Key Concepts: Cross curricular: Outcomes: The complexity and beauty of Literacy 1. A student responds to and composes texts for Shakespeare’s language and ICT understanding, interpretation, critical analysis and stories Language modes: pleasure. Representing his universal Reading/writing/speaking/listening/v themes with today’s technology iewing /representing 2. A student uses a range of processes for responding to and composing texts.Unit Length: Literacy 3. A student selects, uses, describes and explainsApproximately 5 weeks. Writing a story how different technologies affect and Spelling & Vocabulary shape meaningAssessment Tasks:Task 1: Critical Response: 1 & 5 Texts 5. A student makes informed language choices to shapeTask 2: Digital Storytelling 1, 3 & 6 Shakespeare’s Macbeth “the meaning with accuracy, clarity and coherenceTask 3: : Composing and Performing a graphic novel”Drama Text: (Macbeth’s Audio book) if 6 . A student experiments with different ways of1, 2, 6& 11 necessary. imaginatively and interpretively transforming Macbeth’s Bridge Digital Classic experience, information and ideas into texts CD-Rom. “Shakespeare Retold” movie 8. A student investigates the relationships between extracts from YouTube. and among texts 11. A student uses, reflects on and assesses individual and collaborative skills for learning
Aim(in line with the NSW English Syllabus) To understand & enjoy using the English language in a variety of texts and through different media and to shape meanings in an imaginative and interpretive way using multimedia. Objectives: Skills, Knowledge and Understandings Through responding to and composing a texts based on Shakespeare’s Macbeth, students will develop skills, knowledge and understandings to: o Speak, listen, read and write, view and represent. o To use various kinds of technology to construct learning. o Use language and communicate their ideas appropriately and effectively using multimedia. o Think in imaginative ways to produce their own multimedia production. Values and Attitudes Students will value and appreciate: o The power of language and media to explore and express views of themselves, others and the world o The power of effectively communicate their ideas to an audience. o The independence gained from thinking imaginatively, interpretively and critically. o The opportunity to collaborate with their peers in the production of a multimedia product OVERALL RATIONALEStudying Shakespeare can be a challenge to today’s students in many ways. Though Shakespeare could have a great appeal, certainelements such as the complexity of the language he used can be an impediment to interpreting his works. Another factor that can bedaunting is trying to understand the situations the characters experience through our 21st century perceptions. Considering this, I havedecided to bring Shakespeare’s characters and themes to life using various multimedia means, including different software to both gainbetter understanding of Macbeth and to engage students to create original modern-day productions to help them enjoy Shakespeare at amore personal level. Using a cognitive theory framework for multimedia learning, students will learn meaningfully through processes of“integration”, “organization” and “selection” of verbal and visual representations of knowledge 1. In the last part of the unit, this multimediaenvironment will facilitate active learning as students author their ownvideo productions for a peer audience.1 See Mayer, R.E. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media, Learning and Instruction, 13,125-139.
Content WEEK 1: Lessons outlinesLearn to: Lesson 1: Introduction to Shakespeare1.1 As a whole class, we explore the website “Shakespeare online” on the IWB2 to learn about Shakespeare’s setting and times, theatre in the XVII century, his biography, etc. Students will also have some time to explore the website on their laptops. Additional activity: students can go to an online interactive Shakespearean theatreto explore an interactiveLearn about: website on Shakespeare’s theatre from various angles. Students will learn how the setting can have an1.15 impact on the action of the play.Learn to: Lesson 2-4: Introduction to Macbeth- Play reading1.1 Students are given a worksheet with pictures from the internet (see TEACHING MATERIALSfor web1.5 addresses). Students will predict what the story is about. They will also be given some clues and quotes from1.9 the play as well. The teacher will give an overview of the play.2.1 Teacher will facilitate a first reading of the play with students using “Macbeth the graphic novel” which has aLearn about: combination of words with pictures. If unavailable, students can use any other version but to help students1.11 with forming pictures on their minds, we will be using Audio versions (Macbeth Audio book)1.12 Students will answer act-by-act questions as they go and there will be time allocated for discussion during the reading. Students use One note to take down notes.Learn to: Lesson 5: Understanding the play3.4 CD ROM- Using the IWB, the class will explore the Macbeth Cd-rom (TEACHING MATERIALS) Once studentsLearn about: are familiar with it, they will explore the play using the Cd-rom. (for a picture of what the CD rom version3.6 looks like see “Appendix File”)3.9 Students will be able to develop a deeper understanding of the play using the cd-rom. From all the engaging3.10 features of the Cd-rom, the modern-english version feature of the cd-rom would be particularly useful in this respect.2 Note that multi-media materials are typed in Red.
