Techniques of data collection


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Techniques of data collection

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Research is “Search of knowledge”- It is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on specific topic”  According to Oxford Dictionary, “A careful inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”  According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusion; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
  3. 3. What is Research Methodology?  Is defined as a highly intellectual human activity used in the investigation of nature and matter and deals specifically with the manner in which data is collected, analyzed and interpreted
  4. 4. What Constitutes a Research Topic?  Unanswered question  Unsolved question  Concern  Query  Statement of inquiry
  5. 5. Objectives of the Research Study Objectives identified to answer the research questions have to be listed making sure that they are: a) numbered, and b) statement begins with an action verb.
  6. 6. Methods of Data Collection There are two types of data  Primary Data— collected for the first time  Secondary Data—those which have already been collected and analysed by someone else.
  7. 7. Methods of Primary Data Collection OBSERVATION METHOD: Commonly used in behavioural sciences It is the gathering of primary data by investigator’s own direct observation of relevant pe o ple , actio ns and situatio ns witho ut asking fro m the re spo nde nt. e.g.  A hotel chain sends observers posing as guests into its coffee shop to check on cleanliness and customer service.  A food service operator sends researchers into competing restaurants to learn menu items prices, check portion sizes and consistency and observe point-of purchase merchandising.  A restaurant evaluates possible new locations by checking out locations of competing restaurants, traffic patterns and neighbourhood conditions.
  8. 8. Types of Observation  Structured – for descriptive research  Unstructured—for exploratory research  Participant Observation  Non- participant observation  Disguised observation
  9. 9. SURVEY METHOD Approach most suited for gathering descriptive information.  Structure d Surve ys: use fo rm allists o f q ue stio ns aske d o f all re spo nde nts in the sam e way.  Unstructure d Surve ys: le t the inte rvie we r pro be re spo nde nts and g uide the inte rvie w according to their answers. Survey research may be Direct or Indirect.  Direct Approach: The researcher asks direct questions about behaviours and thoughts., e.g. Why don’t you eat at MacDonald’s?  Indirect Approach: The researcher might ask: “What kind of people eat at MacDonald’s?” From the response, the researcher may be able to discover why the consumer avoids MacDonald’s. It may suggest factors of which the consumer is not consciously aware.
  10. 10. CONTACT METHODS Information may be collected by Mail  can be used to collect large amounts of information at a low cost per respondent.  respondents may give more honest answers to personal questions on a mail questionnaire.  no interviewer is involved to bias the respondent’s answers.
  11. 11. CONTACT METHODS Telephone  quick method.  more flexible as interviewer can explain questions not understood by the respondent.  depending on respondent’s answer they can skip some Qs and probe more on others
  12. 12. CONTACT METHODS Personal interview  It is very flexible and can be used to collect large amounts of information. Trained interviewers are can hold the respondent’s attention and are available to clarify difficult questions.  They can guide interviews, explore issues, and probe as the situation requires. Personal interview can be used in any type of questionnaire and can be conducted fairly quickly.  Interviewers can also show actual products, advertisements, packages and observe and record their reactions and behaviour.
  13. 13. Personal interview This take s two fo rm s-  Individual- Inte rce pt inte rvie wing  Gro up - Fo cus G ro up Inte rvie wing Intercept interviewing:  Widely used in tourism research. Allows researcher to reach known people in a short period of time.  Only method of reaching people whose names and addresses are unknown. Involves talking to people at homes, offices, on the street, or in shopping malls.  involves the use of judg m e ntalsam pling i. e . inte rvie we r has g uide line s as to who m to “intercept”, such as 25% under age 20 and 75% over age 60
  14. 14. Personal interview Focus Group Interviewing: It is rapidly becoming one of the major research tool to understand people’s thoughts and feelings. It is usually conducted by inviting six to ten people to gather for a few hours with a trained moderator to talk about a product, service or organization. The meeting is held in a pleasant place, and refreshments are served to create a relaxed environment. The moderator needs objectivity, knowledge of the subject and industry, and some understanding of group and consumer behaviour. The moderator starts with a broad question before moving to more specific issues, encouraging open and easy discussion to bring out true feelings and thoughts. At the same time, the interviewer focuses the discussion, hence the name fo cus
  15. 15. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Also called Em piricalRe se arch o r Cause and Effe ct Me tho d, it is a data-base d research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified with observation or experiment. Experimental research is appropriate when proof is sought that certain variables affect other variables in some way. e . g . , Te nde rise rs ( inde pe nde nt variable ) affe ct co o king tim e and te xture o f m e at( de pe nde nt variable ). The e ffe ct o f substituting o ne ing re die nt in who le o r in part fo r ano the r such as so ya flo ur to flo ur fo r m aking hig h pro te in bre ad.
  16. 16. METHODS FOR SECONDARY DATA Secondary data can be either published or unpublished data such as;  Publication from government  Foreign government, international bodies.  Technical and trade journals.  Reports prepared by research scholars.
