TechEnvince 1.0
Vivek Gunawat
Dharmendra Prajapati
Final Year Undergraduate, EEE, IITG
Authors
Authors

Webmail IDs
[@iitg.ac.in]

Mahesh Kumar

k.mahesh

Vivek Gunawat

v.gunawat

Surendra Swami

s.swami

Dha...
Title
“Analysis of Implementing the Electric
City Bus and its Coordination with the
Grid”
The Idea
• The idea can be divided into two parts:
• Part-1: Using supercapacitors as a power source
• Part-2: Using Energ...
The Concept
• Proposing an eco-friendly Transportation
system where Electric Bus would be the means
of transportation.
• E...
The Bus
• The Electric Vehicle that will be used will have
the following dimensions:
• Capacity : 20-30 Passengers
• Weigh...
Why Supercapacitors ?
•
•
•
•
•
•

They have long life of >15 years
High Charging Rate/ Discharging Rate
Best Efficiency
L...
Why Supercapacitors ?

Image Courtesy : Maxwell Technologies
Supercapacitors

Image Source : Vina Technology Co. Ltd (South Korea), Maxwell Corp
Applications of Super Capacitors

Image Courtesy : Maxwell Technologies
The Capabus

Image Courtesy : MAN Truck & Bus AG, Munich, Germany
The Bus Stop
• There will be in total 30 Bus stops on the
proposed ring road of 47.5 Km
• Each Bus Stop will have VRBs ins...
Ring Road
• As described, the ring road will be in total of 47.5
Km, covering the area of Guwahati Electric
Circle -1 and ...
The Ring Road

Image Courtesy : Vivek Gunawat
Problem Formulation
• There was a need for calculation of different
parameters such as Energy Requirement for the
Bus, and...
Calculation of Energy using NYCC
• The energy required by a Capabus is calculated
by assuming the mass of the bus is 10 to...
Time Graph of NYCC
The figure : Test simulations of low speed urban driving with frequent
stops

Image Courtesy : EPA New ...
Time Graph of NYCC
• Graph shows the speed of the Capabus with
respect to time. The duration of one cycle is 600
seconds, ...
Calculation of Energy using NYCC
• Motion of the bus will be opposed by various
resistive forces which are mentioned below...
Calculation of Energy using NYCC

2. Aerodynamic resistance (Faero)

Faero

1
 Af Cd V 2
2

Where
•  - Density of air
•...
Calculation of Energy using NYCC

3. Acceleration Resistance (Facce)

Facce

dV
 M
dt

Where,
•  Is the Rotational Iner...
Calculation of Energy using NYCC

• Work done by the engine against aerodynamic
force is 0.023kWh
• Work done Against roll...
Power Curve
Specification of VRBs
Variable
Energy
Capabus)

Value
ratings

(For 1.373 KWh

Energy ratings of one stack 90 KWh
of VRB
R...
Dimension of One Supercapacitor

• C = 70F
• Operating Voltage = 2.1 V dc
• 0.1 Ohm, at 1 KHz

• Physical Dimensions:Diame...
Method of Charging between
Charging Station & Capabus
• The charging of EVs is done using the method
of 'Contactless Charg...
Inductive Charging System
Result & Analysis
• This system implementation shows that there is
an improvement of the load profile because of
valley fi...
Curve of Voltage per unit(Vpu)
Conclusion and Future Works
-The Need
• Current Vehicles uses fuels like Petrol, Diesel,
CNG etc..
• The natural resources...
Conclusion and Future Works
• The intention of using VRBs and super
capacitors in this work is that both are energy
effici...
Conclusion and Future Works
• Our next work, the detailed design of the
Capabus and charging station will be studied
along...
References
•

•
•

•
•
•
•
•

•

•

[1] Sekyung Han,student member IEEE, Soohe Han, member,IEEE, and Karou sezaki, member
...
References
•
•

•
•
•
•

•
•
•
•
•

[10] Hao Qian, student Member, IEEE, Jianhui Zhang, JihSheng(Janson) Lai, Fellow, IEEE...
Publication
• Paper was presented at INDICON – 2012,
Kochin, Kerela
• And Published in IEEE Conference Proceedings,
availa...
Thank You

Questions are Welcomed
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TechEnvince - Analysis of Implementing the Electric Bus and its Coordnation with the Grid

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This work was part of Research Work that we did under the Guidance of Dr. Praveen Kumar, Dept of EEE , IIT Guwahati from Feb'12 - May-2012.

The Paper was then Published in IEEE Indiconn 2012, Kochin, Kerela as Conference Proceedings.

