SCOOTEROER30c Sickle Cell in Schools Literature Review

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Lecture series on research into the educational experiences of young people with sickle cell disease. A narrated version is available on the SCOOTER project website. http://www.sicklecellanaemia.org/OER/resources/scooter30-35/scooter30.html

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  • Telfair, J. (1994) Factors in the long-term adjustment of children and adolescents with sickle cell disease: conceptualizations and review of the literature, in: KB. Nash. (Ed) Psychosocial aspects of sickle cell disease (New York, The Haworth Press, 69-96.Noll, R.B., Ris, M.D., Davies, W.H., Bukowski, W.M., & Koontz, K. (1992) Social interactions between children with cancer or sickle cell disease and their peers: teacher ratings, Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics, 13, 187-192.Anionwu, E.N. (1982) Sickle cell disorders and the school child. Health Visitor, 65 (4), 120-122.Katz, M.L., Smith-Whitley, K., Ruzek, S.B. & Ohene-Frempong, K. (2002) Knowledge of stroke risk, signs of stroke, and the need for stroke education among children with sickle cell disease and their caregivers, Ethnicity and Health, 7 (2), 115-123.Koontz, K., Short, A.D., Kalinyak, K., & Noll, R.B. (2004) A randomized controlled pilot trial of a school intervention for children with sickle cell anaemia, Journal of Paediatric Psychology,29 (1), 7-17.Laurence, B., Reid, B.C., & Katz, R.V. (2002) Sickle cell anaemia and dental caries: a literature review and pilot study,Special Care in Dentistry, 22 (2), 70-4.Savundra, P.A. (1996) Audio-vestibular dysfunction in the sickle cell syndromes. Journal of Audiological Medicine, 5 (3), 167-173. National Institutes of Health (2002) The Management of sickle cell disease (Bethesda, MD. Heart, Lung and Blood Institutes, Division of Blood Diseases and Resources NIH Publication 02-2117, 4th Edition).
  • Black, J. & Laws, S. (1986) Living with sickle cell disease (London, Sickle Cell Society).Nettles, A.L. (1994) Scholastic performance of children with sickle cell disease, in: KB. Nash (Ed) Psychosocial aspects of sickle cell disease (New York, The Haworth Press, 123-140).Shapiro, B.S., Dinges, D.F., Orne, E.C., et al. (1995) Home management of sickle cell-related pain in children and adolescents: natural history and impact on school attendance, Pain, 61, 139-144.Zeuner, D., Ades, A.E., Karnon, J., Brown, J., Dezateux, C., & Anionwu, E.N. (1999) Antenatal and neonatal haemoglobinopathy screening in the UK: review and economic analysis, Health Technology Assessment, 3 (11).Gil, K.M., Porter, L., Ready, J., Workman, E., Sedway, J., & Anthony, K.K. (2000) Pain in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease: an analysis of daily pain diaries, Children’s Health Care, 29 (4), 225-41.Fuggle, P., Shand, P.A.X., Gill, L.J., & Davies, S.C. (1996) Pain, quality of life and coping in sickle cell disease, Archives of Disease in Childhood, 75, 199–203.Atkin, K. & Ahmad, W.I.U. (2001) Living a 'normal' life: young people coping with thalassaemia major or sickle cell disorder, Social Science and Medicine,53 (5), 615-626.Noll, R.B., Ris, M.D., Davies, W.H., Bukowski, W.M., & Koontz, K. (1992) Social interactions between children with cancer or sickle cell disease and their peers: teacher ratings, Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics, 13, 187-192. Noll, R.B., Vannatta, K., Koontz, K., Kalinyak, K., Bukowski, W.M. & Davies, W.H. (1996) Peer relationships and emotional well-being of youngsters with sickle cell disease, Child Development, 67, 423-436.Koontz, K., Short, A.D., Kalinyak, K., & Noll, R.B. (2004) A randomized controlled pilot trial of a school intervention for children with sickle cell anaemia, Journal of Paediatric Psychology,29 (1), 7-17.
  • SCOOTEROER30c Sickle Cell in Schools Literature Review