  17. 17. Schedule Method  Schedule defined; May be defined as a Proforma that contains a set of questions which are asked and filled by interviewer in face to face situation.  Objective Schedule; The main objective of the schedule is always about a definite item enquiry.  Types of Schedules; # Observation schedule – In this the observer records the activities of the individual or group. # Rating schedule – are used to assess the attitudes, opinions, perceptions and other elements of respondent. # Interview Schedule; # Institution Survey schedule
  18. 18. How to Draw Conclusions from Data?  Use of graphical presentations  Use of statistical analyses  Sharing data among colleagues and receiving constructive feedback  Critically analyzing data and results
  19. 19. DETERMINING SAMPLE DESIGN A Sample is a segment of the population selected to represent the population as a whole. Ideally, the sample should be representative and allow the researcher to make accurate estimates of the thoughts and behaviour of the larger population.
  20. 20. DETERMINING SAMPLE DESIGN Designing the sample calls for three decisions: Who willbe surve ye d? ( The Sam ple ).  The researcher must determine what type of information is needed and who is most likely to have it. Ho w m any pe o ple willbe surve ye d? (Sam ple Siz e )  Large samples give more reliable results than small samples. However it is not necessary to sample the entire target population. Ho w sho uld the sam ple be cho se n? (Sam pling )  Sample members may be chosen at rando m fro m the e ntire po pulatio n ( pro bability sam ple ).  The researcher might se le ct pe o ple who are e asie r to o btain
  21. 21. Types of Samples Probability samples  Sim ple rando m sam ple : Eve ry m e m be r o f the po pulatio n has a kno wn and e q ualchance of being selected.  Stratifie d rando m sam ple : Po pulatio n is divide d into m utually e xclusive g ro ups such as age groups and random samples are drawn from each group.  Cluste r(are a)sam ple : The po pulatio n is divide d into m utually e xclusive g ro ups such as blocks, and the researcher draws a sample of the group to interview.
  22. 22. Types of Samples Non-probability samples  Co nve nie nce sam ple : The re se arche r se le cts the e asie st po pulatio n m e m be rs fro m which to obtain information.  Judg m e nt sam ple : The re se arche r use s his/he r judg e m e nt to se le ct po pulatio n members who are good prospects for accurate information.  Quo ta sam ple : The re se arche r finds and inte rvie ws a pre scribe d num be r o f people in each of several categories.
  23. 23. TOOL FORDATA COLLECTION (RESEARCHINSTRUMENTS) The construction of a research instrument or tool for data collection is the most important aspect of a research project because anything you say by way of findings or conclusions is based upon the type of information you collect, and the data you collect is entirely dependent upon the questions that you ask of your respondents.
  24. 24. Guidelines to Construct a Research Tool The unde rlying principle be hind the g uide line s sug g e ste d be lo w is to e nsure the validity o f yo ur instrum e nt by m aking sure that yo ur q ue stio ns re late to the o bje ctive s o f yo ur study. # Ste p I: Cle arly de fine and individually list allthe spe cific o bje ctive s o r re se arch Que stio ns fo r yo ur study. # Ste p II: Fo r e ach o bje ctive o r re se arch q ue stio ns, list allthe asso ciate d q ue stio ns, that yo u want to answe r thro ug h yo ur study. # Ste p III: Take e ach re se arch q ue stio n liste d in ste p IIand list the info rm atio n Re q uire d to answe r it. # Ste p IV: Fo rm ulate q ue stio n(s) to o btain this info rm atio n.
  25. 25. The Questionnaire  Aq ue stio nnaire co nsists o f a se t o f q ue stio ns pre se nte d to a re spo nde nt fo r answe rs. The re spo nde nts re ad the q ue stio ns, inte rpre t what is e xpe cte d and the n write do wn the answe rs the m se lve s.  It is called an Inte rvie w Sche dule whe n the re se arche r asks the q ue stio ns (and if ne ce ssary, e xplain the m ) and re co rd the re spo nde nt’s re ply o n the inte rvie w sche dule .
  26. 26. The Questionnaire There are three basic types of questionnaire: 1.Closed –ended Questionnaire: Closed ended questions include all possible answers / prewritten response categories, and respondents are asked to choose among them. 2. Open-ended Questionnaire: Open-ended questions allow respondents to answer in their own words. Questionnaire does not contain boxes to tick but instead leaves a blank section for the respondent to write in an answer. 3. Combination of both: This way it is possible to find out how many people use a service and what they think of the service in the same form.
  27. 27. How to construct questionnaires  Deciding which questionnaire to use; - clo se d o r o pe n e nde d / se lf o r inte rvie we r adm iniste re d  Wording and structure of questions.  Questions should be kept short and simple-- avoid do uble barre lle d i. e . two questions in one –ask two Qs rather than one.  Avoid negative questions which have no t in the m as it is co nfusing fo r re spo nde nt to ag re e o r disag re e .
  28. 28. Piloting the Questionnaire Once you have constructed your questionnaire, you must pilot it.  This means that you must test it out to see if it is obtaining the result you require.  This is done by asking people to read it through and see if there are any ambiguities which you have not noticed.  They should also be asked to comment about the length, structure and wording of the questionnaire.  Alter the questions accordingly
  29. 29. Thank you…