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TechEnvince - Analysis of Implementing the Electric Bus and its Coordnation with the Grid

  1. 1. TechEnvince 1.0 Vivek Gunawat Dharmendra Prajapati Final Year Undergraduate, EEE, IITG
  2. 2. Authors Authors Webmail IDs [@iitg.ac.in] Mahesh Kumar k.mahesh Vivek Gunawat v.gunawat Surendra Swami s.swami Dharmendra Prajapati d.prajapati
  3. 3. Title “Analysis of Implementing the Electric City Bus and its Coordination with the Grid”
  4. 4. The Idea • The idea can be divided into two parts: • Part-1: Using supercapacitors as a power source • Part-2: Using Energy Storage System at the bus stops [Eg. VRBs]
  5. 5. The Concept • Proposing an eco-friendly Transportation system where Electric Bus would be the means of transportation. • Each Bus Stop will have Vanadium Redox Batteries as the source for powering up the EVs. • VRB (Vanadium Redox Batteries) are used for dual purpose of supporting the grid and as well as use it to support the transportation System
  6. 6. The Bus • The Electric Vehicle that will be used will have the following dimensions: • Capacity : 20-30 Passengers • Weight = 10,000 Kg • Battery Type: Ultra/Super Capacitors • Li-Ion Battery Pack for Emergencies
  7. 7. Why Supercapacitors ? • • • • • • They have long life of >15 years High Charging Rate/ Discharging Rate Best Efficiency Low System Costs Easy to Maintain Light Weight System
  8. 8. Why Supercapacitors ? Image Courtesy : Maxwell Technologies
  9. 9. Supercapacitors Image Source : Vina Technology Co. Ltd (South Korea), Maxwell Corp
  10. 10. Applications of Super Capacitors Image Courtesy : Maxwell Technologies
  11. 11. The Capabus Image Courtesy : MAN Truck & Bus AG, Munich, Germany
  12. 12. The Bus Stop • There will be in total 30 Bus stops on the proposed ring road of 47.5 Km • Each Bus Stop will have VRBs installed. • VRBs will be charged through 33kV or 11kV connection from the main grid. • Grid Peak Hours are from (0800-1200 hrs.) and (1600-2000hrs.) • Grid off-Peak Hours are from (2200-0700 hrs.)
  13. 13. Ring Road • As described, the ring road will be in total of 47.5 Km, covering the area of Guwahati Electric Circle -1 and Electric Circle -2 which covers 80% of Urban and 80% of Rural areas of Guwahati City Respectively. • The proposed ring road is from Jalukbari Chowk- maligaon – Fancy Bazar – Ullubari – Dispur- Khanapara- Lalmati – LokhraSajusajai- and back.
  14. 14. The Ring Road Image Courtesy : Vivek Gunawat
  15. 15. Problem Formulation • There was a need for calculation of different parameters such as Energy Requirement for the Bus, and then deciding the capacities of VRBs and Super Capacitors accordingly. • These will be discussed in the following slides under: • Calculation of Energy using NYCC • Calculation of Total Energy for the System
  16. 16. Calculation of Energy using NYCC • The energy required by a Capabus is calculated by assuming the mass of the bus is 10 tons (10,000 kg), its length is 10 m, width is 2m and height is 3m. • The Movement of the bus between two stops will depend on the traffic condition of the city. If traffic is high then rapid acceleration and braking is necessary.
  17. 17. Time Graph of NYCC The figure : Test simulations of low speed urban driving with frequent stops Image Courtesy : EPA New York City Cycle
  18. 18. Time Graph of NYCC • Graph shows the speed of the Capabus with respect to time. The duration of one cycle is 600 seconds, distance travelled is 1.90 km and average speed is 11.4 km/hr.
  19. 19. Calculation of Energy using NYCC • Motion of the bus will be opposed by various resistive forces which are mentioned below. (Assumption: road angle (  is zero)). 1. Rolling Resistance Froll  fr gM • Where M = 10,000 Kg [Mass of the Bus] • g = 9.8 m/s2 [Gravitational Acceleration Constant] • fr  0.01 [rolling resistance coefficient]
  20. 20. Calculation of Energy using NYCC 2. Aerodynamic resistance (Faero) Faero 1  Af Cd V 2 2 Where •  - Density of air • Af - Frontal Area of the bus • Cd - Drag Coefficient
  21. 21. Calculation of Energy using NYCC 3. Acceleration Resistance (Facce) Facce dV  M dt Where, •  Is the Rotational Inertia = 1.1. • M is Mass of the Bus. • dV Is the acceleration of the bus. dt
  22. 22. Calculation of Energy using NYCC • Work done by the engine against aerodynamic force is 0.023kWh • Work done Against rolling resistance is 0.223kWh and against acceleration resistance is 1.663kWh. • The total work done by the engine to travel 1.9 km is equal to 1.304kWh [Assuming 40% Kinetic Energy is recovered during braking].
  23. 23. Power Curve
  24. 24. Specification of VRBs Variable Energy Capabus) Value ratings (For 1.373 KWh Energy ratings of one stack 90 KWh of VRB Rated DC Voltage 125V Rated DC current 370 A DC Voltage Range 100-155V
  25. 25. Dimension of One Supercapacitor • C = 70F • Operating Voltage = 2.1 V dc • 0.1 Ohm, at 1 KHz • Physical Dimensions:Diameter - 18mm Length – 50mm
