Chavan Finland 13082009


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Public Interest Lecture given at Helsinki on 13th August 2009.

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  • If one analyze the trends of investment in biodiversity informatics activities in the North, major funding has been attracted by large, projects rather than small scale data management. In fact, R&D activities in the area of biodiversity informatics themselves are focused to address the needs of large data publishers. Small data publishers who has ability to contribute much required droplets to oceans of biodiversity data are the neglected mass!
  • Long ta80% of science funding is disbursed for small projects. NSF 2007 awards - 9347 ($2,137,636,716) BIG – 1869 ($1,199,088,125), SMALL – 7478 ($938,548,595). Computational and standards thinking needs to free the long tail or liberate the dark data.
  • Add a NODES component to this SLIDE as GBIF historical focus has collections as a core
  • Chavan Finland 13082009

    1. 1. GLOBALBIODIVERSITY<br />Helsinki, 13 August 2009<br />INFORMATIONFACILITY<br />Discovery and Mobilisation of Primary Biodiversity Data: Challenges and Potentials<br />Vishwas Chavan<br />GBIF Secretariat<br />WWW.GBIF.ORG<br />Building the Biodiversity Informatics Commons<br />
    2. 2. Primary Biodiversity Data: Definition<br />Primary Biodiversity Data are the digital text or multimedia data records that detail the instance of an organism – the ‘what, where, when, how and by whom’ of the organism’s occurrence and recording<br />
    3. 3. Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity<br />Policy development and decision making (at local, national, regional, and global levels)<br />Biodiversity Data<br />Monitoring of status and trends of biodiversity<br />(sound science)<br />Significance of Biodiversity Data<br />
    4. 4. Uses of primary biodiversity data<br />What can you do with georeferenced biodiversity data?<br /><ul><li>Predict effects of climate change
    5. 5. Analyse and predict spread of pests and diseases of humans, crops, livestock, wildlife, etc.
    6. 6. Predict best places to set up new protected areas
    7. 7. Analyse invasive species and predict invasion pathways
    8. 8. Provide policymaker-relevant data of all kinds
    9. 9. Be a resource for biodiversity science communities</li></li></ul><li>Key Millennium Assessment Solutions<br />GBIF is a multi-country response to the need to mobilise information in order to facilitate improved decision-making...<br />”data without borders”<br />
    10. 10. It is all about……<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Content<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Content<br />Content<br />Content<br />Content<br />Data<br />Data<br />Content<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Content<br />Data<br />Content<br />Content<br />Data<br />Content<br />Content<br />Data<br />Data<br />Content<br />Content<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Content<br />Data<br />Data<br />Content<br />Data<br />Content<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Content<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />
    11. 11. What is needed?<br /><ul><li>Data Digitisation, Management and Archiving
    12. 12. Data exchange / sharing
    13. 13. Digital Data Publishing
    14. 14. Free and Open Access
    15. 15. Data without barriers </li></li></ul><li>Biodiversity and information about it are unevenly distributed…..<br />biodiversity hotspot<br />holder of large amounts of biodiversity data<br />
    16. 16. Few more facts…..<br />Investment in biodiversity information management is towards large projects<br />Research in biodiversity informatics is focused towards large data publishers<br />Small Data Publishers – A neglected mass!<br />
    17. 17. Small are BIG!<br /><ul><li>Long tail or Dark Data is economically and ecologically very critical
    18. 18. Most of existing and future data would be hold by Small Data Publishers
    19. 19. 80% of current investment is towards Small Data Publishers
    20. 20. Total Awards: 9347
    21. 21. Big Awards: 1869
    22. 22. SMALL Awards: 7478
    23. 23. Source: Curating the Dark Data in the Long tail of science by P. Bryan Heidorn</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics of Small Data Publishers<br /><ul><li>Heterogeneous
    24. 24. Distributed and isolated
    25. 25. Manually generated
    26. 26. Individual creation
    27. 27. Not maintained for reuse by others
    28. 28. Obscured or protected
    29. 29. Uneven distribution as well unequal access
    30. 30. It is highly “Unorganised” data sector.......</li></li></ul><li>GBIF is a Govt-sponsored science research infrastructure initiative...<br /><ul><li>responsive to government needs/demands in biodiversity management – govt-initiated, and govt funded;
    31. 31. developing an advanced informatics infrastructure for the global scientific (+ national research institutions) community for accessing and sharing data and thereby making better use of the huge investments in data collection, storage, management and updating of biodiversity information in countries.
    32. 32. Only started in 2002.... </li></li></ul><li>GBIF’s growing global network<br />Currently,<br />50 countries, <br />40 international organisations<br />
    33. 33. GBIF’s multilateral mandate<br />Catalyse building a global informatics research infrastructure by:<br />- promoting global participation, working through and linking up a global network of partners<br />- Enabling publishing of biodiversity data<br />- promoting development of data exchange standards<br />- building an informatics architecture<br />- capacity building<br />- catalysing development of analytical tools<br />data provider / aggregator<br />
