Transplanting Vines  The shift of 500 Chardonnay vines within a vineyard.
Introduction <ul><li>This is a look at a unique problem in a vineyard in Hawke’s Bay.  Approximately 500 Chardonnay vines ...
Site Information and History <ul><li>Location:  Cottingham Estate </li></ul><ul><li>The Triangle,  </li></ul><ul><li>Hawke...
Site information and history 2 <ul><li>The 2002 plantings were purchased from a now defunct nursery and grafter from Gisbo...
Decision time <ul><li>In the autumn of 2008 it was decided to transplant the  Chardonnay vines to their own section of the...
Justify the decision <ul><li>First and foremost, it was one alternative to fixing the problem of having to continuously cu...
Transplanting Vines <ul><li>Information on this specific viticulture topic is very limited as it is not a procedure that i...
Problems with transplanting vines <ul><li>Negative possibility – If any of these vines had virus and it had been contained...
Problems with transplanting vines 2 <ul><li>First, a new vineyard had to be established.  That meant, new poles dug in, ne...
Problems with transplanting vines 3 <ul><li>Vines were be dug up 4 to 6 at a time, in what was found to be a gravely soil....
Problems with transplanting vines 4 <ul><li>Though the vines were in dormancy, they will still go through some shock.  To ...
More issues with transplanting <ul><li>In the Malbec vineyard there were now many gaps that need to be replanted.  Not an ...
Other issues <ul><li>Because root systems were cut back, water stress is a large possibility for the vines.  Proper irriga...
Other issues continued… <ul><li>In hindsight this was essential in the transplanting of the vineyard.  Because these were ...
Heading into autumn <ul><li>After harvest as autumn settles in, the source/sink relationship changes.  </li></ul><ul><li>T...
But the problems have only just begun!!! <ul><li>Because vines shoots and fruit had to be cut out in previous seasons, the...
New pruning issues <ul><li>It was decided to let the vines grow out and establish themselves for the 2008-2009 season.  Th...
Ideal pruning situation... <ul><li>This is an ideal pruning situation where a pre-pruner has come in and taken out the lon...
Not an ideal pruning situation  <ul><li>Heavy, out of control growth crowded to the interior of the vine.  </li></ul><ul><...
Not an ideal pruning situation 2 <ul><li>This was quite typical of the situation in the winter of 2009.  </li></ul><ul><li...
How to approach this pruning nightmare. <ul><li>Basically we had to take each vine very specifically.  That is true for al...
Clean it up <ul><li>This is an after shot of the previous slide’s picture.  Here you see were able to lay down two new can...
Small, but important tasks… <ul><li>One very critical step in the winter pruning process was the use of backseal.  There w...
Early spring ideals <ul><li>Here we see a pretty balanced vine in early spring.  Shoots are growing fairly even and upward...
Early spring ideals 2 <ul><li>Here we see one of the Chardonnay vines from mid spring 2009.  Not as pretty as the previous...
The future… <ul><li>Right now the vines are being thinned because the growth is so tight and heavy this time of year.  </l...
Success? <ul><li>No one on the team is ready call the operation a success at this point.  But once we harvest a good crop ...
Notes: <ul><li>All pictures taken at Cottingham Estate by Charlotte Anderson and Daniel Brennan </li></ul><ul><li>A great ...
References <ul><li>Raven, P.H., Evert, F., Eichhorn, S. (2005).  Biology of Plants  (7 th  ed.).  USA: WH Freeman and Comp...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Transplanting Vines

2,122 views

Published on

A short presentation on transplanting approximately 500 Chardonnay vines in Hawke's Bay, New Zealand

