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global-warming.pdf

  1. 1. Global Warming Global Warming ― ― Cause Cause, ,Impact and Mitigation Impact and Mitigation ― ―
  2. 2. Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Global mean Temperature Atmospheric CO2 concentration and global mean temperature increase with the rapid increase of CO2 emission. Cause of Global Warming Cause of Global Warming Fossil fuel consumption is increasing rapidly to satisfy growing energy demand after the Industrial Revolution, which started at the end of the 18th century. Fossil fuel combustion : C + O2 → CO2 (Carbon in (Oxide in Fossil fuel) Atmosphere) 《Point》 Global warming is caused by anthropogenic activities. CO2 Emission by fuel Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, ORNL Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, ORNL 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year CO 2 emissions (MtC/yr) Gas Oil Coal 275 300 325 350 375 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year Atmospheric CO 2 concentration (ppmv) -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 Global mean temperature change (℃) Historical CO2 record from the Siple Station ice core Atmospheric CO2 record from Mauna Loa Global mean temperature relative to the mean of 1961-1990
  3. 3. Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle 《Point》 Carbon(C) circulates on the Earth. The carbon (C) circulates among terrestrial plants, the atmosphere and the ocean, undergoing various reactions. For example, Solution : CO2 + H2O ⇄ 2H+ + CO3 2- Photosynthesis : 6CO2 + 6H2O → 6O2 + C6H12O6 However, anthropogenic activities like fossil fuel burning and deforestation have released carbon (C) to the atmosphere and have increased the carbon in the atmosphere. Burning : C + O2 → CO2 This carbon increase in the atmosphere leads to the global warming.
  4. 4. Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect 《Point》 CO2(carbon dioxide) plays an important role to keep the earth warm. Greenhouse gases, e.g., CO2, absorb infrared radiation, while solar radiation passes through gas layer. Certain amounts of greenhouse gases (CO2 etc) are necessary to keep the earth warm.
  5. 5. Global Warming Global Warming 《Point》 However, increase in atmospheric concentration of CO2 causes global warming. CO2 increase in the atmosphere “thickens” the infrared radiation absorption layer. The “thicker” absorption layer keeps the earth warmer.
  6. 6. Projection of Climate Change Projection of Climate Change Temperature rise of 1.4 deg.C at the lowest and 5.8 deg.C at the highest is projected in case of no CO2 emission reduction. Sea level rise of 0.1m at the lowest and 0.9m at the highest is projected in case of no CO2 emission reduction. Temperature Change Sea level Change 《Point》 CO2 concentration increase causes the rises of the global temperature and sea level. Source: The Third Assessment Report by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) Source: The Third Assessment Report by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC)
  7. 7. Global Warming Impacts Global Warming Impacts 《Point》 Extraordinary weather is projected to occur in various world regions.
  8. 8. 《Point》 CO2 emissions vary widely across countries. CO CO2 2 Emission Emission ・CO2 emissions and per capita emissions are large at present for developed countries. ・CO2 emissions in developing countries are projected to increase with the population and the economic growths.
  9. 9. Global Warming Mitigation Global Warming Mitigation 《Point》 We have various mitigation options to reduce CO2 emissions. A cost-effective combination of the options is required.
  10. 10. 《Point》 Economic consideration is important to select a combination of the options. Global Warming Mitigation Scenario Global Warming Mitigation Scenario Forestation Ocean Sequestration Renewable Energy Nuclear Power Fuel Switching among Fossil Fuels Energy Saving 0 5 10 15 20 25 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 Year CO 2 emission and reduction (Gton of carbon eq.) Energy Saving Fuel Switching among Fossil Fuels Nuclear Power Renewable Energy Geological Sequestration (Depleted Gas Well) Geological Sequestration (Aquifer) Ocean Sequestration Forestation Net CO2 Emission Geological Sequestration (Depleted Gas Well) Geological Sequestration (Aquifer) Without CO2 mitigation policy ... The CO2 emission level is required to stabilize the double of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration (550 ppmv). Effective CO 2 reduction by these technologies.

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