Eia Data Publishing Infra Tech March2010

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Presented at the EIA Biodiversity Data Publishing Workshop at SANBI, Cape Town, South Africa during 2-4 March 2010

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  • Current breed of digital libraries include data mining, indexing and classification, linking, filtering and ranking; as well as interoperability across multiple access and retrieve many digital representations for text and multimedia objects. Digital libraries should be able to develop the mechanism to tap the informal intellectual discussions and exchange / sharing activities such as email or even informal notices.
  • There is further disparity about the languages in which biodiversity data is discoverable and accessible. With over 6900+ living langauges spoken by human population, majority of the biodiversity data is accessible in English. Asia, Africa, Paciifc which houses major biodiversity hotspots speak over 5700+ languages and do have large volume of biodiversity data documented in these languages. English is practiced or spoken by little over 11% of the worlds population – but majority of accessible data about world’s biodiversity is in English.
  • Majority or rather most of the biodiversity informatics activities are practiced in Europe and North America. This is reflected from the spread of GBIF data publishers.
  • Eia Data Publishing Infra Tech March2010

    1. 1. Biodiversity Informatics in Sustainable Resources Management: Challenges and Potentials International Conference on Biodiversity and Livelihoods 26-26 March 2009 Coonoor, INDIA Vishwas Chavan GBIF
    2. 2. Earth…. Only known ‘Planet’ that nurtures life….
    3. 3. But, it’s changing fast….
    4. 4. … .and is affecting biodiversity
    5. 5. Coral bleaching … .and is affecting human beings
    6. 6. … .and is affecting human beings
    7. 7. “ Biodiversity knowledge Catastrophe” … .but the worst catastrophe is knocking Where can I find information about Lions, Tigers, Frogs, and….
    8. 8. What is needed…….... Content Content Content Content Content Content Content Content Content Content Content Content infrastructure Connectivity “ a priori model” than “a posteriori model” Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Communication skills Content Content Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Teaching skills syllabus
    9. 9. Uses of Primary Biodiversity Data
    10. 10. Current suitability for agriculture
    11. 11. Future suitability for agriculture 18 GCM models, A2a scenario
    12. 12. Change in global suitability
    13. 13. Number of crops that lose out
    14. 14. Number of crops that gain
    15. 15. More Examples
    16. 16. Gmin: 60, Gmax: 100 Ttmp:0, Tmin: 7, TOPmn: 16, TOPmx: 27, Tmax: 32 Rmin: 220, ROPmn: 350, ROPmx: 900, Rmax: 1500 Current suitability for common bean
    17. 17. Gmin: 60, Gmax: 100 Ttmp:0, Tmin: 7, TOPmn: 16, TOPmx: 27, Tmax: 32 Rmin: 220, ROPmn: 350, ROPmx: 900, Rmax: 1500 Future suitability for common bean
    18. 18. Change in bean suitability
    19. 19. Hence, we must recognize Bio(Diversity), Informatics as corner stone for future economy, social, and environmental well being.
    20. 20. Biodiversity Informatics: Definition and History “ the application of information technologies, to the management, algorithmic exploration, analysis, and interpretation of primary data regarding the life, particularly at the species level of organization” Soberon and Peterson (2004) <ul><li>Historical Context </li></ul><ul><li>1992 – Rio de Janeiro “Earth Summit” –Convention on Biological Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>- CBD Article 17, 18(3) – Clearing House Mechanism (CHM) </li></ul><ul><li>- John Whiting used the term “Biodiversity Informatics” </li></ul><ul><li>- OECD Megascience Forum on Biological Informatics </li></ul><ul><li>- Global Biodiversity Information Facility </li></ul><ul><li>- The Global Biodiversity Challenge – “2010 Targets” </li></ul><ul><li>- International Mechanism of Scientific Expertise on Biodiversity (IMoSEB) </li></ul><ul><li>- DIVERSITAS Open Science Conference </li></ul><ul><li>- G8+5 Environment Ministers – Postdam Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>- SpeciesBase: Global Species Information System </li></ul><ul><li>- Encyclopedia of Life </li></ul><ul><li>- GBIF sets goal of discovery of 5bn and mobilisation of 2bn data records by 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>- GEO-BON </li></ul><ul><li>- eBioSphere 09 conf at London, June 1-3, 2009 </li></ul>
    21. 21. Biodiversity Informatics: The State of the Art <ul><li>Early work in BI could be traced back to 1970 – Australian Herbarium Digitization </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilizing Biodiversity Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalogue of Known Biota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specimen and Observation Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental and Ecological Data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards, Protocols, and Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards and Protocols –TDWG promoted standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection Management Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Cleaning Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Services and Computational tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informatics Infrastructure Building </li></ul><ul><li>ERIN, HISPID, CONABIO, INBio, BIN21, US NBII, OBIS, GISIN, CBD-CHM, ERMS, ENHSIN, BioCASE, TDWG, ENBI, LifeWatch, ETI, Fauna Europea, CRIA (Brazil), ITIS, Species2000, NatureServe, TaiBIF, BioGIS (Israel), CBIF (Canada), ILDIS, IABIN, NABIN, InfoNatura, EoL, EDIT, LifeWatch, GEO-BON, Scratchpads, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Building, Outreach, and Open Access Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>CODATA, WSIS, CBD, GBIF, Gaikwad and Chavan (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1500 resources – BIR (Biodiversity Information Resources) </li></ul>
