5. effect of stage of fruit pickings on seed quality in leaf curl resistant tomato varieties in different seasons
Journal of Asian Horticulture. 2:170-175 (2006).
Effect of Stage of Fruit Pickings on Seed Quality in Leaf Curl Resistant Tomato
Varieties in Different Seasons
., RAJASHEKHAR, B.S1
., KALAPPA V.P1
MUNIYAPPA, V 2
AND H. M. PALLAVI1
Department of Seed Science and Technology, 2
Department of Plant Pathology
Abstract: Field and laboratory studies were carried out to study the effect of planting seasons
influencing plant growth, fruit yield and seed yield and quality in tomato varieties resistant to leaf curl
virus. Among the pickings, third picking showed higher seed weight per plant, seed to fruit ratio, per
cent germination and seedling vigour index which was closely followed by 2
picking in kharif
and rabi. While in summer, seeds from second picking followed by first picking recorded higher seed
weight per plant and seed quality parameters.
Till recently, there are no open pollinated varieties resistant to TLCV are available
for cultivation, although a few virus resistant hybrids have been introduced by private
industry since 1997. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore has developed three
open pollinated varieties, which are resistant to leaf curl virus (Anon., 2002). The
climatic condition is one of the most important factors for attaining potential yield of
any new variety. Generally, crop grown in winter gives high yield under Indian
conditions. The optimum temperature required for tomato cultivation is 15-27o
high and low temperature, there is low germination of seeds, poor plant growth,
flower drop, poor fruit set and ripening and poor seed development. Excessive rain
also affects the crop growth and yield severely (Kanwar, 1989). The availability of
quality seed is of utmost important for increasing production and productivity of
tomato. In tomato the quality of seed also found to be influenced by stage of pickings.
Materials and Method
Harvesting and post harvesting operations: The fruits were harvested at 5 pickings
(P1, P2, P3, P4 & P5) in kharif and rabi seasons, while in summer crop, fruits were
harvested in 3 pickings only due to early senescence. The fruits were harvested when
they turn red ripe at an interval of 7-8 days. The ripened fruits were picked and they
were kept in a plastic container for two days for complete ripening. The ripened fruits
harvested separately from each variety wise were kept for fermentation for 24hours,
the seeds were separated by cleaning and washing the pulp with water and then seeds
were cleaned and dried under shade and sun alternatively till seeds attain to 8 per
cent moisture content and then the seeds were sieved using screen of 2.1mm sieve
size. Seeds extracted from each picking weighed and seed weight was recorded and
seed to fruit ratio was calculated.
Later 90 per cent of the seeds in each picking were taken out and bulked and
mixed thoroughly and used to asses the seed yield and quality parameters as affected
by seasons and varieties. Ten per cent of the seeds from each of the picking were
maintained separately to study the effect of stage of pickings on seed quality
parameters and following seed quality parameters were assessed:
1000 seed weight: Hundred seeds of eight replications were taken randomly from
each of the seed size grades and were weighed and the mean 100-seed weight was
calculated and expressed in grams.
Germination: test was conducted by between paper method as per the procedure
outlined by ISTA (Anon, 1996).
Vigour index: was calculated by multiplying per cent germination and seedling length
(Abdul-Baki and Anderson, 1973).
Data collected were statistically analyzed by the analysis of variance techniques
by adopting Following Completely Randomized Design (CRD) (Panse and Sukhatme,
1967). Arcsine square root method was applied for transformation of data, which was
applied on those tables in which the values were less than ten or in percentage.
Results and Discussion
The crop duration varied widely due to seasons depending on climatic conditions
especially the drought and the mites attack. kharif took 110 days, rabi 140 days while
summer crop turn down its growth in 100 days.
Seed weight and seed to fruit ratio: The third and second picking showed superiority
in respect of the seed yield parameters viz., seed weight and seed to fruit ratio in all
the three seasons. The seeds produced in kharif and rabi recorded higher seed weight
(1.46g and 5.65g respectively) and higher seed to fruit ratio (0.48% each) in third
picking which was closely followed by second and first picking. In both kharif and rabi
season fourth and fifth picking recorded reduced seed yield and quality parameters.
The higher seed yield components upto third picking were due to better supply and
translocation of assimilates and accumulation of metabolites in early formed fruits and
efficient mobilization relationship between source and sink for the proper
development of seeds in sound physiological status. These results were confirmed with
the findings of Dharamatti et al. (1990). In summer fruit picking not continued beyond
third picking due to adverse weather and crop being affected severely by early
senescence as a result of abiotic stresses, leaf minor and mites out break. In general
reduced seed weight was observed in all the three pickings, however second picking
showed higher seed weight per plant (1.3g), seed to fruit ratio (0.27%), germination
(87.9%) and seedling vigour index (1285) followed by first picking and the lowest seed
quality were noticed with third picking.
Among varieties Nandi recorded significantly higher seed weight and seed to fruit
ratio in all the three seasons. However, the reduced seed weight (1.12g) and seed to
fruit ratio (0.29%) was recorded in summer compare to kharif and rabi season. These
differences among the varities were due to inherent character of individual variety
(Vadivelu and Srimathi, 1998).
Seed quality parameters: Irrespective of the varieties, the seeds obtained upto third
picking significantly recorded higher quality parameters in both kharif and rabi season.
The seeds from third picking recorded maximum 1000 seed weight (2.37g and 2.36g
respectively), germination (94.0% and 93.4% respectively), seedling length (15.40cm
and 15.30cm respectively) and seedling vigour index (1449 and 1429 respectively) in
kharif and rabi season. This was closely followed by the seeds of second and first
picking. The last two (4th
) picking fruits have lower seed quality parameters.
The superiority of the seeds from earlier pickings could be attributed to better
development of seeds, as the seeds obtained from the lower branches of early-formed
fruits where the plants were in vigorous growth and development. These results
corroborated with the findings of Metha and Ramakrishnan (1996). The seeds
produced in summer showed reduced seed quality parameters. However, quality of
seeds from second and first picking were better than third picking in summer. Among
the varieties, Vybhav recorded maximum 1000 seed weight in all the three seasons.
While, Sankrathi recorded maximum germination and seedling vigour index in all three
In conclusion, The seeds produced in rabi and kharif realized, from earlier
pickings(i.e. first, second, third picking could be used for seed purpose as they posses
higher seed quality parameters, which constitutes maximum per cent of seeds
produced. Fruits from later pickings, fourth and fifth picking can be picked for
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