Planning in organization

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Planning in organization

  1. 1.
  2. 2. DECISION MAKING<br />
  3. 3. DECISION MAKING<br />Definition:-<br /> Choice made from two or more alternatives. It occurs as a reaction to a problem or an opportunity.<br /> Problem – difference between current state of affairs and desired state, require consideration of alternative courses of action<br /> Opportunity- occurs when something unplanned happens, giving rise to thoughts about new ways of proceeding. <br />
  4. 4. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS<br />Decision maker makes consistent, high quality choices within specified constraints.<br />Six steps in rational decision making model as listed below.<br />
  5. 5. 1.<br />Define the problem<br />2. Identify the criteria<br />6. <br />Select the best alternatives<br />3.<br />Allocate weights to the criteria<br />Making a decision<br />4.<br />Develop alternatives<br />5.<br />Evaluate the alternatives<br />
  6. 6. Assumptions of model<br />Problem clarity<br />Known options<br />Clear preferences<br />Constant preferences<br />No time or cost constraints<br />Maximum payoff<br />
  7. 7. Reality of decision making<br />a) Problem identification<br /> - problems that are visible tend to be selected compared to important ones<br /> - easier to recognize visible problem<br /> - decision makers want to appear competent<br />
  8. 8. b) Bounded rationality in considering alternatives<br /> - people are limited by their ability to interpret, process and act on information<br /> - individuals not able to discover and consider every alternative for a decision<br /> - settle on alternative that is good enough<br /> - choose a final solution that satisfies rather than optimizes <br />
  9. 9. c) Intuition <br /> - form of extrasensory power or sixth <br /> sense<br /> - 60% experienced professionals <br /> in US major organization they use intuition <br /> make workplace decision<br /> - often used in hiring, performance appraisal,<br /> harassment complaints, safety issues<br /> - best applied when time is short, policies, rules<br /> and guidelines do not give advice or<br /> uncertainties<br />
  10. 10. GROUP DECISION MAKING<br />STRENGTH<br />WEAKNESS<br />More complete information and knowledge<br />Increased diversity of views<br />Higher quality decisions<br />More accurate<br />More creativity<br />Increased acceptance of a solution<br />Time consuming<br />Conformity pressures<br />Dominated by one or a few members<br />Uncertain responsibility <br />
  11. 11. GROUP vs THE INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING<br />
  12. 12. GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUES<br />Interacting groups<br />Brainstorming<br />Nominal group technique<br />Electronic meetings<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. CREATIVITY IN ORGANIZATIONAL DECISION MAKING<br />Creativity:-<br /> The process of creating product, ideas or procedures that are original and useful to organization<br />Benefits of individual creativity:-<br /> High quality product<br /> Effective decision making<br /> Better group performance<br /> Innovative solution<br />
  15. 15. CREATIVE INDIVIDUALS<br />ALBERT EINSTEIN<br />THOMAS EDISON<br />MARIE CURIE<br />WOLFGANG AMADEUS <br />MOZART<br />PABLO PICASSO<br />MICHAEL JORDAN<br />
  16. 16. Table above shows:- A study of lifetime creativity of 461 men & women<br />
  17. 17. FACTORS AFFECT INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY<br />PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS<br />PERSONALITY & COGNITIVE SKILLS<br />Broad interest<br />Attraction to complexity<br />Intuition<br />Aesthetic sensitivity<br />Toleration of uncertainty<br />Self confidence<br />Motivated by intrinsic interest<br />Challenge<br />Task satisfaction<br />Self- set goals<br />
  18. 18. ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS AFFECT CREATIVITY<br />Challenge<br />Freedom<br />Resources<br />Work group features<br />Supervisory encouragement<br />Organizational support<br />
  19. 19. FACTORS WHICH BLOCK CREATIVITY<br />Expected evaluation<br />Surveillance<br />External motivators<br />Competition<br />Constrained choice<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. ETHICS IN DECISION MAKING<br />Ethics :-<br /> Study of moral values or principles that guide our behavior and inform us whether our actions are right or wrong<br />
  22. 22. FOUR ETHICAL DECISION CRITERIA<br />Utilitarian criterion<br />Rights<br />Justice<br />Care<br />
  23. 23. FACTORS INFLUENCE ETHICAL DECISION MAKING BEHAVIOR<br />Stages of moral development<br />Locus of control<br />Organizational environment<br />
  24. 24. Is a Decision ethical?<br /> Yes<br />Unethical<br />Ethical<br /> Yes<br />Question 1<br />Is this decision motivating by self-serving interest?<br />Question 3<br />Is this decision fair and equitable?<br /> No<br /> No<br />Unethical<br />Yes<br />Question 2<br />Does the decision respect the rights of the individuals affected?<br />No<br />Unethical<br />
  25. 25. CONCLUSION<br /> Decision making, creativity and ethics are the main criteria need to be considered by all the individual in organization. The success of each organization depends heavily on this three aspects.<br />
  26. 26. THANK YOU ,<br /> GOOD DAY <br />

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