ASSIGNMENTInterview as datacollection tool BY VIVEK GAUR 11-MBAK-35 2012 ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY(2012)
ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY MALAPPURAM CENTRE, KERALA ACKNOLEDGEMENTI would like to express my special thanks and gratitude to my teachers Mr Hamza sir who gaveme the golden opportunity to do this wonderful assignment on the topic Interview as datacollection tool.I am making this assignment not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge.VIVEK GAUR11-MBAK-35
CONTENTFocus group interviewsOnline focus group interviewsDepth interviewsHome interviewsMall intercept personal interviewsComputer-assisted personal interviewsMail method interviewsElectronic method interviewsTelephone methodsReferences
Focus group interviewsFocus groups are useful in obtaining a particular kind of information that would be difficult toobtain using other methodologies. A focus group typically can be defined as a group of peoplewho possess certain characteristics and provide information of a qualitative nature in a focuseddiscussion.Focus groups generally are composed of six to twelve people. Size is conditioned by two factors:the group must be small enough for everyone to participate, yet large enough to providediversity. This group is special in terms of purpose, size, composition, and procedures.Participants are selected because they have certain characteristics in common that relate to thetopic at hand, such as parents of gang members, and, generally, the participants are unfamiliarwith each other. Typically, more than one focus group should be convened, since a group ofseven to twelve people could be too atypical to offer any general insights on the gang problem.The main purpose of focus group is to gain insight by listening to a group of people from theappropriate target market talk about issues of interest to the researcher.The values of the technique lies in the unexpected findings often obtained from a free-flowinggroup discussionCharacteristics:Group size 8 to 12Group composition homogeneousPhysical setting relaxed, informal atmosphereTime duration 1 to 3 hoursRecording use of audiocassettes and videotapesModerator observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderatorFocus groups offer several advantages: Flexibility allows the moderator to probe for more in-depth analysis and ask participants to elaborate on their responses. Outcomes are quickly knownLimitations include: A skilled moderator is essential Differences between groups can be troublesome to analyse because of the qualitative nature of the data. Groups are difficult to assemble. People must take the time to come to a designated place at a particular time. Participants may be less candid in their responses in front of peers.
Guidelines for Conducting a Focus GroupFocus group discussions are a popular method of obtaining information and opinions. They canprovide insight into issues that cannot be covered through surveys or interviews. Focus groupsare a good method to get people involved in this assessment process by having them provideinput on a topic.The following discussion provides a general overview of the focus group process. It isrecommended that a person with experience with focus groups (preparing the discussion guide,moderating, and preparing the report) be contacted to assist in the process.When preparing for the focus group discussions, there are several considerations: What questionswill be asked? Who will participate? Where will the discussions be held? Who will conduct thesessions? The first order of business is to develop a discussion guide.Develop the Discussion GuideThe discussion guide contains the questions that will be posed to participants during the focusgroup sessions. A limited number of questions should be used for each discussion. Avoidspending too much time on background information and concentrate on the important issues.There are two elements that should be considered when drafting the guide: (1) the informationyou wish to obtain and (2) from whom it will be obtained.When developing the questions, keep in mind that all groups should follow the same discussionformat. Using a general format for each question allows an analyst to make comparisons amongthe responses of various groups.Reserve a Time and PlaceReserving a time and place to conduct the discussion is something that should be done well inadvance of the actual date of the discussion sessions. Finding a location quickly will allow timeto contact potential participants with the necessary logistical information. Try to find the mostconvenient and accessible location for the participants.Provide an Incentive for ParticipationIndividuals taking part in a focus group session should be compensated for their participation.When contacting potential participants, use an incentive to encourage or persuade them to takepart in the discussion session. Various forms of compensation can be used, most commonly acash payment, lunch, or dinner. Snacks and beverages also may be provided. This often eases thetension created by the focus group setting and makes participants more open to discussing thetopic.
Selection of Focus Group ParticipantsIt is necessary to identify each group that will participate in the discussion sessions; for example,parents, community residents, school personnel. This will provide an indication of the number ofdiscussion groups that will be conducted. Time, money, and the number of potential participantsavailable will determine the number of groups that are feasible for each community.A good size for a focus group is between six and twelve participants per session (AmericanStatistical Association, 1997). Size is conditioned by two factors: the group must be smallenough for everyone to participate and large enough to provide diversity of perceptions. Groupparticipants should be selected because of common characteristics that relate to the focus grouptopic. Online focus group interviewsOnline focus group participation is by invitation only the respondent are prerecruited , generallyfrom an online list people who have expressed an interest participating a screening questionnaireis administered online to qualify respondents. Those who qualify are invited to participate infocus group; the receive time, a URL, room name, and password via email id. Generally, four tosix people participate in the online group.Before the focus group begins, participants receive information about that covers things as howto express emotions when typing. Electronic emotion indicator is produced using keyboardcharacters and is standard in their use on the internet.Advantage People all over the country can participate. Geographical constraints are removed. Internet enables the researcher to reach segment that are usually hard to survey: doctors, lawyers professionals ,working mothers, and who lead busy lives and are not interested in focus group. Cost is much lower.Disadvantage Only people that have knowledge how to use a computer can be surveyed online. Moderator have no idea what else the respondents may be doing while participating in group. Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested. Body language and facial expression, and tone of voice can not be obtained.
