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Ch9 computer integrated manufacturing


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Ch9 computer integrated manufacturing

  1. 1. ME 445INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMSComputer IntegratedManufacturing(CIM)1
  2. 2. DEFINITION OF CIM BY THE COMPUTER ANDAUTOMATION SYSTEMS ASSOCIATION OF THESOCIETY OF MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS(CASA/SME): “CIM is the integration of the total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communications coupled with new managerial philosophies that improve organizational and personnel efficiency.” 2
  3. 3. What is CIM? CIM is the integration of all enterpriseoperations and activities around a commoncorporate data repository. It is the use of integrated systems and datacommunications coupled with new managerialphilosophies. 3
  4. 4. What is CIM? CIM is not a product that can be purchased andinstalled. It is a way of thinking and solving problems. 4
  5. 5. CIM OBJECTIVES Simplify production processes, product designs, and factory organization as a vital foundation to automation and integration Automate production processes and the business functions that support them with computers, machines, and robots Integrate all production and support processes using computer networks, cross-functional business software, and other information technologies 5
  6. 6. POTANTIAL BENEFITS OF CIM Improved customer service Improved quality Shorter time to market with new products Shorter flow time Shorter vendor lead time Reduced inventory levels Improved schedule performance Greater flexibility and responsiveness Improved competitiveness Lower total cost Shorter customer lead time Increase in manufacturing productivity Decrease in work-in process inventory 6
  8. 8. CIM SYSTEMS Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) - automate the production process Manufacturing execution systems (MES) – performance monitoring information systems for factory floor operations Process Control – control ongoing physical processes Machine Control – controls the actions of machines 8
  9. 9. The Role of Computer in Manufacturing The computer has had a substantial impact onalmost all activities of a factory. Often, the introduction of the computerchanged the organizational structure of adepartment and made necessary adoption of newmanagement structures. 9
  10. 10. The Role of Computer in Manufacturing The operation of a CIM system gives the user substantial benefits: Reduction of design costs by 15-30%; Reduction of the in-shop time of a part by 30-60%; Increase of productivity by 40-70%; Better product quality, reduction of scrap 20-50%. 10
  11. 11. INFORMATİON SYSTEMInformationsystemsinvolve people,hardware,software,computernetworks, anddata used tomanage dailyand long-termoperations. 11
  12. 12. AGILE MANUFACTURINGAgility is the ability to grow and succeed in anenvironment of constant and unpredictable changes.In recent years, the manufacturing paradigm hasbeen changing from mass production to agilemanufacturing. 12
  13. 13. AGILE MANUFACTURING Globalization of markets has put tremendous pressure on manufacturing enterprises to be competitive. To cope with competitive pressures, a new paradigm in manufacturing known as AGILE MANUFACTURING is emerging. 13
  14. 14. AGILE MANUFACTURINGThe objective of agile manufacturing is to enablemanufacturing enterprises to be competitive bydynamically reconfiguring software, equipment andorganization structures. 14
  15. 15. AGILE MANUFACTURING The reasons of this trend change are: The strength of global competition is increasing; Mass markets are fragmenting to niche markets; Customers expect low volume, high quality; Short product life-cycles, development 15
  16. 16. CHARACTERISTICS OF AGILEMANUFACTURING: Greater product customization Rapid introduction of new or modified product Advanced interenterpise networking technology Upgradable products Increased emphasis on knowledgeable, highly trained workers Interactive customer relationship 16
  17. 17. CHARACTERISTICS OF AGILEMANUFACTURING: Dynamic reconfiguration of production processes Greater use of flexible production technologies Rapid prototyping An open systems information environment Innovative and flexible management structures Product pricing based on value to the customer Commitment to the bening operations and product designs 17
  18. 18. Communication Networks A communication network is the backbone of anenterprise integration. Networks help to unify acompany by linking together all the computerizeddevices irrespective of their physical location. Through networks the whole enterprise can beintegrated, including suppliers and customers. 18
  19. 19. Communication Networks For example, sales and marketing can send customerrequirements for new products to design engineering. A CAD generated bill of materials can then betransferred to “material requirements planning(MRP)”systems. Product design information can be transmitted tomanufacturing for use in process planning. 19
  20. 20. Types of Communication Networks There 2 main types of communication networks:1) Telecommunication Networks;2) Computer communication Networks. 20
  21. 21. Types of Communication NetworksTelecommunication network is mainly used forvoice communication.Computer communication network is a system ofinterconnected computers and other devicescapable exchanging information. 21
  22. 22. HIGHLIGHTS IN THE HISTORYOF TELECOMMUNICATIONS1844 Morse sends the first public telegraph message1876 Telephone patent issued to Alexander Graham Bell1877 First telephone in private home1881 First long-distance line, from Boston, MA, to Providence,RI1890 Undersea telephone cable, England to France1915 First transcontinental telephones call in U.S.1929 Coaxial cable invented; Herbert Hoover becomes the first President with a phone on his desk. 22
