The scientific study of forestspecies and their interaction with the environment isreferred to as forest ecology
A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. As with cities, depending on various cultural definitions, what is considered a forest may vary significantly insize and have different classifications according to how and of what the forest is composed. These plant communities cover approximately 9.4 percent of the Earths surface (or 30 percent of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50 percent of total land area), in many different regions and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators,and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspectsof the biosphere. Although forests are classified primarily by trees, the concept of a forest ecosystem includes additional species (such as smaller plants, fungi, bacteria, and animals) as well as physical and chemical processes such as energy flow and nutrient cycling.
Forest management isa branch of forestry concerned with theoverall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects,especially silviculture, protection, and forest regulation.
This includes management for aesthetics, fish, recreation, urban values, water, wilderness, wildlife, wood products, forest genetic resources and other forest resource values. Managementcan be based on conservation, economics, or a mixture of the two. Techniques include timber extraction, planting and replanting of various species, cutting roads and pathways through forests, and preventing fire.
There has been an increased public awareness of natural resource policy, including forest management. Public concern regarding forest management may have shifted from the extraction of timber to the preservation of additional forest resources, including wildlife and old growth forest,protecting biodiversity, watershed management, and recreation. Increased environmentalawareness may contribute to an increased public mistrust of forest management professionals
Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to anon-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damageto habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on bio-sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive an enemy ofcover for its forces and also vital resources. A modern example of this was the use of Agent Orange by the United States military in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland.
Wildlife means area whereundomesticated animals living in th e wild, including those hunted for food, sport, or prof it.
The wildlife in India is a mix of species of different types of organisms.[clarification needed]Apart from a handful of the major famed animals such as cows, buffaloes, goats, poultry and sheep, India has an amazingly wide variety of animals native to the country. It is home to lions, tigers, leopards, snow leopards, blackpanthers, cheetahs, wolves, foxes, bears, crocodiles, rhinoceroses, camels, dogs, monkeys, snakes, antelope species, deer species, varieties of bison and not to mention the mighty Asian elephant. The regions rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in 89 national parks, 13 Bio reserves and 400+ wildlife sanctuaries across the country. Since India is home to a number of rare andthreatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species. According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60 - 70% of the worlds biodiversity.
The need for conservation of wildlife in India is oftenquestioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in theface of direct poverty of the people. However, Article 48 of theConstitution of India specifies that, "The state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protectand improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.