By: Alec Vivian, Ben Wadley, and Christeena Parsons.
In 1975, Congress created the Federal Election Commission (FEC) to administer and enforce the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). The duties of the FEC are to disclose campaign finance information, to enforce the provisions of the law such as the limits and prohibitions on contributions, and to oversee the public funding of Presidential elections.
The Commission is made up of six members, who are appointed by the President of the Unites States and confirmed by the United States Senate. Each member serves a six-year term, and two seats are subject to appointment every two years.
•BCRA stands for Bipartisan CampaignReform Act•It regulates financial spending of politicalcampaigns•Intended to get money out of politics
When: October 23, 2002. Why: Election spending was out of control. Election focused too much on raising money for the campaign instead of the issues. Time was being wasted in the effort to raise and spend money on election campaign. John McCain and Russ Feingold
Stands for Political Action Committee PACs are political committees that raise money to fund candidates in elections They are usually represented by businesses or other large organizations They PACs raise money to reelect and defeat candidates
Any individual who donates money to fund candidates in an election. They can raise or donate any amount of cash to support a campaign.
-Wealthy and powerful businessmen or politicians -EX.: Bill Gates, Donald Trump, Michael Eisner (Former CEO of Disneyworld), Mitt Romney, Steven Spielberg.
-Those contribution that are given directly to candidates for their campaigns from congress or the whitehouse. -Limited in amount & must be reported. -Ex.: Mitt Romney asked for money for his campaign from congress, and Obama asked for money from the white house.
-Funds given to parties in unlimited amounts to be used for “Party Building Activities”. -given to by the public, large corporations, fat cats, and other big third party contributors willing to inject sums of cash into their favored parties. -Ex.: party national conventions, get-out-to-vote drives.
-Occurred as a result of the Watergate affair Richard Nixon had (which led to his resignation). -Congress attempted to ferret out corruption in political campaigns. -Restricted financial contribution to candidates. -Passed by 7 votes to 1.
-Main question: Did these restrictions violate first amendment rights of the speech and associations clause? -The limit on total campaign expenditures was violating first amendment rights. -Limits to individual injections on their campaigns was believed to not violate 1st amendment rights.
-Resulted from a documentary made about Hillary Clinton. -The film was critical to her candidacy for her party’s Presidential Nomination. -The film was to be released 30 days before the primary elections. -Citizens United sought declaratory and injunctive relief from the BCRA. -The District Court denied CU a preliminary injunction, as it violated the point that no “electioneering communication” can be displayed 30 days before an election.
Citizens United argued that Hillary (The documentary) was not “electioneering communication” because it is not “publicly distributed” -Argued that it violated free speech. -Argued that a communication “is the functional equivalent of express advocacy only if it is susceptible of no reasonable interpretation other than as an appeal to vote for or against a specific candidate.” -Argued that documentary making does not distort the political process more or less than television ads. The court decided that the Campaign Finance reform act in the BCRA’s notions to add provisions to disallow citizens from showing political movies 30 days before elections, claiming that these changes would be unconstitutional.
Who were the two people that proposed the BCRA?A. John McCain and Bill ClintonB. Bill Clinton and John ValeoC. Russ Feingold and John McCainD. John Valea and Russ Feingold
______ was the court case that let Federal lawprohibit corporations and Unions from using theirgeneral treasury funds to make independentexpenditure.A) Citizens united v. Federal Elections CommissionB) The Watergate ScandalC) Campaign Finance Reform ActD) Buckley v. Valeo
______ resulted from the Watergate affair asCongress attempted to secret out corruption frompolitical campaigns.A) The FECB) Buckley v. ValeoC) Campaign Finance Reform ActD) Citizens United v. FEC
_____ are contributions given directly to candidatesfor their campaigns from Congress, and _____ arefunds given to parties in unlimited amounts for “Partybuilding activities”.A) Soft money, hard moneyB) Surpluses, soft moneyC) Hard money, surplusesD) Hard money, soft money
Congress created this in order to administer andenforce the Federal Election Campaign Act.A) Electoral CollegeB) Federal Election CommissionC) Federal Finance CampaignD) Senate