    1. 1. The Educational Experiences of Young People with Sickle Cell Disease: a commentary on the existing literature<br />Simon Dyson<br />Sickle Cell and Education<br />Lecture 1 of 6<br />
    2. 2. Objectives<br />To review literature on sickle cell in education<br />To outline the main conceptual areas linking the issues of young people with sickle cell and education<br />To provide a rationale for an empirical programme of research on sickle cell and education.<br />
    3. 3. Eight Areas of Concern<br />Medical Care of Children with SCD in School <br />School Experience, School Attendance and Sickle Cell <br />Preventive Measures and Sickle Cell <br />Personal, Social and Health Education <br />Sickle Cell and the School Curriculum <br />Educational Policy and Sickle Cell <br />Sickle Cell in the Context of Racist Discourses<br />Sickle Cell in the Context of Disabling Discourses<br />
    4. 4. Medical Care of Children with SCD in School<br />Psychological well-being (Telfair,1994)<br />Teacher confidence in dealing with SCD (Noll et al, 1992) <br />Enuresis (Anionwu, 1982); <br />Identifying and responding to sickle cell crises and strokes (Katz et al, 2002; Koontz et al, 2004) <br />School dental, hearing and visual screening checks (Laurence et al, 2002; Savundra, 1996; National Institutes of Health, 2002).<br />
    5. 5. School Experience, School Attendance and Sickle Cell<br />Children with SCD take time off school for preventive health measures, medical monitoring, and clinical treatment (Black and Laws, 1986; Nettles, 1994; Shapiro et al, 1995; Zeuner et al, 1999; Gil et al, 2000); <br />Report a disappointment with the lack of educational support from teachers (Fuggle et al, 1996); <br />Feel that teachers write off their chances of academic success (Atkin and Ahmad, 2001). <br />Teachers of children with SCD assume them to be poorly motivated, to come from an unstable family, to have drug problems or even to be HIV positive (Noll et al 1992, 1996). <br />Education of teachers, school peers and parents reduces school absences in children with SCD (Koontz et al, 2004). <br />
    6. 6. Preventive Measures and Sickle Cell<br />Prevention of infections<br />Avoidance of cold or damp conditions<br />Adequate hydration and toilet breaks<br />Taking moderate but avoiding strenuous exertion<br />Other factors (e.g. science lab chairs)<br />
    7. 7. Personal, Social and Health Education<br />Confusion between trait and SCD has led both to discrimination (Stamatoyannopoulos, 1974; Bowman, 1977; Draper, 1991, Wilkie, 1993) <br />Education campaigns inadvertently increasing stigma (Wailoo, 2001). <br />Class discussions around reproductive rights, especially termination within PHSE<br />
    8. 8. Sickle Cell and the School Curriculum<br />SCD can be incorporated into the curriculum<br />Maths (probability)<br />Biology (genetics)<br />Geography and history (the spread of the sickle cell gene with slavery) <br />Arts <br />A cross-curricula approach has been proposed by an education authority (ILEA, 1989). <br />
    9. 9. Educational Policy and Sickle Cell <br />The earliest educational policy (ILEA, 1989) <br />Included advice on preventative measures; implications for pastoral work; implications for the personal and social education curriculum; implications for a cross-curricula approach to education; and a list of resources. <br />With the growth in the local management of schools, it is not known to what extent current authorities have developed comparable policies. <br />
    10. 10. Sickle Cell in the Context of Racist Discourses<br />Alleged lack of educational commitment on the part of the student and/or their carers (Barbarin, 1994)<br />Stereotypes about sexuality (Collins, 2001), <br />Stereotypes of drug use (Teixiera, 2003), <br />Stereotypes of laziness (Jones and Shorter-Gooden, 2003; Figueroa, 2000), <br />Stereotypes of athleticism (Cashmore, 2000; Fleming, 2001). <br />
    11. 11. Sickle Cell in the Context of Disabling Discourses<br />People with SCD dislike being defined by their condition: called “sicklers”<br />People living with SCD inappropriately blamed for school absences, poor school performance failure to complete homework – labelled as “maladaptive” (Barbarin, 1994)<br />People living with SCD vulnerable to disabling views of the body: yellow eyes, delayed development<br />Limits to social model of disability. Emphasis on independence as opposed to control in family care. For young black people family may be refuge and learning resource against racism.<br />
    12. 12. Conclusion<br />A research programme on experience of young people with sickle cell timely because:<br />Most research US not UK<br />Most research clinical not social<br />SCD in schools: chronic illness and racialization<br />Potential application of a social model of disability<br />
    13. 13. Reference<br />Dyson, SM; Atkin, K; Culley, LA and Dyson, SE (2007) The educational experiences of young people with sickle cell disorder: a commentary on existing literature. Disability and Society 22 (6): 581-594. [ISSN: 0968-7599] http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590701560196<br />
    14. 14. Acknowledgments<br />This study was funded by the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council, Grant RES-000-23-1486<br />
    15. 15. Further Information<br />For further information on this research programme, please visit:<br />http://www.sicklecelleducation.com<br />End of presentation<br />

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