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This file provides English teachers with useful methods for their classes and also for the assessment of them.

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  2. 2. Basic principles of language learning: 1- Second language learning is a developmental process 2- Language learning is an active process. A- Psycho-motor activity B- Language processing activity 3- Language learning is a decision-making process. 4- Language learning is not just a matter of linguistic knowledge.
  3. 3. 5- Language learning is not the learners’ first experience with language. 6- Learning is an emotional experience. 7- Language learning is to a large extend incidental. 8- Language learning is not systematic.
  4. 4. Three model lessons are proposed: Model 1 Strip cartoon with bubbles blanked out. Bubble texts on a separate sheet of paper. Recorded conversation.
  5. 5. Model 2 Two different dialogues and a letter with complementary information. Cross-grouping Feedback worksheet. Model 3 Dialogue cut into trips. Recorded conversation Reconstruction of the dialogue. Make a new dialogue with different information.
  6. 6. ANALYSIS Gaps: Learning demands thinking. Gaps create that demand. There are many types of gaps. Information gaps Media gaps. Reasoning gaps. Memory gaps. Jigsaw gaps. Opinion gaps. Certainty gaps.
  7. 7. Variety: It is the spice of learning. Variety of medium Variety of classroom organization. Variety of learner roles. Variety of exercise, activity or task. Variety of topic Variety of focus: fluency, discourse, structure, pronunciation, etc.
  8. 8. Prediction: It is a matter of using an existing knowledge of a pattern or system in order to anticipate what is likely in a novel situation. It is central to language use and language learning. Pedagogic advantages: - It builds learner confidence. - To discover where the gaps of information are - It activates the learner´s mind and prepares it for learning - It gives students an ego investment.
  9. 9. Enjoyment: It is the simplest way to engage students. An integrated methodology: using a range of skills to let a great variety of activities Coherence: To have clear where the lesson is going. Preparation: Teacher planning of every part of the lesson
  10. 10. Involvement: Learners need to be involved cognitively and emotionally as well A- Do not ask difficult questions that may frustrate students B- Wait for their answers. Creativity: Language is dynamic. Activities should allow different possible answers Atmosphere: The cultivation of a cooperative social climate within the classroom is very important.
  11. 11. EVALUATION
  12. 12. ESP – English for Specific Purpose Because they study english for a specific purpose, students want to see a return on their investment of time and money. This accountability has produced a demand for more and better evaluation procedures
  13. 13. There are two levels of evaluation 1- Learner assessment 2 - Course evaluation
  14. 14. 1- Learner assessment In ESP there are three basic types of assessment: A – Placement tests: The aim of the placement test is to determine the learners’ state of knowledge before the ESP course begins. Placement test should show not only what the learner lacks but also what potential for learning can be exploited.
  15. 15. B- Achievement tests: This tests tell teachers how well students are keeping up with the syllabus. It is based on a particular text book so students are familiar with the content of the test. Teachers should test what they assume students have learnt (this is not necessarily the same as what they have taught). This tests should measure anly what they are intended to test AND NOTHING ELSE. They should be VALID!
  16. 16. C- Proficiency tests: These assess whether or not the student can cope with the demands of a particular situation, e.g. a study at university. They are not based on a particular text book, therefore students might have some difficulties in solving them. Examples of proficiency tests: PET / CAE / FCE. They are CRITERION REFFERENCED tests. Learners are assessed according to how far the test matches a particular parameter. There’s no pass/fail distinction, but rather a scale of degrees of proficiency in the task.
  17. 17. These different types of test do not necessarily vary in terms of content, they differ in terms of their initial function. The same test may be used for more than one purpose, for example, the three of them may be used as a DIAGNOSTIC TEST – A test to determine areas of weakness a particular learner might have.
  18. 18. CONCLUSION We need to see test results less as an end in themselves and more as the starting point for genuine negotiation and interaction between students and teachers and studentes themselves. Evaluation can fulfil two functions: ASSESSMENT & FEEDBACK. The key to develop a positive attitude to tests lies in recognising and capitalisin on their feedback function and playing down the fearful attitudes that are a result of viewing tests as exclusively determiners of grades.
  19. 19. 2- Course evaluation Since ESP exists to satisfy a particular educational need, evaluation helps to show how well these needs are fulfilled. There are 4 main aspects of ESP course evaluation to be considered: 1- What should be evaluated? 2- How can ESP courses be evaluated? 3- Who should be involved in evaluation? 4- When and how often should evaluation take place?
  20. 20. 1- What should be evaluated? EVERYTHING OF IMPORTANCE!! Two important constraints: A- Teachers’ ability to collect information B- Teachers’ ability to do something about the information she/he collects. The overall aim of an ESP course is to meet two main needs of the learners: their needs as language LEARNERS and as language USERS. If one of those needs are not being met, teachers must identify the source of the problem and do something about it.
  21. 21. 2-How can ESP courses be evaluated? -Using test results -Questionnaires -Discussions -Interviews -Informal means such as casual chats. INFORMATION MUST BE COLLECTED, IF TOO LONG SUMMARISED AND THEN INCLUDED IN A DETAILED COURSE EVALUATION REPORT AS A BASIS FOR FURTHER DECISION-MAKE.
  22. 22. 3- Who should be involved in the evaluation? The ESP teachers, learners and course sponsors. WHO YOU ASKE MAY AFFECT WHAT YOU FIND OUT. THUS, EVALUATION PROCEDURES SHOULD BE SEEN AS A PRIMARY CONSIDERATION AND CARE SHOULD ALWAYS TAKE PLACE.
  23. 23. 4- When and how often should evaluation take place? There’s undoubted danger in doing course evaluation too frequently. However, the dangers in not doing course evaluation often is equal or greater. The frequency will depend on the characteristics of the individual teaching situation. The most important times are: in the first week of the course, at regular intervals, for example every half term, at the end of the course and if possible after the course where students can judge how well the course prepared them to be where they are now.
  24. 24. A GENERAL WORD OF CAUTION!!! 1. Evaluation can be time consuming, complex and frustrating. 2. Identified problems might not have an obvious solution 3. Feedback from some students may contradict feedback from others. 4. Students might not be enough sincere. Criticising a course might be seen as showing lack of respect for authority.
  25. 25. THE END