    34. 34. The GBIF Data Portal<br /><ul><li>Seamless integration of data from many sources
    35. 35. Searches
    36. 36. Taxonomic
    37. 37. Geographic, by
    38. 38. country,
    39. 39. region, or
    40. 40. bounding-box
    41. 41. By dataset
    42. 42. or a combination of these
    43. 43. Taxonomic browse navigation using choice of classification
    44. 44. Web services</li></ul><br />
    45. 45. Georef’d data via GBIF portal <br />(&gt;181m records mapped to a 1 X 1 degree grid)<br />
    46. 46. In summary…GBIF’s Informatics<br />Improved access<br />to Names, Metadata <br />and Primary Biodiversity <br />Data<br />Distributed GBIF <br />informatics architecture<br />Faster and easier <br />publishing of data<br />
    47. 47. At the core, a Discovery System<br />DiscoverySystem<br />ServicePublishers<br />Others…<br />Registering<br />Discovering<br />DataPublishers<br />Consumers<br />Searching<br />Retrieving<br />
    48. 48. That links to resources…<br />Who?<br />Institutions, Collections …<br />What?<br />Data, Services, GUID/LSID…<br />Where?<br />Location, Access points…<br />When?<br />Temporal Scope…<br />How<br />Formats, protocols, qualities<br />…./<br />A distributed service<br />…………..<br />which resolves to information resources<br />
    49. 49. GBRDS: empowering discovery<br />
    50. 50. Key Components: the IPT<br />Registration (GBRDS) +<br />Publishing of Names, Metadata,<br />Primary biodiversity data etc…<br />IPT<br />Data Publisher<br />The Integrated Publishing Toolkit isa state-of-the-art tool to simplify the <br />mobilization of biodiversity information resources such as Names, Metadata andprimary biodiversity data<br />
    51. 51. Simple process!<br />The Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) is designed to simplify the mapping, indexing and harvesting of Names, Metadata and Primary Biodiversity Data!<br />
    52. 52. Building a comprehensive global architecture for nomenclature<br />
    53. 53. Examples of resources provided by GBIF<br />all are free<br />
    54. 54. Data mobilised by the USA, including other countries of origin<br />
    55. 55. GBIF Data portal and data access/sharing/ repatriation<br />
    56. 56. Users of GBIF data<br />Scientists, experts<br />Government officials at all levels<br />Education at all levels<br />NGOs and the general public<br />These needs are highly varied, but can be met by open access to the same datasets<br />The same data can be analysed differently for different uses<br />
    57. 57. Integrating Biodiversity Data…<br />World Database on Protected Areas<br />Primary Biodiversity Data<br />&gt;60,000 protected areas<br />&gt;181 M specimenand observation data<br />Species geo-referenced data.<br />taxonomic resolution (intelligence)<br />Spain <br />Madagascar<br />Visualisation on WDPA site<br />Each Protected Area polygon processed….<br />Data processing<br />from the two databases<br />
    58. 58.
    59. 59.
    60. 60.
    61. 61.
    62. 62.
    63. 63.
    64. 64. Moving towards… <br />global integration<br />?<br />Migratory Spp.<br />ThreatenedSpp.; Red List Spp.<br />Invasives, crop wild relatives,<br /> medicinals, etc. <br />
    65. 65. Mapping Disease Vectors<br /><ul><li>Aedes albopictus “Asian Tiger Mosquito”
    66. 66. Invader - fastest spreading mosquito in the world
    67. 67. Aggressive daytime biter and pest
    68. 68. Known to transmit Dengue, La Crosse, St. Louis, Eastern Equine, Ross River, Rift Valley, and West Nile Viruses</li></li></ul><li>Aedes albopictus – native range<br />Modeled native range in Asia from specimens & observations (ENM)<br />
    69. 69. Aedes albopictus:potential USA invasion<br />Projected Asian niche onto present USA to create invasion risk-map. <br />
    70. 70. Aedesalbopictus: actual USA invasion (by county)<br />
    71. 71. Aedes albopictus: world risk-map (present)<br />
    72. 72. Using GBIF data in CC models<br />Sterculiaceae (Meliaceae, Dipterocapaceae)<br />
    73. 73. Summary of CC impacts<br /><ul><li>All families and genera suffer habitat loss;
    74. 74. Some do gain habitat potential, but this requires migration and suitable habitat (for forests) at destination;
    75. 75. Important implications for REDD and other CC adaptation/mitigation programmes</li></li></ul><li>Why should I publish data?<br />What is there for me?<br />Chavan, June 2009<br />
    76. 76. Why should I publish data?<br />Recognition<br /><ul><li>Opportunities</li></ul>What is there for me?<br /><ul><li>Investment</li></li></ul><li>Elements of <br />Data Publishing Framework<br />
    77. 77. Data Publishing Framework<br /><ul><li>Bring in cultural change towards ‘free and open access' to biodiversity data
    78. 78. Addresses social, technical, and policy concerns
    79. 79. Answer ‘What is there for me?’ needs of ALL</li></li></ul><li>Data Publication together with scholarly publication: ZooKeys experience<br />Occurrence Data<br />KML file<br />
    80. 80. Data Publishing = Scholarly Publishing ?<br />
    81. 81. Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity<br />Policy development and decision making (at local, national, regional, and global levels)<br />Primary Biodiversity Data<br />Monitoring of status and trends of biodiversity<br />(sound science)<br />
    82. 82.<br />Thank you!<br />Vishwas Chavan:<br />
    83. 83. How to contact GBIF:<br />Web<br />Data<br />GBIF Secretariat<br />Universitetsparken 152100 CopenhagenDenmark<br /><br />Phone: +45 3532 1470<br />Fax: +45 3532 1480<br />GBIF Secretariat building, supported by a grant from the Aage V. Jensens Fonde<br />