  26. 26. Method of Charging between Charging Station & Capabus • The charging of EVs is done using the method of 'Contactless Charging' or 'Inductive Charging' in which the super-capacitors in the EVs would be charged by the VRBs using this technique. • The Energy here will be transferred through inductive coupling from VRBs at the charging station to supercapacitors inside EVs.
  27. 27. Inductive Charging System
  28. 28. Result & Analysis • This system implementation shows that there is an improvement of the load profile because of valley filling and peak shaving.
  29. 29. Curve of Voltage per unit(Vpu)
  30. 30. Conclusion and Future Works -The Need • Current Vehicles uses fuels like Petrol, Diesel, CNG etc.. • The natural resources are depleting day by day and there is an immediate need to find alternative solutions for powering up the Vehicles which are eco-friendly in nature • Hybrid Vehicles are examples of solutions, but a totally independent solutions are Electric vehicle
  31. 31. Conclusion and Future Works • The intention of using VRBs and super capacitors in this work is that both are energy efficient, has high charge transfer rate and are economically viable as well as environmentally safe. • VRBs will also be used to support the grid during peak hours
  32. 32. Conclusion and Future Works • Our next work, the detailed design of the Capabus and charging station will be studied along with the analysis of the grid support by Vanadium Redox Batteries during peak hours. • The feasibility of the VRBs and the Capabuses will be analysed for the real time implementation on the city of Guwahati, the state capital of Assam
  33. 33. References • • • • • • • • • • [1] Sekyung Han,student member IEEE, Soohe Han, member,IEEE, and Karou sezaki, member IEEE, “Development of an Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Aggregator for Frequency regulation,” in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID,VOL.1, NO.1,JUNE2010. [2] Vuhic, Vukan R. “Urban transit system and technology,” John Wiley & sons, Hoboken, NJ.2010.p.69. [3] A. F. Burke, “Cost-effective combinations of ultra- capacitors and batteries for vehicle applications”, presented at the Second Int. Advanced Battery Conf., Las Vegas, NV, Feb. 4–7, 2002. [4] Super capacitor specifications Cornell Dubilier Inc. www.cde.com/catalogues. [5] IC Illinois, Super capacitors”www.illcap.com”. [6] M. Singh, P Kumar, and I Kar “Implementation of Vehicle to Grid Infrastructure Using Fuzzy Logic Controller",IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, Vol. I, issue 1, pp. 565-575, March 2012. [7] J.Chavan, C. Abbey, M.Chamberland, G.Joos, “Battery Storage System Modelling , Design and Operation for Wind Energy Integration in Power Systems,” CIGRE Canada Conference on Power Systems, Aug-2007. [8] M.H. Li, T. Funaki and T. Hikihara, “A Study of Output Terminal Voltage Modelling for Redox Flow Battery Based on Charge and Discharge Experiments,” Fourth power conversion conference, April,2007, pp.221-225. [9] Bus Specification (pg-16)Tindo Electric Bus and Recharging Infrastructure.pdf.
  34. 34. References • • • • • • • • • • • [10] Hao Qian, student Member, IEEE, Jianhui Zhang, JihSheng(Janson) Lai, Fellow, IEEE, and Wensong Yu, Member, IEEE, “A High Efficiency Grid-Tie Battery Energy Storage System,” in IEEE transactions on power electronics , vol.26, no.3, march 2011. [11] Y.S. Lee and M.W. Cheng, “Intelligent control battery equalization for series connected lithium-ion battery strings,” IEEE Trans. Ind.Electron.,vol.52,no.5,pp. 1297-1307, Oct.2005. [12] [Online] www.technologyreview.com/news/415773/next-stop-ultracapicitor-buses/ [13] P.F. Ribeiro, B.K. Johnson, M.L. Crow, A.Arory, Y.Liu, “Energy Storge Systems for advanced power applications,” peoceedings of the IEEE, vol.89, Issue 12,Dec.2001 pp.1744-1756. [14] Y.Zhong; J. Zhang; G. Li; A. Liu “Research on Energy Efficiency of Supercapacitor Energy storage system,” International conference on power system technology, power Con 2006, Oct.2006,4 pp. [15] A. Payman, S. Piefederici, and F. Meibody-Tabar, “Energy Management in a fuel cell/super capacitor multisource/multi load electrical hybrid system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.24, no. 12, pp.26812691, Dec. 2009. [16] ASEB, Assam State Electricity Board Guwahati, India. Available: http://aseb.in/, 2012. [17] Guwahati Electric Circle-1 and Guwahati electric circle-2 taken from assam power distribution company limited ”http://www.mybijulibill.com/about_GEC1_profile.jsp”. [18] EPA New York City Cycle (NYCC),”www.dieselnet.com”. [19] For the VR Battery specifications, CESI Italy, www.iset.unikassel.de/dispower_static/documents.
  35. 35. Publication • Paper was presented at INDICON – 2012, Kochin, Kerela • And Published in IEEE Conference Proceedings, available on IEEE Xplore
  36. 36. Thank You Questions are Welcomed

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