Learn to: Homework:Students write a journal reflection on what they have learnt about ambition and fate in Macbeth1.8 during this week. They also use Word to sketch a plot timeline.11.10 Students do a look-cover-write spelling exercise on words studied from the drama techniques glossary.Learn about:11.20MI (Visual)Critical analysis for the implementation of multimedia in this week The beginning of this unit of work focuses on introducing students to the text in an appealing way. Using Multimedia materialsuch as engaging pictures, the graphic novel (with a cartoon-style layout)which uses both text and pictures, and the cd-rom are intendedto attract and maintain students’ attention (get them thinking) and also to understand the text better. Schar&Krueger (2000) classifiesways in which we can present information in a multimedia environment, such as “modality of communication” (visual, auditory, etc),“medium of representation (images, sounds, etc) and “physical medium of storing information (cdrom, etc). Taking into considerationthose ways of introducing a topic, I decided to use all these elements in the first week. Firstly, I used pictures to activate previousknowledge and get students thinking about the topic since “pictures can represent complex information ata glance” and “selectinginstructional picturesthat are clear and understandable should optimizetheir positive effects”(Schar& Krueger (2000).As Kimber&Wyatt-Smith (2006) also comments that: “drawing and maintaining the learner’s attention has always been the hallmark of productiveengagement in effective learning”.Activation of background knowledge is then one of the most important principles for effective learningaccording to Cognitive Learning Theory. To respect this principle, this step has been included at the start of the unit. While we do ourreading, another cognitivist principle (“chunking”) is implemented as maintaining a slow pace and getting students to answer questionsas they read is particularly important with difficult texts like Shakespeare. An additional activity requires pupils to visit an interactive
Shakespearean theatre online. This can give them the opportunity to seeing the bigger picture as well as “zooming in and examiningspecific objects” (Schar&Krueger (2000), which will ideally engage students in the context. As reading Shakespeare is quite difficult dueto the language and dramatic characteristics, I have chosen to use a graphic novel which has colourful pictures that will helpunderstanding the text better. According to the same authors“many factors can contribute to raising thequality of the information intext, and differentfeatures, such as colour, help the reader to orient”. Another media that can be used to this end is an audio book. In myunit, if for any practical reason the graphic novel is unavailable, I would use a regular text combined with an online audio book, and inthis case it would be relatively uncomplicated as the students have access to laptops. Again, Schar& Krueger highlight the usefulness ofusing this media stating: “Studies show thatpeople prefer voice to text and prefer voice inaddition to text even when it doesntimprovetheir performance... features such as intonation,speech flow and articulation help us understandthe content...Abalance betweenvisual and auditory informationreduces the cognitive load.” The last sentence makes it clear that using an audio book along with the textalso helps processing of information by diminishing cognitive load and unnecessary stress. The aforementioned paper also mentions theneed to using a “stable representation” (book) to students with little knowledge of the subject because the cognitive load is lower andthis would probably be beneficial to stage 4 students as opposed to, let’s say, Stage 5 students. Drucker (2003) indicates that using audiobooks with students with little English can help them understand the text better. When it comes to reading Shakespeare, studentsotherwise proficient in English are often baffled by the old English words and sometimes do not even know how to pronounce them sousing an audio book simultaneously can greatly enhance their reading experience.
