Introduction to Research Methodology
Research is “Search of knowledge”- It is a scientific and systematic
search for relevant information on specific topic”
According to Oxford Dictionary, “A careful inquiry specially
through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”
According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and
redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution;
collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and
reaching conclusion; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to
determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
Research is an organized set of
activities to study and develop a
model of procedure technique to
find the result of a realistic
problem supported by literature
and data such that its objectives
Data: Measurement of records of facts made under
Hypothesis: tentative assumption of the study or
expected results of the study
Independent variable: The part of the experiment
that the researcher is manipulating; also called
experimental or treatment variable.
Dependent variable: The effect of the Independent
Population: A total number of subjects which they
abide the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Review: A research paper that is a critical
evaluation of research on a particular topic.
Research proposal / Synopsis: A formal
preparation that includes introduction, review of
literature and proposed method of conducting
What is Research Methodology?
Is defined as a highly intellectual
human activity used in the investigation
of nature and matter and deals
specifically with the manner in which
data is collected, analyzed and
A system of models, procedures and
techniques used to find the result of a
research problem is called research
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
To gain familiarity with a phenomenon
To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular
individual, situation or a group
To determine the frequency with which something
occurs or with which it is associated with something
To identify the casual relationship between variables
Attributes of Good Research Study
OBJECTIVE: A good research must answer the research question.
CONTROL: A good research must be able to control all variables.
GENERALISABILITY: Generate similar result when used other
BIAS FREE: Research should be free from personal bias. It should
be based on objective and not on subjective matter.
SYSTEMATIC: A good research study must have various well
planned steps, i.e. all steps must be interrelated and one step should
lead to another step.
FEW TYPES OF RESEARCH STUDIES
Surveys & fact finding enquiries of different kinds
Purpose is description of the state of affairs as it
exists at present.
Researcher has no control over the variables; he
can only report what has happened or what is
Involves indebt study and evaluation of available
information in an attempt to explain complex
The researcher has to use facts or information
already available and analyze these to make a critical
evaluation of the material.
CONCEPTUAL / EXERIMENTAL RESEARCH
Related to some abstract ideas / theory experiment
Attempt to establish cause and effect relationship
The application of valid & reliable research methods is called
scientific method. It has three distinct characteristics.
OBJECTIVE: Should enable to classify facts
ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENT: Only collection
of facts will not be sufficient, it must be able to make
observations of the correlation and sequence, which
can be derived as desired results.
SELF CRITICISM: Should critically examine the
research as the study done is not sure that they have
IMPORTANCE OF RSEARCH IN MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT
Three factors stimulates decision;
The managers increased need for more and better
The availability of improve techniques and tools to meet
The resulting information overload.
ROLE IN BUSINESS / INDUSTRY
Common uses of research in decision making ;
Product Research – Assessment of suitability of goods
with respect to design and price.
Market Characteristics Research (Qualitative) – Who
uses the product? How product is used, shopping
habits, units in which product is purchased….
Size of Market (Quantitative) – Market potential, total
sales quota sales & advertising efforts etc…
Sales research – Analysis sales record
New product lunching..
ROLE IN BUSINESS / INDUSTRY
Government policies & economics system:
It helps in examining the consequence of changes coming in
Solving Operational & Planning Problems :
Helps in deciding forecasting which helps in efficient
production and investment programmes such as purchasing &
financial plans which effect the Profit and Loss account
Social Relationships :
Helps people earn their livelihood
It helps students to know and write and report various findings.
It may help researchers, in general, to generalize a new
Management Research as follows….
The systematic and objective process of generating
information for aid in making management decisions
The aim is to obtain an in-depth understanding of the
Rising competition has compelled many organizations
to conduct market research.
Organizations may conduct research themselves, by
appointing a research team to work on the same.
APPROACHES MANAGEMENT RESEARCH
Few Management Approaches are as follows….
Pure & Basic Research; Its basic purpose is to enhance
knowledge and understanding.
Objective Research; Frames certain clear objectives and
hypothesis and then tests the validity of established knowledge
with the situation / issue.
Evaluative Research; In this the research, in contrast assess
some aspect of the organizational function by analyzing the
effectiveness of given issue.
Applies Research; This type is more of solving a particular
problem within the organization.
What is Literature Review?
To see what has and has not been investigated.
To develop general explanation for observed variation in
behavior or phenomenon.
To learn how others have defined and measured key
To develop alternative research project.
To discover how a research project is releated to work of