Atlas@Cern, Exploring the invisible

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The bulk of matter is invisible, as it (almost) does not emit any radiation. We know them as dark matter. How can we explore and measure them? This is one objective of the ATLAS@CERN experiment to gain clarity and this should be brought closer to the students in this mission.
Atlas@Cern Portal: http://www.learningwithatlas-portal.eu/
Atlas@Cern Österreich: http://www.virtuelleschule.at/atlas

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  • Kurzbeschreibung: Der Großteil der Materie ist unsichtbar, da sie (fast) keine Strahlung emittiert. Wir kennen sie als Dunkle Materie. Wie können wir sie erforschen und messen? Dies ist ein Ziel des ATLAS@CERN Experiments hier Klarheit zu erlangen und soll in dieser Mission für Studenten nähergebracht werden.
  • NASA/ESA/HST: The blue streaks near the center of the image are the smeared images of very distant galaxies that are not part of the cluster. The distant galaxies appear distorted because their light is being bent and magnified by the powerful gravity of Cl 0024+17, an effect called gravitational lensing.
  • NASA/ESA/HST: The blue streaks near the center of the image are the smeared images of very distant galaxies that are not part of the cluster. The distant galaxies appear distorted because their light is being bent and magnified by the powerful gravity of Cl 0024+17, an effect called gravitational lensing.
  • Atlas@Cern, Exploring the invisible

    1. 1. Exploring the Invisible Dark Matter and ATLAS@CERN Author: Dr. Christian Reimers ▲ Estimated distribution of matter and energy in the universe (Credit: NASA) ▲ ATLAS Detector (Credit: CERN)
    2. 2. Introductory section and preparatory phase <ul><li>Short Description: The bulk of matter is invisible, as it (almost) does not emit any radiation. We know them as dark matter. How can we explore and measure them? This is one objective of the ATLAS@CERN experiment to gain clarity and this should be brought closer to the students in this mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Keywords: dark matter, particle physics, CERN, ATLAS </li></ul><ul><li>Target audience: students </li></ul><ul><li>Age range: 15-18 years </li></ul><ul><li>Context: school </li></ul><ul><li>Time required: 4 - 5 lessons </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Technical Requirements: PC/Notebooks with internet connection </li></ul><ul><li>Author’s background: mathematics, physics and astronomy lecturer </li></ul><ul><li>Connection with the curriculum: building of matter, electromagnetism, gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Objectives: The students learn to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand how matter is defined and built up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand how unvisible matter and particles could be detected and measured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write a science report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guidance for preparation: Introduce some basic definitions in physics (electromagnetism) and astronomy (galaxies, gravity lense, gravity, etc.). Eventually organise an excursion to a science/technical museum with spark chamber/cloud chamber. </li></ul>Introductory section and preparatory phase
    4. 4. Phase 1: Question Eliciting Activities <ul><li>Exhibit curiosity: ATLAS and Dark Matter </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher tries to attract the students’ attention by presenting/showing to them appropriate material. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dark Matter Searches with ATLAS” http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1190231 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Search for Dark Matter Candidates in ATLAS” http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1247014 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark Matter evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on astronomical observations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purely gravitational interactions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Phase 1: Question Eliciting Activities <ul><li>Exhibit curiosity: Dark Matter evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravitational Lensing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galactical Rotation Curves ▲ http://burro.cwru.edu/JavaLab/RotcurveWeb/main.html </li></ul></ul>► NASA/ESA/HST: This Hubble Space Telescope composite image shows a ghostly &quot;ring&quot; of dark matter in the galaxy cluster Cl 0024+17. The ring-like structure is evident in the blue map of the cluster's dark matter distribution. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/news/dark_matter_ring_feature.html ◄ Example rotation curves for 1) a solid body, 2) the Solar System and 3) a spiral galaxy. http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cms/astro/cosmos/R/Rotation+Curve
    6. 6. Phase 1: Question Eliciting Activities <ul><li>Define questions from current knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Students are engaged by scientifically oriented questions imposed by the teacher. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Dark Matter and Cosmic Rays? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are ongoing experiments at CERN? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How LHC, ATLAS, CMS, etc. work and how they measuring particle characteristics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much energy could we reach TeV, PeV, …? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s about SUSY, Neutrinos, WIMPs, Higgs? </li></ul></ul>► http://www.ecap.physik.uni-erlangen.de/~katz/ws03/atp/talks/ar/AR.pdf
    7. 7. Phase 2: Active Investigation <ul><li>Propose preliminary explanations or hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Students propose some possible explanations to the questions that emerged from the previous activity. The teacher identifies possible misconceptions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Phase 2: Active Investigation <ul><li>Plan and conduct simple investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Students give priority to evidence, which allows them to develop explanations that address scientifically oriented questions. The teacher facilitates the process. How to detect unvisible particles? Could this particles explain dark matter?  find out with moCERN (Online or Mobile) http://www.learningwithatlas-portal.eu/de/node/93579 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Phase 3: Creation <ul><li>Gather evidence from observation </li></ul><ul><li>Travelling Exhibition from HEPHY (Institut für Hochenergiephysik) http://www.hephy.at/veranstaltungen/oeffentliche/wanderausstellung/ </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher divides students in groups. Each group of students formulates and evaluates explanations from evidence to address scientifically oriented questions. </li></ul>© HEPHY
    10. 10. Phase 3: Creation <ul><li>Gather evidence from observation </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Museum, Vienna The Technical Museum is an interactive museum. With more than 40 hands-on experiments and interactive presentations you can experience science and technology with all senses. http://www.tmw.at/ Guided tours for schools (e.g. High Voltage Demonstration) http://www.tmw.at/Medien/Website%20Download%5C03%20besucher%5CAngebote%5Coberstufe_2010.pdf For example you can try out experiments to the radiation energy with a cloud chamber. http://www.gerlitz-hs.stsnet.at/EnergieWebseite/images/pdf/TMW.pdf </li></ul>Cloud Chamber ► © TMW
    11. 11. Phase 3: Creation <ul><li>Gather evidence from observation </li></ul><ul><li>HYPATIA ( HY brid P upil‘s A nalysis T ool for I nteractions in A TLAS): Analyse real time data from ATLAS@CERN experiment: http://hypatia.phys.uoa.gr/ </li></ul>… and look for interaction types, charge, momentum and energy of particles
    12. 12. Phase 4: Discussion <ul><li>Explanation based on evidence </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher gives the correct explanation for the specific research topic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>types of particle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detection method </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider other explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Each group of students evaluates its explanations in light of alternative explanations, particularly those reflecting scientific understanding. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Phase 5: Reflection <ul><li>Communicate explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Each group of students produces a report with its findings according to g uidelines for writing a research report Guidelines for Writing a Research Report Version2.1.pdf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format (Title, Abstract, Introduction, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout (Fonts, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each group presents and justifies its proposed explanations to other groups and the teacher. </li></ul>

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