Raisin open-gable canopy management 2014

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This presentation reviews some of the principals of how canopy microenvironment affects bud fruitfulness, and how these concepts can inform canopy management of dry-on-vine (DOV) raisin production on an open-gable trellis.

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Raisin open-gable canopy management 2014

  1. 1. Canopy Management in Dry‐on‐Vine (DOV) Raisin Vineyards Matt Fidelibus Viticulture and Enology, UC Davis
  2. 2. Presentation outline • Yield components & reproductive cycle • Environmental factors that affect productivity • Node position and pruning • Trellis & training • Irrigation and nutrition
  3. 3. Yield Components • Clusters per vine • Berries per cluster • Berry weight • Sugar per berry
  4. 4. Reproductive cycle • Two-year process • Year 1: Flower clusters are initiated and partially developed on microscopic shoots within buds on green growing shoots. • Year 2: The pre-formed microscopic shoots emerge from dormant buds, flowers fully develop, and bloom, fruit set, berry growth and maturation occur.
  5. 5. YEAR 1 YEAR 2 - in the developing primary bud - on the shoot Cluster initiation Rachis elongation, flower initiation Flower part differentiation Bloom Pollination & fertilization Berry set Berry softening Harvest
  6. 6. YEAR 1
  7. 7. Compound Bud
  8. 8. Lateral (prompt) buds grow out the year they are formed, resulting in lateral shoots
  9. 9. The dormant bud arises from the most basal node of a lateral shoot. Within the dormant node, anlage develops into shoot, tendril or cluster primordia in the spring.
  10. 10. Anlage Apex Leaf primordia Earliest indication of a cluster
  11. 11. Compound Bud By winter, the number of clusters each shoot will bear in the spring has been set
  12. 12. Fall or winter bud dissections
  13. 13. Sunlight promotes cluster initiation and development and bud survival • The number and potential size of clusters on preformed shoots is positively correlated with temperature, light, and carbohydrate availability in early summer, when clusters are initiated. • Shading reduces cluster number and potential size, and promotes bud necrosis (death). • Pruning: sun canes vs shade canes
  14. 14. IKI staining courtesy Jason Smith NSW Australia
  15. 15. Budfruitfulness(%) Time Bloom Berry set Veraison
  16. 16. YEAR 2
  17. 17. Clusters initiated last spring will complete their growth this spring, as the preformed shoots emerge from the dormant nodes and growth to full size. During this time cluster development can be directly affected by weather, insects, nutri tion, and other factors.
  18. 18. Zn application suggested 2 weeks prior to bloom
  19. 19. Pollination
  20. 20. The number of berries/cluster and berry size will depend in part on pollination success. Grapes do not require insect pollination, but poor weather and nutrition can substantially affect set.
  21. 21. Node position and pruning
  22. 22. Node position 5 10 15 20 Nodeswithshoots(%) 20 40 60 80 100 15 node canes 20 node canes A Node position 5 10 15 20 Nodeswithshoots(%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 15-node canes 20-node canes B Node position 5 10 15 20 Nodeswithshoots(%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 15-node canes 20-node canes C Node position 5 10 15 20 Nodeswithshoots(%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 15-node canes 20-node canes D % Nodes with shoots
  23. 23. Node position 5 10 15 20 Clusterspernode(no) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 15-node canes 20-node canes A Node position 5 10 15 20 Clusterspernode(no.) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 15-node canes 20-node canes B Node position 5 10 15 20 Clusterspernode(no.) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 15-node canes 20-node canes C Node position 5 10 15 20 Clusterspernode(%) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 15-node canes 20-node canes D Number of clusters per node
  24. 24. Node position 5 10 15 20 Clusterweight(kg) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 15-node canes 20-node canes A Node position 5 10 15 20 Clusterweight(kg) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 15-node canes 20-node canes B Node position 5 10 15 20 Clusterweight(kg) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 15-node canes 20-node canes C Node position 5 10 15 20 Clusterweight(kg) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 15-node canes 20-node canes D Cluster weight (kg)
  25. 25. Node position 5 10 15 20 Solublesolids(Brix) 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 15-node cane 20-node cane A Node position 5 10 15 20 Solublesolids(Brix) 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 15-node canes 20-node canes B Node position 5 10 15 20 Solublesolids(Brix) 16 18 20 22 24 26 15-node canes Col 3 vs Col 4 C Node position 5 10 15 20 Solublesolids(Brix) 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 21.0 21.5 22.0 22.5 15-node canes 20-node canes D Brix
  26. 26. Average length of 15-node canes DOVine Thompson Seedless Fiesta Selma Pete Feet
  27. 27. Open gable trellis
  28. 28. “These vigorous Thompson Seedless Vines are crowned too low— 30 to 36 inches below the cross arm. Much of the next year’s fruiting wood Was totally or partially shaded during Fruit bud initiation”. L.P. Christensen, 1979.
  29. 29. Light levels at cordon diminish as distance between trellis top and cordon increases Distance between cordon and top of trellis 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Percentfullsun 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
  30. 30. Light levels at nodes 4 to 6 diminish as distance between trellis top and cordon increases Distance from trellis top to cordon (inches) 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Percentoffullsun 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
  31. 31. Light levels at nodes 8 to 10 diminish as distance between trellis top and cordon increases Distance from trellis top to cordon (inches) 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Percentfullsun 0 10 20 30 40 50
  32. 32. Conclusions • Renewal shoots need good light exposure in spring and summer to optimize fruitfulness in the following season. • Pruning is very important, but trellis design and other canopy management practices can significantly affect light levels in renewal zone • Nutrition and irrigation can directly and indirectly affect production
  33. 33. • Funding from the California Raisin Marketing Board • L. Peter Christensen, Mike Moriyama, Steve Vasquez, several private growers Acknowledgements

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