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MANAGING ORGANIZATIONS            Session 12: Organization Learning & Knowledge Management                                ...
2PERSPECTIVES ON ORGANIZATION LEARNING    Why is learning important for organizations?         What impact is it having ...
ORGANIZATIONS LEARN TO DEAL WITH CHANGE,                                                            3TO IMPROVE AND TO COM...
4LEARNING LEADS TO CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR                      Organization learning leads to improvement in performance     ...
5ORGANIZATIONS LEARN IN VARIOUS WAYS    Systematic problem solving         Deming’s Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA)         Hy...
6THREE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING 1   A supportive learning environment 2   Concrete learning processes & ...
7THREE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING 1   A supportive learning environment                                   ...
8THREE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING 1   A supportive learning environment                                   ...
9THREE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING 1   A supportive learning environment                                   ...
10What exactly is knowledge?What is its relationship to learning?How does one manage knowledge, as opposed to managingdata...
11FIRST INFLECTION POINT IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Organizations realize the need to customize knowledge management efforts ...
12CODIFICATION VERSUS PERSONALIZATION Codifying knowledge in documents            Making people to people connections and ...
KM IN STRATEGY CONSULTING FIRMS                                                                    13    Codification : An...
THREE KEY COMPONENTS OF WIPRO’S KM SYSTEM                                                                14 1             ...
WIPRO ‘LET A THOUSAND FLOWERS BLOOM’                                                 15                                   ...
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Man org session 12_org learning_3rd august 2012

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Man org session 12_org learning_3rd august 2012

