Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

UX Design for Wrist-Worn Wearables – how contextual dynamics influence interaction


Published on

The large range of applications for wearable devices provides numerous opportunities for these technologies in diverse domains. However, the dynamic changes in the context of use during the user interaction, summed with the heterogeneity of users’ profiles, challenges the design of effective interfaces and interactive solutions for wearable technologies. In addition to that, wearables often have limited resources: their computational power, processing capabilities, screen dimensions and modalities are often constrained. Finally, the novelty in this market is characterized by limited guidance to effectively aid developers and designers to ensure high usability levels and to promote a great user experience in the design of the wearable interaction. To provide a high quality user experience, the context of use where the user interaction takes place needs to be thoroughly investigated and understood, accommodating its dynamic changes, as well as the specific needs and requirements of diverse users’ profiles in the design of interfaces and interaction. In this talk, you will learn about how context impacts the design of wearables, especially concerning wrist-worn devices, such as fitness trackers and smartwatches. More specifically, you will gain knowledge about: (1) a set of contextual factors that impact the wrist-worn interaction, ranging from environment, to platform and user profile, and (2) how those factors must be considered in the design of the user interaction for wearables, benefiting multimodal interactive solutions as well as multidisciplinary application domains.

Published in: Devices & Hardware
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

UX Design for Wrist-Worn Wearables – how contextual dynamics influence interaction