  23. 23. 1947 Transistor invented1951 Direct long-distance dialing1960 First test of electronic switch1963 Touch-tone service introduced1970 Laser invented1976 First digital electronic switch installed1980 Divestiture of AT&T (Ma Bell and the baby bells)1988 First transatlantic optical fiber cable1989 First fiber-optic cable to the home field trial, Cerritos, CA1990 Demonstration of 2000-km links using optical amplifiers without repeaters. 23
  24. 24. NETWORKS: 1980S-DECENTRALIZED - ISOLATEDInteraction is between a user and a system! No interaction between users and systems 24
  25. 25.  BEFORE THE INTERNET Isolated users/computers/networks No common protocol (language) IBM Digital ? SNA DECNET 25
  27. 27. Types of Communication NetworksNetwork Architectures & ProtocolsA communication network consists of a number componentssuch as hardware, software and media.A network architecture describes the components, thefunctions performed, and the interfaces between thecomponents of a network.It encompasses hardware, software, standards, data linkcontrols, topologies and protocols. 27
  28. 28. COMPUTER NETWORKSComputer network connects two or more autonomous computers.The computers can be geographically located anywhere. 28
  29. 29. APPLICATIONS OFNETWORKSResource Sharing Hardware (computing resources, disks, printers) Software (application software)Information Sharing Easy accessibility from anywhere (files, databases) Search Capability (WWW)Communication Email, Message broadcastRemote computingDistributed processing (GRID Computing) 29
  30. 30. Types of Communication Networks Network Architectures & Protocols It defines the functions of, and interactions between, three types of components. Network hardware components Communication software modules Application programs that use the networks 30
  31. 31. Types of Communication NetworksNetwork Architectures & ProtocolsPROTOCOL:Protocols in network architecture define the set of rules ofinformation exchange between two devices(peers).Protocols specify the message format and the rules forinterpreting and reacting to messages. 31
  32. 32. Types of Communication NetworksComputer Network Reference ModelThe OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) ReferenceModel is an architecture that enables differentvendors’ systems, such as DECNET, SNA, TCP/IPand SINEC, to communicate by using a common setof protocols. 32
  33. 33. Types of Communication Networks The reference model is based on: The communication functions are divided into layers; The services to be provided by each layer are specified; Layer N+1, above layer N, uses the services of the latter to implement its functions; Communication between the layer N and the participating terminals is specified by the ISO protocols. 33
  34. 34. Types of Communication Networks 34
  35. 35. LAYER FUNCTIONALITY ticket (purchase) ticket (complain) Departing airport arriving airport baggage (check) baggage (claim) gates (load) gates (unload) runway takeoff runway landing airplane routing airplane routing intermediate air traffic sites airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing 35
  36. 36. LAYERING: PHYSICALCOMMUNICATION ODTÜ data application transport network link Türk Telekom physical network application link transport physical network link physical data application application transport transport network network İTÜ link link physical physical 36
  37. 37. TYPES OF COMPUTER NETWORKSLocal Area Networks (LANs)Used to interconnect computers (wired orwireless) within the same building ororganisation.A LAN typically operates at speeds rangingfrom 10 Mbps to 10 Giga bps, connecting severalhundred devices over a distance of up to 5 to 10km 37
  38. 38. 38
  41. 41. Wide Area Networks (WANs)Use common carrier facilities over long distances and areused to connect sites and facilities over the countries .Usually the speed between the cities can vary from 1 to100Gbps. In a WAN, the cost of transmission is very high,and the network is usually owned and operated by a publicnetwork (e.g. TTNET) 41
  42. 42. US BACKBONE 42
  43. 43. Global Area Networks (GAN)these are networks connections between countriesaround the globe. A GAN’s speed ranges from1.5Mbps to 100Gbps and its reach is several thousandsof kilometres. 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. COMMUNICATION HIERARCHY enterprise level Globally link various plants/sites and interconnect corporations through electronic data interchange plant level Connect departments inside plant cell level Connect cells inside departments equipment/device level connect individual devices such as computers, robots and NC machines 46
  47. 47. MANUFACTURING Parallel with increasing needs for faster communications the needs of large data storage capacity and fast computers is increasing also. Now typical manufacturing environment, called also as CAD/CAM/CAE environment is composed of fast computers, centralized data storage units, CNC controlled machine centers, robots etc., all connected on the same network. On this networks either TCP/IP or specially designed manufacturing protocols like, MAP or TOP, are used. 47
  48. 48. MANUFACTURINGMAPAn initiative by General Motors of The UnitedStates has resulted in the selection of a set ofprotocols, all based on ISO standards, toachieve open system interconnection withinan automated manufacturing plant.The resulting protocols are knows asmanufacturing automation protocols (MAPs). 48
  49. 49. MANUFACTURING 49
  50. 50. MANUFACTURINGTOPIn a similar way, an initiative by the BoeingCorporation (USA) has resulted in the selectionof a set of ISO standards to achieve open systeminterconnection in a technical and officeenvironment.The selected protocols are known as technicaland office protocols (TOPs). 50
  51. 51. MANUFACTURING 51