Depth interviewsIn depth interviews are one of many market research tactics. This tool can be used to obtain deepinsight about a consumer’s attitudes and opinions. It involves a one on one conversation betweenan interviewer and a respondent. The in-depth interview is most often used for exploratoryresearch. It can help in the formulation of a problem definition. In depth interviews are oftenconducted with industry experts or members of the target market. Good qualitative informationcan be obtained from these people about potential for new products/services or new opportunitiesfor communication of marketing messages.An in-depth interview is a form of qualitative research that is most often used before surveys andother quantitative research. It is a loosely structured interview, or conversation, that lasts from 10to 30 minutes, but may go longer. These interviews can be conducted over the phone or face toface. In the interview the interviewer will start with general questions to establish a relationshipbefore continuing with questions searching for deeper insight or information. These interviewshave applications in both business to business and general consumer market research. In thebusiness to business market respondents would include executives, owners, managers, opinionleaders and specialists. These would be considered expert interviews, as these respondents have adeep understanding of the fields they work in..Advantage Uncover the greater depth of insights than focus group Exchange of the information
Respond directly to the respondentsDisadvantage Expensive as skilled interviewers are called. Quality and competency of the result depends on the interviews’ skill. Home interviewsIn personal home interviews, respondents are interviewed face to face in their homes.Interviewer’s task is to contact the respondents, ask the questions, and record the response. Inrecent years, the use of home interviews has declined due to its high cost. Mall-intercept personal interviewsA mall-intercept personal interview is a survey whereby respondents are intercepted inshopping in malls. The process involves stopping the shoppers, screening them forappropriateness, and either administering the survey on the spot or inviting them to a researchfacility located in the mall to complete the interview. While not representative of the populationin general, shopping mall customers do constitute a major share of the market for many products.Advantage More efficient for the respondent to come to the interviewers than for the interviewer to go the respondents. Product oriented approach interview.
Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI)Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) is an interviewing technique similar tocomputer-assisted telephone interviewing, except that the interview takes place in person insteadof over the telephone. Either the respondent or the interviewer sits at a computer terminal andenters the answers. If no interviewer is present, the term Computer-assisted self interviewing(CASI) may be used. Either the respondent or an interviewer sits at a computer terminal and answers a questionnaire using the keyboard or mouse. Colorful screens and on and off-screen stimuli can add to the respondents interest and involvement in the task. This method has been classified as a personal interview technique since an interviewer is usually present to serve as a host and to guide the respondent. This approach is used in shopping malls, preceded by the intercept and screening process. It is also used to conduct business-to-business research at trade shows or conventions.Advantages This form of interview is substantially cheaper when a large number of respondents is required, because There is no need to recruit or pay interviewers. The program can be placed on a web site, potentially attracting a world-wide audienceDisadvantage He survey is likely to attract only respondents who are "computer savvy", thus introducing potential bias to the survey. The survey can miss feedback, provide clarification/quality control that a personal interviewer could provide (ex. lots of respondents think the question asks one thing, when it actually asks another) Mail method interviewsIn mail interviews questionnaire are mailed to preselected potential respondent. A typical mailinterview package consists of the outgoing envelope, cover letter, questionnaire, return envelope,and possibly an incentive. The respondent complete and return the questionnaires. There is noverbal interaction between researcher and respondent. However, before data collection canbegins, the respondents needs to be identified. Therefore, an initial task is to be obtaining a validmailing list. Mailing list can be compiled from telephone directories, customer association andany other publication list of any company.
Electronic method interviewsE-mail interviewsTo conduct email an e-mail interview, a list of e-mail address is obtained. The survey is writtenwith in the body of the e-mail message. The e-mails are sent over the internet. E-mail surveysuse pure text to represent questionnaire and can be received and respondent to by anyone with ane-mail address, Whether or not they have access to the web. Telephone methodsTraditional telephone interviewsTraditional telephonic interviews involve phoning a sample of respondents and asking them aseries of questions. The interviewer uses a paper questionnaire and records the responses withpencil. Advances in the telecommunication and technology have made national wide telephoneinterviewing from the central location practical. Consequently, the use of telephone interviewinghas decreased in recent years.Computer – Assisted Telephone interviewingComputer-Assisted Telephone interviewing from a central location is now more popular than thetraditional telephonic method. CATI uses a computerized questionnaire administered to therespondents over the telephone. A computerized questionnaire may be generated by usingmainframe computer, a microcomputer, or personal computer. The interviewer sits in front ofcomputer terminal and wear a mini –headset the computer replace a paper and pencilquestionnaire and mini-head set substitute the telephone. Upon command, the computer dials thetelephone number to be called. When contact is made, the interviewer reads the question posed
on the computer screen and records the respondents answer directly in to the memory ofcomputer.The computer systematically guides the interviewer. Only one question at a time appears on thescreen.The computer checks the response for appropriateness and consistency.Advantage Smoothly function Data quality enhance Time is reduced
ReferencesMarket research by Naresh MalhotraResearch methodology by C.R KothariMajudar R., marketing researchChurchil,G.A marketing researchOxford dictionaryMarketing91.comMba tutorial.com