  1. 1. UX Design for Wrist-Worn Wearables – how contextual dynamics influence interac=on Vivian Genaro MoB Washington DC April 15th, 2017
  2. 2. Outline •  What is a wrist-worn wearable? •  Current soluDons •  Drawbacks •  Methods •  Key findings •  Design ImplicaDons •  Discussion
  3. 3. Wrist Worn Wearables
  4. 4. ExisDng SoluDons
  5. 5. Smartwatches - Miniaturized computers that serve as a wearable accessory for smartphones - NoDficaDons of calls, messages, and events Apple Watch Samsung Galaxy Gear and Gear 2 Sony SWR50 Fitness Trackers - Bracelets that sense informaDon about the users - Number of steps, sleep hours, and heart rate; daily habits and lifestyles Fitbit (Charge / Alta / Blaze) Garmin (VivoFit / VivoSmart) Samsung Gear Fit Misfit Shine Nike Fuel Band Wrist Worn Wearables
  6. 6. Large PotenDal and Use
  7. 7. Abandonment Rate
  8. 8. Users’ Engagement •  More than half of U.S. consumers who have owned an acDvity tracker no longer use it •  A third of U.S. consumers who have owned one stopped using the device within 6 months of receiving it [Ledger, D., & McCaffrey, D. (2014). Inside Wearables: How the Science of Human Behavior Change Offers the Secret to Long-Term Engagement]
  9. 9. Why? •  Low wearability –  sensor, bahery and on-body hardware size tends to be too bulky [Pantelopoulos, A., & Bourbakis, N. (2008). A Survey on Wearable Biosensor Systems for Health Monitoring, 4887–4890.] •  Limited capabiliDes •  Commercial pressures
  10. 10. •  Simply shrinking down compuDng tools from the desktop paradigm to a more portable scale only makes them into mini PC’s •  It does not take advantage of the opportuniDes presented by a whole new context of use •  It does not regard the human body as a context [Gemperle, F., et al. (1998). Design for wearability. 2nd ISWC] ParadigmaDc Shil
  11. 11. ExisDng SoluDons •  Cross-device InteracDon – Challenges, Duet •  Wrist Worn InteracDon – Shimmering Smartwatches: Exploring the Smartwatch Design Space
  12. 12. Cross-Device InteracDon [Houben, S., Brudy, F., and Marquardt, N. 2015 Challenges in Watch-Centric Cross-Device ApplicaDons. Mobile Co-Located InteracDons Workshop. CHI’2015. 1–4.]
  13. 13. Gesture-Based InteracDon [Bernaerts et al. 2014. The office smartwatch: development and design of a smartwatch app to digitally augment interacDons in an office environment. In DIS'14. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 41-44.]
  14. 14. EdgeTouch [Oakley, I. and Lee, D. InteracDon on the Edge: Offset Sensing for Small Devices. CHI ’14, (2014), 169–178.]
  15. 15. Facet [Lyons, K., Nguyen, D., Ashbrook, D., and White, S.Facet: A MulD-Segment Wrist Worn
  16. 16. Shimmering SmartWatches [Xu, C., Lyons, K., and Ave, F. Shimmering Smartwatches : Exploring the Smartwatch
  17. 17. WatchIt •  Gestures •  Hands free interacDon [Simon T. Perrault, Eric Lecolinet, James Eagan, and Yves Guiard. 2013. Watchit: simple gestures and eyes-free interacDon for wristwatches and bracelets. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in CompuDng Systems (CHI '13). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1451-1460. DOI=10.1145/2470654.2466192 ]
  18. 18. •  Moving •  MulDtasking •  Unplanned InteracDon – One hand – Short Dme – Outdoor and indoor Wrist Worn Wearable Users
  19. 19. Shortcomings •  ConDnuous usage
  20. 20. Shortcomings •  Close contact to the human body
  21. 21. Shortcomings •  Lack of design guidance – Best pracDces, guidelines or standards
  22. 22. Open QuesDons •  What are the problems that users face when interacDng with wrist-worn wearables? •  How to consider context in the design of wrist-worn technologies and improve UX?
  23. 23. Methods •  Set of online sources •  Set of wrist worn wearables –  Commercially available + popular (2016) •  QualitaDve analysis –  Contextual factors •  User, environment, plaworm –  Severity levels •  CosmeDc, minor, major, catastrophic
  24. 24. Methods •  Online source: Amazon reviews (n=545) •  Wrist worn wearables –  Most popularly commented (n=10) •  QualitaDve analysis –  Contextual Factor •  User: individual preferences, personalizaDon •  Environment: light, sound, stability •  Plaworm: resources, technological soluDons –  Severity RaDng •  CosmeDc, minor, major, catastrophic
  25. 25. Wrist Worn Wearables
  26. 26. I&O InteracDon: MulDmodal Graphic Audio TacDle/ HapDc
  27. 27. Contextual Factors
  28. 28. Environmental Factors •  Readability issues –  “ is now impossible to see in the directly daylight at all. If you are running outside, there's no way to see the screen’ [P1, Fitbit Blaze user]” •  Design Considera=on –  Account for variability in light levels •  Design for indoor and outdoor acDviDes •  Enhance contrast
  29. 29. Environmental Factors •  Feedback –  “The concept of using the watch for phone calls when your hands are busy is awesome, but the reality is you can't hear unless you are in a noise-free zone’ [P4, Samsung Galaxy Gear user]” •  Design Considera=on –  Combine audio noDficaDons with vibraDon alerts –  Test different volume se%ngs, speaker placements
  30. 30. User Experience •  Accessibility issues –  “Font can be difficulty to read if someone needs reading glasses. Got band for my husband and he noted that the font size for the noDficaDon was a bit too difficult.” [P9, Garmin Vivo Smart user]” •  Design Considera=ons –  Allow for customizaDon of font sizes –  Enhance contrast –  Consider icons and audio notes
  31. 31. User Experience •  Learning curve –  “for me it's just a pain to log every cup of water I drink when I already drink water all day long and know that I get plenty” [P10, Fitbit user]” •  Design Considera=on –  Facilitate the adaptaDon process, automaDng the data collecDon whenever possible (and accurate) –  Check the costs and efforts involved in the learning process
  32. 32. Plaworm Issues •  Speech recogni=on –  “The only thing more embarrassing than talking to your watch ... is doing so and geBng no response. … There was no way to change one word or fix punctuaDon on her Dny face’ [P21, Apple Watch user]” •  Design Considera=ons –  Enable alternaDve input methods –  Consider spell checkers and predicDve text input methods
  33. 33. Plaworm Issues •  Feedback =ming –  ‘…the messages disappear quickly. If you don't catch something the first Dme, it's gone. ... Since you don't have an opportunity to review or try again, I have now disabled that as a waste of bahery.’ [P25, Fitbit Alta user] •  Design Considera=ons –  Allow users to have access control to informaDon and services: frequency and period –  Provide customizaDon opDons when needed
  34. 34. PlaRorm • - • 28,29,30 • 15, 16, 17, 19, 22, 26, 27 • 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 31 Environment • 3 • - • 2,4,5,6 • 1 User • - • 12,13 • 8,9,10 • 11,14
  35. 35. Severity Levels
  36. 36. Analysis •  Problems associated with the plaworm were the most frequent in the user interacDon –  75% of the problems idenDfied (n = 411) •  Most problems were classified as major (n = 14) and catastrophic (n = 10) –  few problems were considered minor (n = 5)
  37. 37. ImplicaDons •  CustomizaDon, adaptaDon and personalizaDon are essenDal in the UX design process for wrist-worn wearables – CalibraDon: number of steps, acDvity, distance – Menu choices: items of preference, choices – Feedback and responses: intensity, frequency
  38. 38. Take Away •  Designing for contextual changes and transient requirement is challenging –  Know your audience •  Consider situaDonal awareness –  The analysis of the UX in the field aids to clarify how context impacts the design of interacDon and interfaces
  39. 39. Future Work •  Further explore the analysis of users’ feedback through online sources •  Cross-validate the findings in the design and evaluaDon of novel wearables – Wrist worn devices
  40. 40. Acknowledgment •  This work has been done in collaboraDon with Prof. Kelly Caine at Clemson University – Human-Centered CompuDng Division •  This material is based upon work supported by the NaDonal Science FoundaDon under Grant No. 1314342. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendaDons expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NaDonal Science FoundaDon.
  41. 41. Q+A •