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Transplanting Vines

  1. 1. Transplanting Vines The shift of 500 Chardonnay vines within a vineyard.
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>This is a look at a unique problem in a vineyard in Hawke’s Bay. Approximately 500 Chardonnay vines had been inter-planted within approximately 3700 Malbec vines. </li></ul><ul><li>In the winter of 2008 it had been decided by the vineyard owners to transplant the Chardonnay vines to a new section of the vineyard and plant new Malbec vines in their place. </li></ul><ul><li>This provided an opportunity to study the effects of such a decision and a unique look at how to recover these vines. </li></ul><ul><li>So far the results have been mostly positive, but with a great deal of labor. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Site Information and History <ul><li>Location: Cottingham Estate </li></ul><ul><li>The Triangle, </li></ul><ul><li>Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Plantings 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>- 4 hectares of Merlot </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 hectares of Malbec </li></ul><ul><li>Plantings 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>- 4 hectares of Merlot </li></ul><ul><li>Plantings 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 hectares of Merlot </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 hectares of Malbec </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanted 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>- app. ¼ of hectare Chardonnay </li></ul><ul><li>Developed as a contract vineyard for Delegat’s </li></ul>
  4. 4. Site information and history 2 <ul><li>The 2002 plantings were purchased from a now defunct nursery and grafter from Gisborne. The story was that there was a disgruntled employee at the nursery and he ‘peppered’ the Malbec with Chardonnay vines. </li></ul><ul><li>The discovery was not made until 2005 when the first fruit came off of the vines. Part of this was due to viticulture inexperience, but who could have known such a thing would happen. Without serious consideration or laboratory analyzation, even the most experienced viticulturist may not have discovered the issue till the 2 nd year. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Decision time <ul><li>In the autumn of 2008 it was decided to transplant the Chardonnay vines to their own section of the vineyard, once the vines went into dormancy. </li></ul><ul><li>There are certainly positives and negatives to this decision and each depend solely on the type of vineyard, financial situation, status of disease, and resources available. </li></ul><ul><li>Many times these are the factors driving the decisions in the vineyard. It never is purely a ‘best case scenario’. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Justify the decision <ul><li>First and foremost, it was one alternative to fixing the problem of having to continuously cut out and drop the Chardonnay fruit before the Malbec harvest. Each season this proved very laborious task. </li></ul><ul><li>Owners of the vineyard liked the idea of having a bit of Chardonnay to make for themselves in future years. </li></ul><ul><li>Saw no reason to throw away healthy vines. </li></ul><ul><li>Grafting the vines were not an option Chardonnay clones and root stocks were unknown. In fact, it’s not even certain that these vines were all Chardonnay. So there was no way to know if these root stocks suited the soil types or if they would work well with grafted Malbec </li></ul><ul><li>To find out these rootstocks would be far too laborious and expensive. So the decision to remove and replant with proper Malbec on the correct rootstocks. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Transplanting Vines <ul><li>Information on this specific viticulture topic is very limited as it is not a procedure that is recommended. This was a very unique circumstance in that healthy vines were coming out from random spots throughout the block. </li></ul><ul><li>In most any situation, transplanting vines is not an option as you would either be pulling out the vines because of disease or grafting onto the vines to change clones or varietals. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Problems with transplanting vines <ul><li>Negative possibility – If any of these vines had virus and it had been contained to that block it could cause an issue. The vines were being transplanted to part of the vineyard to the south which would take up the strong southerly winds and increase infection rate of the entire vineyard. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf roll is definitely in the vineyard, but a percentage of infection is not known. If the incidence reaches 20% the entire vineyard is basically lost to disease (Thompson, 2009) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Problems with transplanting vines 2 <ul><li>First, a new vineyard had to be established. That meant, new poles dug in, new wires strung, and deep holes dug on the days of the transplant. </li></ul><ul><li>This new vineyard had to be placed not only in an unused spot, but also in a spot where space wouldn’t be wasted with a small amount of rows of Chardonnay. So it was placed at the end of the 2004 planted Merlot, near the trees where greater expansion would not occur. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problems with transplanting vines 3 <ul><li>Vines were be dug up 4 to 6 at a time, in what was found to be a gravely soil. Then carted on a quad (pictured) to the other end of the vineyard where there was room for replanting. There, a fresh hole had been dug, amongst newly established poles and wire systems. This was to allow for quick planting and minimal time outside of the ground where roots could be exposed to pathogens. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Problems with transplanting vines 4 <ul><li>Though the vines were in dormancy, they will still go through some shock. To help aid this and help in the coming seasons, the entire trellis systems were cut back (shown in further slides) and cordons cut off at shoulders of the crown to compensate for the root systems having to be cut down to maximum of 50 cm in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the root systems had to be cut back, nutrient uptake would be grossly effected in coming seasons. To help compensate for this, nutrient pills were placed in every hole with the replanted vines and saturated with a bucket of water. </li></ul>