    22. 22. BIR: Analysis Metadata of 1383 resources documented Less resources on lower kingdoms Animalia (50%), Plantae (30%), Fungi (8.39%), Bacteria (1.14%) Less resources with local coverage 90% of resources are databases and databanks Progress in biodiversity informatics is uneven and imbalanced similar to biodiversity and biodiversity information
    23. 23. Large volume of biodiversity data and information is in languages other than English
    24. 24. Biodiversity Informatics activities are concentrated in the North
    25. 25. Biodiversity Informatics in Mega-Biodiversity World: Why? <ul><li>Three Arguments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploding Population – A National Challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Resources based economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging Knowledge Catastrophe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity Informatics in India - Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated, distributed, heterogeneous forms and formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is in “prison”- cultural barrier of sharing data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sporadic biodiversity initiatives in India </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIS, BTISNet, ARISNET </li></ul><ul><li>NBSAP called for implementation of Indian Biodiversity Information System (IBIS) </li></ul><ul><li>NBDB – Indian Biodiversity Information Network </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Diversity Act 2002 – Peoples Biodiversity Register </li></ul><ul><li>Few institutions – NCL, ATREE, UAS, CES, FRLHT, NIO, etc. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Collection databases Observational databases ? Peoples Biodiversity And TKDL Experts and Institutions Current Scenario: Especially in Megabiodiversity World Wealth of distributed data, heterogeneous, and isolated datasets ! Ecological and environmental data Conservation databases Literature references and articles GIS and remote sensing data
    27. 27. GBIF Mandate <ul><li>Priorities: </li></ul><ul><li>mobilising biodiversity data, </li></ul><ul><li>developing protocols and standards </li></ul><ul><li>building a global informatics architecture </li></ul><ul><li>promoting capacity building, and </li></ul><ul><li>catalysing development of scientific analytical tools for improved decision-making </li></ul>-to facilitate free and open access to biodiversity data worldwide, via the Internet, to underpin scientific research, conservation and sustainable development.
    28. 28. <ul><li>Seamless integration of data from many sources </li></ul><ul><li>Searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic, by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>country, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>region, or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bounding-box </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By dataset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or a combination of these </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taxonomic browse navigation using choice of classification </li></ul><ul><li>Web services </li></ul>The GBIF Data Portal
    29. 29. GBIF primary biodiversity data
    30. 30. 2 bn data records target......
    31. 31. Data mobilisation is like moving mountains……. Digital Biodiversity Data
    32. 32. Local Action is the key to achieve ‘Global Dreams’
    33. 33. IndFauna, Electronic Catalogue of Known Indian Fauna
    34. 37. IndCollection – National Natural History Management Information System
    35. 39. SaGrIS, Sacred Groves Information System
    36. 42. SaGrIS Mapper
    37. 43. SaGrIS would encourage efficient conservation and natural resources management of these specialized ecosystems.
    38. 44. Talk the languages that people understand the best
    39. 49. Data Exchange Standards are the key
    40. 50. Data Exchange Standards <ul><ul><li>Darwin Core (DwC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Biological Collections Data (ABCD) </li></ul></ul>Primary occurrence records Natural history collections <ul><ul><li>Natural Collections Descriptions (NCD) </li></ul></ul>Taxon level information <ul><ul><li>Taxon Concept Schema (TCS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species Profile Model (SPM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plinian Core </li></ul></ul>Ecological data Geospatial data <ul><ul><li>Ecological Metadata Language (EML) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography Markup Language (GML) </li></ul></ul>
    41. 51. Success Mantras’
    42. 52. <ul><li>Think Globally – Act Locally </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity Informatics is a ‘TeamWork’ </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborations is the ‘Key’ to success </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage upon past, present investment </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for ‘Data Publishing Framework’ </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Experts involvement is MUST </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Discovery’ first, followed by ‘Mobilisation’ </li></ul><ul><li>Work beyond ‘comfort’ zone </li></ul><ul><li>Scope for every one </li></ul><ul><li>Work with those willing to work </li></ul><ul><li>Ready to be ignored  treated as competitor  compulsive compliments  SUCCESS! </li></ul><ul><li>Dedication, Consistence, Perseverance </li></ul>
    43. 53. Species Forecast Eco Report BioAlert SpeciesMonitor Dreams can come true!!!
    44. 54. “ Teaming Together”
    45. 55. Thank You!

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