  1. 1. MANAGING ORGANIZATIONS Session 12: Organization Learning & Knowledge Management Sourav MukherjiPGP 2012-14 Section C & E Associate Professor of Organization & StrategyTerm 1:June-September 2012 Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, India
  2. 2. 2PERSPECTIVES ON ORGANIZATION LEARNING  Why is learning important for organizations?  What impact is it having on organization structure and processes?  When and how does an organization learn?  How do you know that learning has happened?  Do organizations learn or do individuals in organizations learn? How is organizational learning different from individuals learning in organizations?  How can the process of organization learning be managed?  How is learning related to knowledge, intellectual property? © S Mukherji
  3. 3. ORGANIZATIONS LEARN TO DEAL WITH CHANGE, 3TO IMPROVE AND TO COMPETE BETTER Need for learning has induced structural changes  Dynamic business conditions create problems of hardwiring work processes into formal structure and hierarchy  Uncertainty has made it difficult to define „one-best-way‟ of doing things  Locus of decision making is coalescing with locus of information acquisition and processing From traditional hierarchies… …to networked organizations  Organizations are using semi-autonomous temporary structures such as teams and task forces to solve problems  Knowledge intensive organizations prefer to have flatter organizations with less hierarchy  Onus of learning and problem solving has now shifted to the individual employees from the senior management © S Mukherji
  4. 4. 4LEARNING LEADS TO CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR Organization learning leads to improvement in performance Cognitive change links learning to behavioral change New Learning is linked to the concept of mental models. In the organization context, STIMULUS this is referred to as organization code, theory of business and some aspects of organization culture Old Organizations learn by changing their Similar Different collective business models BEHAVIOUR Converting individual learning into organization Which of the quadrants learning is one of the key challenges above represents of building a learning organization learning? © S Mukherji
  5. 5. 5ORGANIZATIONS LEARN IN VARIOUS WAYS  Systematic problem solving  Deming’s Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA)  Hypothesis generation, testing and validation  Error detection and correction / single loop and double loop learning  Experimentation  Exploration versus exploitation tradeoffs  Incremental and disruptive innovations  Learning from experience  Organization memory  Case studies, After Action Reviews  Learning from success or failures  Learning from others  Transfer of best practices  Acquisitions, grafting © S Mukherji
  6. 6. 6THREE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING 1 A supportive learning environment 2 Concrete learning processes & practices 3 Leadership that reinforces learning Source: “Is Yours a Learning Organization?” D A Garvin, A C Edmondson & F Gino, Harvard Business Review, March 2008 © S Mukherji
  7. 7. 7THREE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING 1 A supportive learning environment Psychological safety Appreciation of differences 2 Concrete learning processes & practices Openness to new ideas Time for reflection 3 Leadership that reinforces learning Source: “Is Yours a Learning Organization?” D A Garvin, A C Edmondson & F Gino, Harvard Business Review, March 2008 © S Mukherji
  8. 8. 8THREE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING 1 A supportive learning environment Leaders actively question & listen to employees Leaders prompt dialogue & 2 Concrete learning processes & practices debate Leaders entertain alternate 3 Leadership that reinforces learning point of views Leaders encourage spending time on problem identification & reflection Source: “Is Yours a Learning Organization?” D A Garvin, A C Edmondson & F Gino, Harvard Business Review, March 2008 © S Mukherji
  9. 9. 9THREE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING 1 A supportive learning environment Generation of knowledge Collection of information 2 Concrete learning processes & practices Transfer of information Application of knowledge 3 Leadership that reinforces learning This is the domain of organization‟s knowledge management practices Source: “Is Yours a Learning Organization?” D A Garvin, A C Edmondson & F Gino, Harvard Business Review, March 2008 © S Mukherji
  10. 10. 10What exactly is knowledge?What is its relationship to learning?How does one manage knowledge, as opposed to managingdata or information? © S Mukherji
  11. 11. 11FIRST INFLECTION POINT IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Organizations realize the need to customize knowledge management efforts based on nature of knowledge Significant part of knowledge is not easily amenable to articulation or documentation. Such knowledge is • complex, intangible and tacit • architectural and systemic • organizational specific • Less amenable to imitation • contextually embedded or spillover • causally ambiguous • Sustainable source of • private and path dependent competitive advantage • abstract and conceptual • Difficult to „manage‟ or „measure‟ • intuitive, expertise driven • holistic & evolutionary Such knowledge can only be shared or recreated by means of people-to-people or social interactions © S Mukherji
  12. 12. 12CODIFICATION VERSUS PERSONALIZATION Codifying knowledge in documents Making people to people connections and databases to gain from reuse for synthesis of expertise • IT based system for codification • Facilitative conditions for sharing of storage, dissemination and reuse knowledge that is tacit , complex of explicit knowledge and deeply rooted in context • Techniques for storage, classification • IT used for creating collaborative and retrieval platforms, social networks • Repeated application of standardized • Suitable in problem solving environments knowledge in industries where it is demanding generation of new easy to define „right knowledge‟ insights • Reward employees for contributing to • Reward employees for directly sharing and usage from the knowledge knowledge with one another repository Some organizations choose one over the other – others view them as evolutionary stages © S Mukherji
  13. 13. KM IN STRATEGY CONSULTING FIRMS 13 Codification : Anderson , E&Y Personalization : McKinsey, Bain High quality, reliable, fast IT Creative analytically rigorous implementation by reusing Competitive advice on high level strategic codified knowledge Strategy problemsReuse economics: Expert economics:- Invest once, reuse many times Economic - Customized solutions to novel problems- High ratio of associates / partners - Small teams, low associate/partner ratio Model- Large teams, maximize revenues - High profit margin People to documents: People to people: IT based KM system for codification KM - Develop networks for linking people storage, dissemination and reuse Strategy - Facilitative platforms for collaboration - Hire freshers suited to reuse of -Hire MBA‟s who like problem solving knowledge and implementation and have high tolerance for ambiguity - Train people in groups through -train people through one-to-one Human computer based distance learning mentoring - Reward people for using and Resources -reward people for directly sharing contributing to database knowledge with one another © S Mukherji
  14. 14. THREE KEY COMPONENTS OF WIPRO’S KM SYSTEM 14 1 2 3 Document repository Experts‟ Directory Collaborative Platforms Repository of all documents Domain specialists declare Creation of user groups having prepared by employees based themselves as experts. specific interest on their experience of solving Database maintains their problems profiles Any employee can join the discussion, even though they Historically divided between Queries are posted at the are not part of the user group documents related to system, or targeted specifically technology and those related to for an expert System maintains log of sales and marketing discussions for future System notes whether the references Collaterals, proposals, letter of expert has been able to solve references, updated information the problem. Measures level of Access privileges needed to make proposals and satisfaction of users presentations Reduce re-work, Make people to people Communities of increase efficiency connections practice © S Mukherji
  15. 15. WIPRO ‘LET A THOUSAND FLOWERS BLOOM’ 15 Knowledge networks / One to many Emails, Collaborative platforms Key issues encountered newsletters discussion logs data mining • Open access versus restricted access Document repository • Maintaining quality and credibility Expert locator / One to one Yellow pages • Incentives People to document People to people Over a period of time, people- to- people connection systems became more popular © S Mukherji

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