Content WEEK 2: Lessons outlinesLearn to: Lesson 1: Close study of text2.6 Students brainstorm on the IWB what they learnt about Macbeth and reflect on certain features of the3.3 Cd-rom that helped them understand the text better. Teacher will analyse characterization, ideas and themes and some dramatic features. Class will discuss the theme of ambition behind each of the main characters’ motivation Students will choose a character they liked from the play and they will compose a mindmap onLearn about: Freemindoutlining the relationship between this character and the rest. Students will also analyse1.17 characterisation against ambition, the lack of it or the force of fate.2.93.1011.4 Lesson 2-4: Shakespeare’s language Students are introduced to important dramatic features used by the playwright and they have someBLOOMS TAXONOMY time to demonstrate their understanding of the play as they do one activity of their choice. These(UNDERSTANDING) activities are all geared towards involving pupils’ preferred learning styles. (verbal, interpersonal,MI (VERBAL) musical and mathematical).MI(INTERPERSONAL) For a detailed explanation of this lesson, see “appendix file”MI (MUSICAL)MM (MATHEMATICAL)Learn to Lesson 51.3 Students share their answers to the class. Class discussion and feedback will follow.1.7 Homework: Assessment Task 1 ( Critical response).Learn about:11.20BLOOMS TAXONOMY(Applying)
Critical analysis for the implementation of multimedia in this week This week, students continue studying Macbeth concentrating on the particular language features of the text while gaining adeeper understanding of it and applying what they learnt from the previous week(s). They are asked to start responding to the textusing “Freemind” which is a mind mapping tool freely downloadable from the internet. Mind mapping can be quite beneficial to getlearners to focus on one aspect of the text and make meaningful connections. In this case, students focus on one character and sketchrelationships between him/her and the rest of the characters in the text against the ideas of fate/ freewill. Mind mapping can also be atool for visualization that can greatly help understanding.As stated in Churchill ( 2005), “Dale suggested that visualization is veryimportant for the development of understanding as learning experiences become moreabstract ... utilize visualization and representthese through illustrations, diagrams, mind maps and other forms of representation”. Complex connections can be seen at a glance usingthis method thus assisting students to working with the text effectively and developing thinking skills of a higher order. Additionally,allowing them to create their own representation of knowledge is also important.According to Mayer (2000) and a cognitive theory oflearning, at this stage in the unit students would be “organizing” their knowledge so tools such as this can be quite useful. In this unit ofwork, I have also introduced a constant use of an Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) as a tool to present information visually. This week,using the IWB will help students analyse the language closely as while we view the text, we can discuss it and make annotations on thescreen. Also, using the IWB can help students reflect on a previous learning experience (exploring the CD-rom). All this will help theteacher to direct students’ attention to the core material that needs to be learnt in the early stages of this unit of work. Pupils then willstart experimenting with Macbeth with a series of activities that they can choose geared at engaging the different learning styles of this
class. Ralph Pirozzo3 devised a matrix to use in the classroom which integrates Bloom’s taxonomy (lower and higher order thinkingskills) and Multiple Intelligences (Gardner’s) which claims to both nurture students’ thinking skills and engage them through theirpreferred learning styles. To this end, I have included a few activities that are aimed at giving students a wider set of choices to applytheir knowledge of the play.As indicated bySiranovic and representing a key step in cognitivist construction of meaning, students needto be given a chance to “perform” as they “demonstrate and use the newly acquired knowledge, skills or behaviour.” (Siranovic 2007). Content WEEK 3: Lessons outlinesLearn to: Lesson 1-2 : Representing Macbeth1.13.2 Students will watch a few key extracts from Polanski’s movie Macbeth will analyse how Polanski represents8.1 Macbeth. Also, using a Venn diagram on the IWB students will brainstorm what differences they can see8.3 between what happens in the film extracts and in the original scenes. Discussion will also be focused on how11.4 the themes, and characterization are developed in the film extracts. Overall film techniques will be pointed out. Students will be given a worksheet to write their ideas on: From Polanski’s film, students work on a couple of the reflection questions from the following worksheetLearn about:1.11 In groups, they present their answers to the class. Further discussion will follow.18.104.22.168 See www.pli.com.au for more information on this talented teacher and teacher trainer.
