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Forensic Ballistic

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Description of firearms and medicolegal aspects.

Published in: Health & Medicine

Forensic Ballistic

  1. 1. FIREARM INJURIES DR VIVEK KUMAR Dept. Of FMT, KMCH, Katihar
  2. 2. Proximal Intermediate Terminal Ballistics Wound Ballistics
  3. 3. •Firearm: Any instrument which discharges a missile by the expansive force of the gases produced by an explosive function.
  4. 4. FIREARM RIFLED FIRE ARM SHOT GUNS
  5. 5. Parts of Firearm weapon :
  6. 6. Parts of Firearm weapon :
  7. 7. SHOT GUN :
  8. 8. RIFLED FIREARMS RIFLING OF A GUN
  9. 9. TO ACHIEVE A GYROSCOPIC MOVEMENT STRAIGHT COURSE GREATER POWER OF PENETRATION. IT COVERS A LONGER RANGE. IMPROVES THE ACCURACY OF HITTING THE TARGET. PURPOSE OF RIFLING
  10. 10. RIFLING MARK ON BULLET It developed on the surface of the bullet Microscopic study of it gives an idea about the gun. It is considered as fingerprints of firearm
  11. 11. IT IS DIAMETER OF THE BARREL OR BORE • IT IS MEASURED AS THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO LANDS • CALIBER- UNIT MAY BE IN INCH OR IN MILLIMETER. CALIBER OF A GUN
  12. 12. SHOTGUN :
  13. 13. MECHANISM TRIGGER OPERATION STRIKING OF FIRING PIN MIXTURE IN PRIMER OR DETONATOR EXPLODES FIRE OR FLAMES IGNITE PROPELLANT GENERATION OF HEAVY GAS & PRESSURE BULLET OR PELLET EJECTED WITH HIGH VELOCITY.
  14. 14. CARTRIDGE OF A SHOTGUN CARTRIDGE CASE GUN POWDER WAD PELLETS.
  15. 15. CARTRIDGE CASE: ELONGATED CYLINDER MADE UP OF CARD BOARD. LENGTH VARIES WITH TYPE OF SHOTGUN. IT HAS TWO ENDS A) FLAT CLOSED END – BASE B) FLAT END ( TERMINAL END)
  16. 16. • 
  17. 17. (Wad)
  18. 18. CARTRIDGE OF A RIFFLED GUN IT IS THE RIFLED FIREARM AMMUNITION. IT CAN BE LOADED INTO THE CHAMBER OF THE GUN. IT CAN DISCHARGE THE BULLET ON BEING FIRED. IT IS MADE UP OF TWO SEGMENT 1. CARTRIDGE CASE 2. BULLET
  19. 19. IT IS AN ELONGATED METALLIC CYLINDER MADE UP OF COPPER- NICKEL ALLOY. CARTRIDGE CASE
  20. 20. Jacket
  21. 21. BULLET OF A RIFFLED FIREARM : IT HAS GOT A CONICAL SHAPE. IT HAS FOUR COMPONENT 1. BODY 2. BASE 3. NOSE OR TIP 4. LEAD CORE IT PROVIDES THE WEIGHT AND STEADINESS FOR THE BULLET IN IT’S FLIGHT FROM MUZZLE TO THE TARGET.
  22. 22. MUSHROOMING OF BULLET-: DUM - DUM BULLET-: BASE IS NOT COVERED BY JACKET SO IT ALSO MUSHROOMS BEFORE STRIKE PRODUCING BIG ENTRY WOUND.
  23. 23. Yawing bullet
  24. 24. Tumbling bullet:
  25. 25. PLASTIC BULLET-: BATON ROUND USED IN SMOOTH BORE WEAPON USED FOR RIOT CONTROL.
  26. 26. PRIMERS : •Lead •Antimony •Barium
  27. 27. Firearm injury-General Aspects Position of target Contact Close Near Distant Gun powder Flame RANGE of shooting
  28. 28. Burning & Singeing : •Due to flame •On the skin – •On the hair – •Darkening and parchmentization of burnt area – After death
  29. 29. Blackening/Smudging: •Carbonaceous deposition on skin which can be easily wiped off. •Caused by deposition of SMOKE on skin
  30. 30. Tattooing (peppering/stippling): • Multiple punctuate abrasions. • Small, discrete, black specks which can’t be wiped off.
  31. 31. Grease collar/Dirt collar: • Carried lubricant from the barrel of firearm on the projectile
