngineering Structural engineering is the science and art of designing and making, with economy and elegance, buildings, bridges, frameworks, and other structures so that they can safely resist the forces to which they may be subjected. The Structural Engineer, Official Journal of the British Institute of Structural Engineers
  5. 5. Structural Engineering Process• Determine types magnitudes of loads• Determine structural context • geometric and geological information • cost / schedule / height/ etc. limitations• Generate alternative structural systems• Analyze one or more alternatives• Select and perform detailed design• Implement (usually done by contractor)
  6. 6. Types of loads• Dead loads• Live loads• Dynamic loads (e.g., trains, equipment)• Wind loads• Earthquake loads• Thermal loads• Settlement loads
  7. 7. Dead Loads• weight of the structure itself • floors, beams, roofs, decks, beams/stringers, superstructure• loads that are “always there”
  8. 8. Live Loads• People, furniture, equipment• Loads that may move or change mass or weight• Minimum design loadings are usually specified in the building code
  9. 9. Load Example: Live Load in Ballroom Ballroom Live Load = 100 lb/ft^2
  10. 10. Dynamic Loads• Moving loads (e.g. traffic)• Impact loads• Gusts of wind• Loads due to cycling machinery
  11. 11. Load Example: Dynamic Load HVAC F t
  12. 12. Load Example: Water in a dam Water, ρ = densityh p = ρgh
  13. 13. Earthquake Loads• Structure loaded when base is shaken• Response of structure is dependent on the frequency of motion• When frequencies match with natural frequency of structure - resonance
  14. 14. Load Example: Earthquake Load Earthquake Load Earthquake Load Base Motion
  15. 15. Settlement
  16. 16. Some Types of Structures• Arch• Planar Truss• Beam/Girder• Braced Frame• Rigid Frame• Space Truss• Cable Suspended Structure
  17. 17. Arch
  18. 18. Planar Truss
  19. 19. Beam/Girder
  20. 20. Frames Braced Rigid
  21. 21. Cable Suspended Structure
  22. 22. Cable Stayed Bridge
  23. 23. Load Paths in Structures• Load Path is the term used to describe the path by which loads are transmitted to the foundations• Different structures have different load paths• Some structures have only one path• Some have several (redundancy good)
  24. 24. Load Path in Framed Structure
  25. 25. Load Path in a Tied Arch
  26. 26. Summary• Structural Engineering: • identifies loads to be resisted • identifies alternatives for providing load paths (arch, truss, frame, ...) • designs structure to provide safe and economical load paths (material, size, connections) • to be economical and safe, we must be able to predict what forces are in structure.

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