Learn to: Lesson 3: Modern Relevance of the play22.214.171.124 Students will work on the following idea: How are the play’s themes still relevant in today’s culture?. As the4.3 film clearly depicts Macbeth’s ideas against Polanski’s culture, we will be attempting to draw a comparison between the themes in the play and 21st century culture. To assist students with coming up with ideas, theyLearn about: will watch a short movie trailer from Shakespeare Retold from you tube:1.12 Students will draw on our discussion and in pairs/groups they will construct a list of main ideas on how1.131.20 possible modern storyline using Onenote.BLOOMSTAXONOM(APPLYING)BLOOMS Lesson 4-5: Assessment Task 2: Digital storytelling of “modern Macbeth”TAXONOMY(CREATING) See ‘appendix file” for a detailed lesson plan.Critical analysis for the implementation of multimedia in this week I decided to include a digital storytelling phase in the unit to get students to represent ideas using a visual medium. Also, oncethey are familiar with what they want to depict and do so successfully, it will serve as a springboard to the unit’s final project (videoproduction). The idea of introducing a production task of this sort is connected to fostering “independent learning”, “student reflection”and as well as “problem-solving” and “learning by doing” (see Kimber& Wyatt-Smith (2006). Obviously, if we want our students to gaindeeper understandings and developing higher order skills, they need to be personally engaged with the material. Providing
opportunities for this kind of learning is a main goal of this unit of work. This kind of multimedia authoring also encourages studentsexternalizing what they understand from the play, and using their critical skills and their modern frame of referenceto transformthe textinto a new interpretation of the play. Utilizing a digital medium to depict their understandings provides opportunities for “genuine self-expression, which in turn should allow pupils to create documents that explicitly reflect what they know and understand.” (McFarlane,Williams&Bonnett(2000). The digital production would be clear representation of their interpretation of the text and would also showhow they constructed meaning independently. Content WEEK 4: Lessons outlines Lesson 1: Peer –evaluation of digital storytellingLearn to: Students will present their storyboards to the class using IWB. There will be an extended discussion on their2.2 peer’s reaction to their storyboards. We will be using the LDC chart4 to give feedback to each group.2.6 Students will take down notes on the audience’s reaction to their work to improve their project and as an2.7 ideas bank to use for their final project.Learn about:2.1211.10BLOOMSTAXONOMY(EVALUATING)Learn to: Lesson 2-4: Writing a script1.2 Students will commence writing a script for 3 or more movie scenes working in small groups. Using the1.10 plotline they previously worked on, they will need to produce a minimum of 3 short scenes to include in a2.4 movie trailer to promote their “movies” to modern audiences4 LDC means Like, Dislike, Change. It encapsulates students’ reaction to a product by giving three types of feedback.
2.6 They will need to decide on the number of characters that will appear considering they themselves will act5.4 this out and shot the film using a digital camera only.11.311.9 Their script will use modern language and will be targeted to teenagers.Learn about:126.96.36.199.1211.15MI (VERBAL)For content Lesson 5: Assessment Task 3: Composing and performing a dramatic text. (English)assessed see below Teacher will assess students’ script according to syllabus’ guidelines This is an important element as it will help students to produce a sound piece of writing that will effectively achieve the syllabus’ English outcomes. Content WEEK 5: Lessons outlinesLearn to: Lesson 1-2: Planning the movie trailer1.8 Students watch a few examples of Modern Macbeth movie trailers from youtube.3.1 Teacher discusses how to make a movie trailer usingWindow Movie Maker.3.3 Students get into their groups and start drafting their movie trailer. They will need to consider various5.2 elements such as: still images, music and video clips. They will derive ideas from their storyline they5.3 represented through Photostory in Week 3.Learn about:5.125.13
6.8 Homework: Students will shoot three or more short scenes to be included in the movie trailer. They will6.10 need to take into account staging elements such as backgrounds, costumes, props, etc.6.11MI (VISUAL-SPATIAL)MI (INTERPERSONAL-KINESTHETIC)Content:as above Lesson 3-4: Putting the movie trailer togetherBLOOMS TAXONOMY Students will design the first draft of their movie trailer using Windows Movie Maker. They will need to(CREATING) put together all the elements previously mentioned.Learn to: Lesson 5: “Showing off” their movie trailer5.126.6 Students will show their movie trailer to the class using the IWB.6.7 Students will explain to the class:11.3 o The key issues/ ideas related to modern Macbeth they tried to convey in their movie trailer.11.6 o What they think are the strengths and weaknesses of their movie trailer.11.7Learn about: Final Assessment: The teacher will assess students’ final work using the following rubric6.86.10 Final result will be merged with Assessment Task 3 result.6.11BLOOMS TAXONOMY(CREATING)Critical analysis for the implementation of multimedia in the last two weeks