  32. 32. ABRASION COLLAR:
  33. 33. • Recoil /Muzzle impression. • Back spatter
  34. 34. Rifled Firearm injury : Contact range Close range Near range Distant range
  35. 35. Contact Wounds • Wound of entry – Large, triangular, stellate or cruciate shaped. • Wound track – • Muzzle imprint. • Back spatter. • Corona. • Burning, blackening and tattooing around the wound margin – Slight or absent. • Over the cranial vault –
  36. 36. Close shot (Up to 15 cm) • Up to 8 cm- effect of flame • Up to 15 cm – effect of smoke • Wound of entry – Circular, inverted surrounded by burning, blackening and singeing of hairs. • Abrasion collar, grease collar and tattooing present. • Wound track – Pink coloured.
  37. 37. Near shot (Up to 50 cm) • Tattooing present. • Wound of entry – Circular or oval in shape. • Abrasion and grease collar present.
  38. 38. Distant shot (> 50 cm) • Burning, blackening, singeing and tattooing – Absent. • Wound of entry – Circular with inverted margin. • Abrasion and grease collar present. • Over the skull -
  39. 39. COMPONENTS GUN FLAMES GUN SMOKES A) SOOT PARTICLE B) GUN POWDER 1) FINE 2) COARSE CARDS WADS GASES LEAD SHOTS DISTANCE 15CM 30CM 60CM 90CM 2METER 1.25METER CONTACT & CLOSE SHOT VARIES SPECIFIC EFFECTS HEAT COMBUSTION EFFECTS BLACKENING BLACKENING TATTOOING MINOR INJURY MINOR INJURY CHERRY RED COLORATION WOUND OF ENTRY & WOUND OF EXIT. Shotgun Entry wound -
  40. 40. 1. Wound of entry – Large irregular and single hole. 2. Burning, blackening, tattooing and singeing of hairs. 3. Muzzle imprint. 4. Over the skull - Contact shot :
  41. 41. • Close shot (Up to 1 meter) – Wound of entry • Short range (1 to 2 meters) Wound of entry – Single and circular • Intermediate range ( 2 to 4 meter) – Individual holes may be detected • Long range ( > 4 meter)
  42. 42. Difference between Entry and Exit wound Trait Entrance wound Exit wound Size Smaller Bigger Edges Inverted Everted Burning, blackening, tattooing. Present Absent Abrasion collar Present Absent Bleeding Less More Fat No protrusion May protrude Cherry red – tissue Present Absent Fibers of cloths Turned in Turned out Lead ring Seen in X ray Absent Spectrography More Less metal
  43. 43. RAYALSEEMA PHENOMENON KENNEDY PHENOMENON
  44. 44. PUPPE’S RULE
  45. 45. • Single entrance and multiple exits • Multiple wound of entrance and exit from a single shot • Entrance wound is present but bullet is not found in the body.
  46. 46. MEDICO LEGAL ASPECT OF FIREARM-: TYPE OF FIREARM RANGE OF FIRING DIRECTION OF FIRING CAUSE OF DEATH MOTIVE MEDICO LEGAL IMPORTANCE OF BULLET-: A BULLET COULD BE CRIME BULLET, TEST BULLET OR EXHIBIT BULLET.
  47. 47. FIREARM RESIDUES POWDER PARTICLE SOOT TESTS FOR THE FIREARM RESIDUES PARAFFIN TEST ( DERMAL NITRATE TEST HARRISON AND GILROY TEST NEUTRON ACTIVE ANALYSIS FLAMELESS ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY (FAAS) SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE – ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY (SEM-EDX)
  48. 48. DERMAL NITRATE TEST THE BASIS OF THE TEST TO DETECT THE PRESENCE OF NITRATES IN HAND USED FOR FIRING.
  49. 49. Manner of injury - Accidental Suicidal Homicidal

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