  12. 12. More issues with transplanting <ul><li>In the Malbec vineyard there were now many gaps that need to be replanted. Not an uncommon situation to have gaps in a vineyard, especially when dealing with disease, but nearly 500 in app. 3700 is a large percentage. </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause large variability in the vineyard with less competition of so many vines. Added pressure from the contractor in financially difficult times if ripening is not consistent. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other issues <ul><li>Because root systems were cut back, water stress is a large possibility for the vines. Proper irrigation must be installed immediately in the new vineyard (seen in picture). </li></ul><ul><li>During water stress abscisic acid will be produced by roots which can cause the growth to slow down significantly (Taiz, L & Zeiger, E, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Another solution to help combat this was to plant in a more ‘water retaining’ soil. This picture was taken this spring between two of the transplanted Chardonnay vines. It was a hole dug by an EIT Soil Science student. It clearly shows a clay and silt soil that is holding water very well. And though hardly any roots have grown into this region between two vines, it is easy to see that access to water is not an issue. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other issues continued… <ul><li>In hindsight this was essential in the transplanting of the vineyard. Because these were vines with fully grown trunks and partial cordons which would produce vigorous shoot in the coming season, water and nutrient holding soils were essential. It’s arguable that it is even more important than in newly planted baby vines because the vine is not as large. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, these soils will be suitable for the future as Chardonnay is able to hand these vigorous soils. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Heading into autumn <ul><li>After harvest as autumn settles in, the source/sink relationship changes. </li></ul><ul><li>The wood tissues, trunks and roots expand in girth and a second flush of root growth occurs. </li></ul>
  16. 16. But the problems have only just begun!!! <ul><li>Because vines shoots and fruit had to be cut out in previous seasons, they were not looked after properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though the trellis system was cut back as much as possible it has now left a pruning and thinning nightmare for the coming seasons. </li></ul>Notice how many random cuts and backseal points have been made in previous years.
  17. 17. New pruning issues <ul><li>It was decided to let the vines grow out and establish themselves for the 2008-2009 season. This picture was taken in the spring of 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Crowding was quickly becoming an issue. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ideal pruning situation... <ul><li>This is an ideal pruning situation where a pre-pruner has come in and taken out the long shoots so an experienced pruner can come in and make quick decision to spur prune effectively and clear the vine of old wood from the previous season. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Not an ideal pruning situation <ul><li>Heavy, out of control growth crowded to the interior of the vine. </li></ul><ul><li>But if you look carefully in the background you can see where we are headed. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Not an ideal pruning situation 2 <ul><li>This was quite typical of the situation in the winter of 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Every vine had random, crowded shoots from many years of neglect and the previous season’s growth. </li></ul>
  21. 21. How to approach this pruning nightmare. <ul><li>Basically we had to take each vine very specifically. That is true for all pruning and thinning but this truly proved to show many different scenarios. Some vines we had to spur prune, and where ever we could we attempted to lay down new canes and could out as much of the gnarled crowns and cordons from the previous years issues. </li></ul><ul><li>All the while we were keeping in mind that we would try and get some fruit for wine making in the 2010 harvest </li></ul>
  22. 22. Clean it up <ul><li>This is an after shot of the previous slide’s picture. Here you see were able to lay down two new canes and really clean up the vine. This vine should be much easier to thin and work with throughout the season. </li></ul><ul><li>But still we notice that the canes we have selected have their limitations. Many of the canes have small internode lengths and crowding is inevitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the vine in the background. This vine had to be spur pruned and will probably have extreme crowding and random growth from previous season neglect and the fact that the cordons are very short from the transplant process. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Small, but important tasks… <ul><li>One very critical step in the winter pruning process was the use of backseal. There were many large wounds left from cutting out crowns and cordons. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the vines are still in a critical state any pathogens allowed in could prove detrimental and we could lose the vines in the second season of the replanting. </li></ul><ul><li>One technique I learned from working up in Northland where the climate is much more humid, was to not just glob on the backseal, but to put a thin layer over to protect and not get any moisture caught under the back seal. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Early spring ideals <ul><li>Here we see a pretty balanced vine in early spring. Shoots are growing fairly even and upwards. They are spread out evenly along a cordon that has been spur pruned over the winter. </li></ul><ul><li>This vine will be easy to manage throughout the season. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Early spring ideals 2 <ul><li>Here we see one of the Chardonnay vines from mid spring 2009. Not as pretty as the previous slide with the Merlot vines from the same vineyard. There is crowding but it is manageable for thinning this season. Certainly a great improvement from what the previous season left us. </li></ul><ul><li>The shoots are growing vertically and a few can be chose to produce some </li></ul>
  26. 26. The future… <ul><li>Right now the vines are being thinned because the growth is so tight and heavy this time of year. </li></ul><ul><li>Crowding is the biggest issue as it can result in disease such as botrytis when bunches overlap. This creates in important part of the disease triangle which a vineyard manager actually has control over unlike the weather. </li></ul><ul><li>The vines will be closely monitored throughout the season and there will be a small, but solid crop taken off of them for the 2010 vintage. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Success? <ul><li>No one on the team is ready call the operation a success at this point. But once we harvest a good crop and make some of our own Chardonnay, we will feel as though it was worth our efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>It will be a continued effort throughout the coming seasons. It is a great example of how decisions in viticulture, whether big or small can have huge ramifications in not only the next season, but in many seasons to come. That Chardonnay vineyard may not be fully productive for another 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>That means the transplanting process is one of at least five years. A huge commitment. But overall it was a cheap alternative and one that could show some profit down the road if the wine is developed into a nice Chardonnay. There are good soils there and the block could grow someday to be a premium site. Which would be quite ironic looking back at the disgruntled employee at the nursery in Gisborne back in 2002 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Notes: <ul><li>All pictures taken at Cottingham Estate by Charlotte Anderson and Daniel Brennan </li></ul><ul><li>A great deal of cooperation and information was sourced from the owners of Cottingham Estate, Pamela and Alan Stevenson. </li></ul>
  29. 29. References <ul><li>Raven, P.H., Evert, F., Eichhorn, S. (2005). Biology of Plants (7 th ed.). USA: WH Freeman and Company </li></ul><ul><li>Taiz, L. & Zeiger, E. (2006) Plant Physiology. Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer Associates Inic </li></ul><ul><li>Dry, P.R. & Coombe, B.G. (Eds.) (2008). Viticulture Resources . Ashford, South Australia: Winetitles Pty Ltd. </li></ul>

×