Designing this final project is the culmination of 5 weeks of intense learning. The idea behind this project is acknowledging that studentshave had a good chance to explore, analyse and interpret the play. They have also produced their own digital stories thus having thechance to experiment with media to represent their understanding of the material. They would by now be ready to design their own“critiqued” versions of the play, and doing it in a familiar 21st century environment. This usage of technology goes well beyondconventional uses for representing knowledge and extends it to the production of new meanings and interpretation ofknowledgethrough multiple literacies. Students operate with high order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation and organization ofideas in order to design a unique product to engage their audience. Kimber& Wyatt-Smith(2006) synthesise the idea of“students-as-designers” in this way: “from a new literacies perspective, when students operate as designers, they are licensed to apply critiquedknowledge of the subject/topic synthesised from multimodal sources. Beyond this, their role extends to devising a creative, digital,multimodalrepresentation of new knowledge, communicating this to others via representationalresources intended to engage theiraudience” Getting students to critique the play is also a central element that was taken into account in designing this task as we do notwant students to work with technology per se, but using it along with other dimensions such as the “critical” and “cultural” dimensions.Kimber& Wyatt-Smith (2006) also indicate that “national and international research studies into the integration of technology withliteracy and learning reveal that, too often, classroom uses of technology are more technicist than critically evaluative” and that “anAustralian national study, Digital rhetorics(Lankshearet al., 1997), advocated the adoption of the operational, cultural and criticaldimensions (Green, 1988) for work with technology, literacy and learning” Such study stresses the importance of including a criticaldimension to our use of technology and literacy to help learners to develop proper conceptualisation in these domains. Anotheradvantage of using this multimedia final project is that it can show the extent of pupils’ understanding of the text. McFarlane, Williams&Bonnett (2000) explain that a multimedia product of this sort can actually make evident students’ understandings whereas standardized tests“fail to reveal a number of assumptions and associations, and preconceptions and misunderstandings that (are) evident in the pupilsmultimedia work andtalk about that work”. In conclusion, using a final project such as this video production for assessment not only
assists students to become critical readers but also empowers them to be competent users of digital technology to be better prepared tomeet the demands of 21st century learning. Resnick (2002) summarizes it in this way: “Success in the future will be based not onhow much we know, but on our ability to think and actcreatively”.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Planning proforma based on the ones found on the NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate on: http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au Integration of Bloom’s taxonomy and MI originally devised by Ralph Pirozzo. More information can be found on: www.pli.com.au Digital storytelling tutorial: http://www.techsoup.org/learningcenter/techplan/page5897.cfm digital storytelling in nsw: http://www.sydneyr.det.nsw.edu.au/support/abedequity/reg_equi/documents/PSP/QT-Framework- for-Digital-Storytelling.pdfBIBLIOGRAPHYChurchill, D. ( 2005). Learning objects: An interactive presentation and a mediating tool in a learning Activity, Educational mediaInternational, 42(4), pp. 333-349.Drucker, M. J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners, The Reading Teacher, 57(1), 22-29.
Kimber, K. & Wyatt-Smith, C. (2006). Using and creating knowledge with new technologies: a case for students-as-designers.Learning,Media and Technology, 31(1), 19-34.Mayer, R.E. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media, Learningand Instruction, 13, 125-139.Resnick, M. (2002). Rethinking learning in the digital age, In G. Kirkman, P. K. Cornelius, J. D. Sachs, & K. Schwab (Eds.), The Globalinformation technology report: Readiness for the networked world (pp. 32 -37). N.Y.: Oxford University PressSchar, S.G. & Krueger (2000) Using new Learning Technologies with Multimedia, Journal of IEEE multimedia, July- Sept. , p 40 -51.TEACHING MATERIALS(in order of usage) Online interactive Shakespearean theatre: http://www.classbrain.com/artteensb/publish/interactive_globe_theater.shtml Shakespeare Online: www.shakespeare-online.com Pictures used in Week 1: - http://todopera.wordpress.com/2009/09/ - theplaymaker.wordpress.com/2008/05/ - personal.cityu.edu.hk/.../Shakespeare/Links.html
Macbeth Audio book: http://wiredforbooks.org/shakespeare/ Shakespeare, W (1995). Macbeth CDRom. London: BBC Education. Drama techniques glossary; http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072405228/student_view0/drama_glossary.html Focused reading and viewing guide: http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson46/FocusedReadingViewingGuide.pdf Polanski worksheet on: http://home.olemiss.edu/~shodges/renaissance.html Shakespeare retold movie trailer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OVZt0DsGo94 Using Window Movie Maker to make a movie trailer: http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Movie-Trailer-on-Windows-Movie- Maker Rubrics to assess movie trailer: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php?screen=ShowRubric&rubric_id=1921229&