he paper is built on the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature which enable to describe the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship and its initiatives. Literature analysis was conducted and based on results a theoretical framework was proposed for further research. The conceptual model is build based on input-process-output logic model. Main variables based on theoretical analysis were identified. Inputs are contextual factors, organizational and individual; processes are activities based on entrepreneurship approach, such as opportunities recognition, formation and exploitation; and outputs that arise from inputs and processes are benefits created by activities, such as social value and possibilities for replication of social entrepreneurship initiatives.
BrainCo Inc gaining £15 million from Chinese investors.
Open educators as social entrepreneurs
Open educators as social entrepreneurs?
Vivien Rolfe @VivienRolfe vivrolfe.com
ISSE Conference Leicester
16-17 Nov 2017
University of the West of England
De Montfort University
University of Nottingham
Giulia Forsythe, Google Images, CC BY (varying terms)
Open educational resources (OERs)
Open education = 20+ year old
Open Education@De Montfort University and UWE
HEFCE Funding 2009 – 2012, Hewlett Foundation 2017
2008 VAL - Virtual Analytical Laboratory – lab skills
2010 SCOOTER – sickle cell health & medical resources
(2010 TIGER – Inter-professional learning – Jacqui Williams)
2012 MOER - midwifery
2012 Biology Courses – bioscience, forensics etc
2017 UK Open Textbooks – UWE, Open University, WONKHE.com
Open education movement
• Ill-defined – open education, open practice,
• Lack of unified goals
• The potential to drive education innovation and digital
transformation – but is it?
• Questionable sustainability beyond projects
• Abundance of advocates, great practice and activity
Sekliuckiene & Kisielius2015
• A framework based on the interception of social
responsibility and entrepreneurship literature
and applied to an ‘input-process-output’ model.
• “Social enterprises and social entrepreneurs
create innovative initiatives and solutions to
unsolved social problems, putting social value
creation at the heart of their mission in order to
create benefit to different individuals,
‘communities’ and other groups”.
“An open society requires open access to
knowledge for all individuals at any stage
of life” (Resnick 1973)
Education as a fundamental human right
lies at the heart of UNESCO’s mission and
is enshrined in the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights (1948)
Personalities (people and passion)
“It is necessary to highlight the social
entrepreneur - the importance of his
personality; his understanding of the
social problem, activities organisation;
his ability to solve problems in a
sustainable approach, to use different
sources of information and under
certain environmental conditions to
start social entrepreneurship
initiative”. (Sekliuckiene & Kisielius
“Part of the problem was you
scedaddled – the champion –
I’m not blaming you, but the
champion effectively had
gone”. (Rolfe 2015).
It can be done by one or two
researchers and does not
require a team - It relies on
existing open data,
information and tools – It is
often disseminated via blogs
and social media. (Weller 2013
– guerrilla researchers).
Big OER and little OER
Networks of open teaching to
Government / foundation funding
#Hewlett #Gates #GoOpen (US
Government) #EU #UNESCO
Policy and advocacy leadership
Strategic policy e.g. #REF2020
open access / funding bodies
supporting open data sharing
e.g. Leicester Royal
Poland, Digital eSchools Programme and legislation 2012
Africa, Siyavula open education project
Free for students (alternative publishing model)
Can be adapted and recontextualised for learners (by learners)
Value & societal impact
e.g. open textbooks
Value & societal impact
Equity in education access and
opportunities afforded e.g.
free open textbooks for students,
Equity in access to knowledge
(e.g. sharing of an out of
publication textbook) Sharing to support
(e.g. Simon Dyson’s
Guide to school policy –
Open science / open data –
transparency and access
Scalability & sustainability
Open-source, low cost solutions
e.g. WordPress blogs for
curation, growth and distribution of
content (Rolfe 2016).
Clear project vision and
strategic goals e.g. of
Jisc-led HEFCE Open Educational
resource programme (2009 – 2012).
£12.5 million investment; 25 Higher
Education Academy projects +
65 institution projects.
Vulnerable to national / local policy change.
Many projects not sustainable beyond
funding and lost institutional buy-in.
Yet – the community thrives!
UK students with big debts
17 36 47 115 215
£712 £1,524 £1,956 £4,834 £9,026
Travel Food Rent TOTAL
Work required (based on minimum wage) to
afford university books and costs (£5.60 for a
18-20 year old)
Hours work Days work
Nearly 50% of
students graduating in
2015 moved back
with soup kitchens
Data: 5 core biomedical science textbooks; Other data: NUS 2010.
David Kernohan (2017) WONKHE.com
One in which the poorest (UK) students will accrue the
largest debt – estimated at £57,000.
“Our goal with the first 20,000 devices, each of
which will be used by multiple students in
schools, is to capture data from 1.2 million
One where we are under surveillance not thinking at all about
the ethical use of student data.
One where we need
students and staff equipped
with the digital skills to critique
and make informed choices
about social media.
One with equity in research funding, publication and access to knowledge.
Eduardo Graells Garrido 2015
Our ‘on-campus’ structural and organisational problems
just translate ‘on-line’.
• Application of the social entrepreneurship framework
is useful to appraise and re-imagine open education.
• Open thinking and scholarship are much needed today
to help universities contribute to core missions of
quality teaching and benefits to society and to make a
better society. But there are many conflicting interests.
• The commitment of outstanding teachers needs to be
matched with commitment by the institutions:
“It has changed my practice in terms of whenever I’m doing
anything I think how could this be an OER or how could it
supplement what I’m doing” (DMU teacher)
• The social entrepreneur and open educator
have shared values and talents, and could
work more closely for mutual benefit.
DMU Art student 2012
• Bornstein, D. and Davis, S., 2010. Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to
Know? Teaching Notes. Oxford University Press.
• Eduardo Graells Garrido 2015. https://www.slideshare.net/carnby/biased-
• Mackness J (2017). OpenEd Mooc Week 4 – open teaching.
• Rolfe V (2015). Open education: sustainability versus vulnerability. The Open
Education Conference (#opened15), Vancouver 18-20 November 2015. Click for
• Rolfe, V. (2016). Web Strategies for the Curation and Discovery of Open
Educational Resources. Open Praxis, 8(4), 297-312.
• Sekliuckiene, J. and Kisielius, E., 2015. Development of social entrepreneurship
initiatives: a theoretical framework. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 213,
• Shu-Hsiang, C., Jaitip, N. and Ana, D.J., 2015. From vision to action–a strategic
planning process model for open educational resources. Procedia-Social and
Behavioral Sciences, 174, pp.3707-3714.
• Weller 2013. The art of guerrilla research.