Basic principles of language learning:
1- Second language learning is a developmental
2- Language learning is an active process.
A- Psycho-motor activity
B- Language processing activity
3- Language learning is a decision-making
4- Language learning is not just a matter
of linguistic knowledge.
5- Language learning is not the learners’
first experience with language.
6- Learning is an emotional experience.
7- Language learning is to a large extend
8- Language learning is not systematic.
Three model lessons are
Strip cartoon with bubbles blanked out.
Bubble texts on a separate sheet of paper.
Two different dialogues and a
letter with complementary
Dialogue cut into trips.
Reconstruction of the dialogue.
Make a new dialogue with different
Gaps: Learning demands thinking. Gaps create
that demand. There are many types of gaps.
Variety: It is the spice of learning.
Variety of medium
Variety of classroom organization.
Variety of learner roles.
Variety of exercise, activity or task.
Variety of topic
Variety of focus: fluency,
Prediction: It is a matter of using an existing
knowledge of a pattern or system in order to
anticipate what is likely in a novel situation. It is
central to language use and language learning.
- It builds learner confidence.
- To discover where the gaps of information
- It activates the learner´s mind and
prepares it for learning
- It gives students an ego investment.
Enjoyment: It is the simplest way to
An integrated methodology: using a range
of skills to let a great variety of activities
Coherence: To have clear where the lesson
Preparation: Teacher planning
of every part of the lesson
Involvement: Learners need to be involved
cognitively and emotionally as well
A- Do not ask difficult questions that may frustrate
B- Wait for their answers.
Creativity: Language is dynamic. Activities
should allow different possible answers
Atmosphere: The cultivation of a
cooperative social climate within
the classroom is very important.
ESP – English for Specific Purpose
Because they study english for a
specific purpose, students want to
see a return on their investment of
time and money.
This accountability has produced a
demand for more and better evaluation
There are two levels of
1- Learner assessment
2 - Course evaluation
1- Learner assessment
In ESP there are three basic types of
A – Placement tests:
The aim of the placement test is to determine
the learners’ state of knowledge before the
ESP course begins.
Placement test should show not only what
the learner lacks but also what potential for
learning can be exploited.
B- Achievement tests:
This tests tell teachers how well students are
keeping up with the syllabus.
It is based on a particular text book so students
are familiar with the content of the test.
Teachers should test what they assume
students have learnt (this is not
necessarily the same as what they have
This tests should measure anly what
they are intended to test AND
NOTHING ELSE. They should be
C- Proficiency tests:
These assess whether or not the student can cope
with the demands of a particular situation, e.g. a
study at university. They are not based on a
particular text book, therefore students might
have some difficulties in solving them.
Examples of proficiency tests: PET / CAE / FCE.
They are CRITERION REFFERENCED tests.
Learners are assessed according to how far the test
matches a particular parameter. There’s no pass/fail
distinction, but rather a scale of degrees of
proficiency in the task.
These different types of test do not
necessarily vary in terms of content, they
differ in terms of their initial function.
The same test may be used for more
than one purpose, for example, the
three of them may be used as a
DIAGNOSTIC TEST – A test to
determine areas of weakness a
particular learner might have.
We need to see test results less as an end in
themselves and more as the starting point for genuine
negotiation and interaction between students and
teachers and studentes themselves.
Evaluation can fulfil two functions: ASSESSMENT &
The key to develop a positive attitude to tests
lies in recognising and capitalisin on their
feedback function and playing down the fearful
attitudes that are a result of viewing tests as
exclusively determiners of grades.
2- Course evaluation
Since ESP exists to satisfy a particular
educational need, evaluation helps to show
how well these needs are fulfilled.
There are 4 main aspects of ESP course
evaluation to be considered:
1- What should be evaluated?
2- How can ESP courses be evaluated?
3- Who should be involved in evaluation?
4- When and how often should evaluation
1- What should be evaluated?
EVERYTHING OF IMPORTANCE!!
Two important constraints:
A- Teachers’ ability to collect information
B- Teachers’ ability to do something about the
information she/he collects.
The overall aim of an ESP course is to meet two main
needs of the learners: their needs as language
LEARNERS and as language USERS.
If one of those needs are not being met,
teachers must identify the source of the
problem and do something about it.
2-How can ESP courses be
-Using test results
-Informal means such as casual chats.
INFORMATION MUST BE
COLLECTED, IF TOO LONG
SUMMARISED AND THEN
INCLUDED IN A DETAILED COURSE
EVALUATION REPORT AS A BASIS
FOR FURTHER DECISION-MAKE.
3- Who should be involved in
The ESP teachers, learners and
WHO YOU ASKE MAY AFFECT WHAT
YOU FIND OUT. THUS,
EVALUATION PROCEDURES SHOULD
BE SEEN AS A PRIMARY
CONSIDERATION AND CARE
SHOULD ALWAYS TAKE PLACE.
4- When and how often
should evaluation take place?
There’s undoubted danger in doing course
evaluation too frequently. However, the dangers
in not doing course evaluation often is equal or
The frequency will depend on the characteristics of
the individual teaching situation.
The most important times are: in the first
week of the course, at regular intervals, for
example every half term, at the end of the
course and if possible after the course
where students can judge how well the
course prepared them to be where they are
A GENERAL WORD OF CAUTION!!!
1. Evaluation can be time consuming,
complex and frustrating.
2. Identified problems might not have an
3. Feedback from some students may
contradict feedback from others.
4. Students might not be enough
sincere. Criticising a course might be
seen as showing lack of respect for